News Update on Tropical Forest Research: Jan – 2020

Beta-Diversity in Tropical Forest Trees

The high alpha-diversity of tropical forests has been amply documented, but beta-diversity—how species composition changes with distance—has seldom been studied. We present quantitative estimates of beta-diversity for tropical trees by comparing species composition of plots in lowland terra firme forest in Panama, Ecuador, and Peru. We compare observations with predictions derived from a neutral model during which habitat is uniform and only dispersal and speciation influence species turnover. we discover that beta-diversity is higher in Panama than in western Amazonia which patterns in both areas are inconsistent with the neutral model. In Panama, habitat variation appears to extend species turnover relative to Amazonia, where unexpectedly low turnover over great distances suggests that population densities of some species are bounded by so far unidentified processes. [1]

Gap‐Phase Regeneration in a Tropical Forest

Gap—phase regeneration of trees was described for the primary 5—6 yr of regrowth in 30 treefall gaps (20—705 m2) in tropical moist forest on Barro Colorado Island, Panama. Trees were classified as pioneers (saplings found only in gaps) or primary species (saplings found in gaps and within the understory of mature forest). In most of the gaps studied, stem densities rose rapidly after gap formation, then levelled off or declined by years 3—6. This pattern was particularly marked in some large gaps (>150 m2), where pioneers attained high densities, then experienced heavy mortality. Stem density of primary species didn’t vary with gap size. In large gaps the mean rate of growth tall was greater for pioneers than for primary species, size—class distribution broadened more for pioneers than for primary species, and early recruits of both regeneration types grew faster than later ones. [2]

Tropical forest and its environment.

The purpose of this book is “to assemble a dynamic picture of the trees and other plants of the forest, and therefore the climatic and other conditions which surround them”. This interacting system of forest and environment is viewed from the standpoints of plant ecology and physiology, and an effort is formed to synthesize the results of experiments in controlled environments with field measurements and observations. the most chapters deal with: analysis of the environment; the features, structure and classification of the tropical forest community; and therefore the physiology of tree growth in tropical forest. [3]

Tropical forest soils serve as substantial and persistent methane sinks

Although tropical forest soils contributed substantially global soil methane uptake, observations on soil methane fluxes in tropical forests are still sparse, especially in Southeast Asia , resulting in large uncertainty within the estimation of worldwide soil methane uptake. Here, we conducted two-year (from Sep, 2016 to Sep, 2018) measurements of soil methane fluxes during a lowland tropical forest site in Hainan island, China. At this tropical forest site, soils were substantial methane sink, and average annual soil methane uptake was estimated at 2.00 kg CH4-C ha−1 yr−1. [4]

Variability in Soil Physicochemical Properties and Microbial Population in an Indian Subtropical Forest

Aim: The below ground biota in forest ecosystems determine and regulate the supply of nutrients in soil and is probably going to point variation in population and metabolism with reference to the soil quality. Therefore, this study was undertaken to review the physico-chemical characteristics, bacterial-fungal population and soil respiration in several land use zones of a sub tropical Indian forest.

Methodology: Soil samples were collected from 0-20 cm depth employing a core sampler (5 cm diameter) and from 12 sub plots and three regions for physicochemical and microbiological studies. For measurement of soil respiration 20 cm x 20 cm soil blocks were cut from the sub plots. Sampling was done 3 times during a month for 2 months in natural sal (Shorea robusta) forest, bamboo plantation and wet land of the Chandaka-Dampara wild life sanctuary, India within the season (March-April). The samples were carried to the laboratory for experimental purpose. [5]

Reference

[1] Condit, R., Pitman, N., Leigh, E.G., Chave, J., Terborgh, J., Foster, R.B., Núnez, P., Aguilar, S., Valencia, R., Villa, G. and Muller-Landau, H.C., 2002. Beta-diversity in tropical forest trees. Science, 295(5555), (Web Link)

[2] Brokaw, N.V., 1985. Gap‐phase regeneration in a tropical forest. Ecology, 66(3), (Web Link)

[3] Longman, K.A. and Jeník, J., 1974. Tropical forest and its environment. Longman Group Ltd.. (Web Link)

[4] Tropical forest soils serve as substantial and persistent methane sinks
Jun-Fu Zhao, Shu-Shi Peng, Meng-Ping Chen, Guan-Ze Wang, Yi-Bin Cui, Li-Guo Liao, Ji-Guang Feng, Biao Zhu, Wen-Jie Liu, Lian-Yan Yang & Zheng-Hong Tan
Scientific Reports volume 9, (Web Link)

[5] Mishra, C. S. K., Samal, S., Acharya, P., Biswal, B. and Majhi, M. (2018) “Variability in Soil Physicochemical Properties and Microbial Population in an Indian Subtropical Forest”, Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, 30(6), (Web Link)

Latest Research News on Heavy Metal Concentrations: Jan – 2020

Determination of heavy metal concentrations in street dusts in Istanbul E-5 highway

Components and quantity of street dust are environmental pollution indicators especially in big cities. Street dust is usually composed of car exhaust gas originated particles and wind-transported particles. Heavy metals, which are found in street dust, like Pb, Cu, Mn, Zn, Cd and Ni are significant for environmental pollution. consistent with the type of auto in traffic, quantity and sort of heavy metals vary in street dust. the utilization of gasoline gives a lift to the importance of lead level especially in street dust even at the beginning of 21st century. [1]

Heavy metal concentrations in molluscs from the Atlantic coast of southern Spain

Trace metals were determined within the two most abundant species of bivalve molluscs along the Atlantic Coast of southern Spain (Donax trunculus and Chamelea gallina) and within the sediments where they live. The results show that the world near the mouth of the Huelva estuary is where the very best metal concentrations are found in sediments and within the two bivalve species. this is often not surprising, considering that the Huelva estuary is that the mouth of the Tinto and Odiel rivers, which have one among the very best levels of metal pollution of all the rivers of Europe. the 2 species of bivalves have different amounts of metals in their tissues. The concentrations of Cr, Cu, Pb, Zn, As and Hg in D. trunculus were significantly higher (p < 0.05) than in C. [2]

Soil heavy metal concentrations, microbial biomass and enzyme activities in a contaminated grassland ecosystem

Soil enzyme activities and microbial biomass were measured during a grassland ecosystem with a good range of heavy metal concentrations starting from 7.2 to 48.1 mmol kg−1 (As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn) in portions of the U.S. Army’s Aberdeen workplace , Maryland, U.S.A. Total and fluorescein diacetate active (FDA) fungal biomass, FDA-active bacterial biomass, substrate-induced respiration (SIR), the activity of N-acetylglucosaminidase, β-glucosidase, endocellulase, and acid and alkaline phosphatases were also measured. Most measures of microbial biomass were lower in polluted soils. Significant reductions (10- to 50-fold) within the activities of all enzymes closely paralleled the rise in heavy metal concentrations. These results demonstrate that heavy metal contamination of soil has adversely affected the abundance and activity of microorganisms involved in organic matter decomposition and nutrient cycling during this site. [3]

Municipal sewage sludge compost promotes Mangifera persiciforma tree growth with no risk of heavy metal contamination of soil

Application of sewage sludge compost (SSC) as a fertilizer on landscaping provides a possible way for the effective disposal of sludge. However, the response of landscape trees to SSC application and therefore the impacts of heavy metals from SSC on soil are poorly understood. We conducted a pot experiment to research the consequences of SSC addition on Mangifera persiciforma growth and quantified its uptake of heavy metals from SSC by setting five treatments with mass ratios of SSC to lateritic soil as 0%:100% (CK), 15%:85% (S15), 30%:70% (S30), 60%:40% (S60), and 100%:0% (S100). needless to say , the fertility and heavy metal concentrations (Cu, Zn, Pb and Cd) in substrate significantly increased with SSC addition. [4]

Heavy Metal Concentrations in Selected Fishes, and Water from Orogodo River, Agbor, Delta State in Nigeria

This study determined heavy metal:- (lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd), copper (Cu), zinc (Zn) and iron (Fe) concentrations in selected fish species including: (Brycinus intermidus, Clarias gariepinus, Parachanna obscura, Ctenopoma kingsleyae, Hemichromis bimaculatus and Phractolaemus ansorgeii) and water from Orogodo River situated in Agbor, Delta State, Nigeria. Furthermore, the health risk exposure to humans who consume the fish and utilized the water in Orogodo River was assessed. The mean (±SD) concentration of the heavy metal in water ranged from 0±0 mg/l for Cd to 0.35±0.29 mg/l for Fe. The mean (±SD) concentration of metals in fish species ranged from 0.06±0.02 mg/kg for Cd in Brycinus intermidus to 187.90±89.59 mg/kg for Fe in Parachanna obscura. The Bioaccumulation Quotient (BQ) values ranged from 4.51 mg/kg for Pb in Hemichromis bimaculatus to 1297.13 mg/kg for Fe in Phractolemus ansorgei. [5]

Reference

[1] Sezgin, N., Ozcan, H.K., Demir, G., Nemlioglu, S. and Bayat, C., 2004. Determination of heavy metal concentrations in street dusts in Istanbul E-5 highway. Environment international, 29(7), (Web Link)

[2] Usero, J., Morillo, J. and Gracia, I., 2005. Heavy metal concentrations in molluscs from the Atlantic coast of southern Spain. Chemosphere, 59(8), (Web Link)

[3] Kuperman, R.G. and Carreiro, M.M., 1997. Soil heavy metal concentrations, microbial biomass and enzyme activities in a contaminated grassland ecosystem. Soil biology and biochemistry, 29(2), (Web Link)

[4] Municipal sewage sludge compost promotes Mangifera persiciforma tree growth with no risk of heavy metal contamination of soil
Shuangshuang Chu, Daoming Wu, Liyin L. Liang, Fengdi Zhong, Yaping Hu, Xinsheng Hu, Can Lai & Shucai Zeng
Scientific Reports volume 7, (Web Link)

[5] M. Wangboje, O., C. Ekome, P. and I. Efendu, U. (2017) “Heavy Metal Concentrations in Selected Fishes, and Water from Orogodo River, Agbor, Delta State in Nigeria”, Asian Journal of Environment & Ecology, 3(1), (Web Link)

Latest Research News on Landslide: Nov – 2019

Landslide triggering by rain infiltration

Landsliding in response to precipitation involves physical processes that care for disparate timescales. Relationships between these timescales guide development of a mathematical model that uses reduced kinds of I. A. Richards equation to judge effects of precipitation infiltration on landslide prevalence, timing, depth, and acceleration in numerous things. The longest pertinent timescale is A/D0, wherever D0 is that the most hydraulic diffusivity of the soil and A is that the geographic region that doubtless affects groundwater pressures at a prospective landslide slip surface location with region coordinates x, y and depth H. Times larger than A/D0 area unit necessary for institution of steady background water pressures that develop at (x, y, H) in response to precipitation averaged over periods that normally vary from days to several decades. [1]

PERSPECTIVE ON LANDSLIDE DAMS.

The most common varieties of mass movements that type landslide dams are rock and soil slumps and slides; mud, debris, and earth flows: and rock and junk avalanches. the foremost common initiation mechanisms for dam-forming landslides are excessive downfall and snow soften, and earthquakes. Most landslide dams are outstanding passing. in an exceedingly sample of sixty three documented cases, twenty two p.c of the landslide dams unsuccessful in but one day when formation, and [*fr1] unsuccessful at intervals ten days. Overtopping was out and away the foremost frequent reason for landslide-dam failure. Backwater flooding behind landslide dams will inundate communities and valuable agricultural land. Floods from the failure of landslide dams are smaller than floods from created dams internment bodies of water with constant mechanical energy, however larger than floods from failure of ice dams. Secondary effects of landslide-dam failures embrace further landslides as reservoir levels drop quickly, aggradation of valleys upstream and downstream of the dams, and avulsive channel changes downstream. [2]

Landslide Hazard and Risk Assessment

Landslides play a crucial role within the evolution of landforms and represent a heavy hazard in several areas of the planet. In places, fatalities and economic injury caused by landslides are larger than those caused by alternative natural hazards, as well as earthquakes, volcanic eruptions and floods. thanks to the extraordinary breadth of the spectrum of landslide phenomena, no single technique exists to spot and map landslides, to determine landslide hazards, and to guage the associated risk. This work contributes to cut back this disadvantage by providing the scientific principle, a standard language, and a collection of valid tools for the preparation and also the best use of landslide maps, component prediction models, and landslide forecasts. [3]

Coupling logistic model tree and random subspace to predict the landslide susceptibility areas with considering the uncertainty of environmental features

Landslide disasters cause vast casualties and economic losses once a year, the way to accurately forecast the landslides has continually been a vital issue in geo-environment analysis. during this paper, a hybrid machine learning approach RSLMT is foremost planned by coupling Random topological space (RS) and provision Model Tree (LMT) for manufacturing a landslide status map (LSM). With this methodology, the uncertainty introduced by input options is taken into account, the matter of overfitting is resolved by reducing dimensions to extend the prediction rate of landslide incidence. Moreover, the uncertainty of prediction are going to be deeply mentioned with the rank chance score (RPS) series, that is a vital analysis of uncertainty however seldom utilized in LSM. [4]

Landslide Hazard Zonation (LHZ) Mapping Using RS and GIS Techniques: A Case Study of Kumbur River Basin of Kodaikanal Taluk, Dindigul District, Tamilnadu, India

Landslide is one in all the disasters that cause large-scale injury to properties and life. It oftentimes happens in craggy regions like Himalaya, Western and jap Ghats. In Madras, most of the landslides square measure usually seen in Blue Mountains, Kodaikanal and Yercaud, often within the different areas. Kodaikanal hills face 2 major issues viz. urbanization and environmental degradation. during this study, the landslide hazard zonation maps square measure ready supported the precipitating factors of slope instability, particularly thick soil accumulation, lithology, geologic structure drain density, slope morphometry, relative relief, land use and land cowl and hydrogeological conditions in aspect wise by mistreatment BIS code: IS 14496 (Part-2) – 1998. As per BIS classification technique, Kumbur geographical {area|geographic area|geographical region|geographic region} area, the distribution pattern of Landslide Hazard Zonation (LHZ) indicates that within the total eighty two sides, three sides return underneath terribly high hazard class, seventeen sides return underneath high hazard class, forty sides square measure gift in moderate hazards and remaining twenty five sides return underneath direct low hazard. [5]

Reference

[1] Iverson, R.M., 2000. Landslide triggering by rain infiltration. Water resources research, 36(7), (Web Link)

[2] Schuster, R.L. and Costa, J.E., 1986. PERSPECTIVE ON LANDSLIDE DAMS. In Landslide Dams: Processes, Risk, and Mitigation. Proceedings of a Session in Conjunction with the ASCE Convention. (Web Link)

[3] Varnes, D.J., 1984. Landslide hazard zonation: a review of principles and practice (No. 3). (Web Link)

[4] Coupling logistic model tree and random subspace to predict the landslide susceptibility areas with considering the uncertainty of environmental features
Xiangang Luo, Feikai Lin, Yihong Chen, Shuang Zhu, Zhanya Xu, Zhibin Huo, Mengliang Yu & Jing Peng
Scientific Reports volume 9, Article number: 15369 (2019) (Web Link)

[5] Mahesh, R., Baskaran, R. and Anbalagan, R. (2018) “Landslide Hazard Zonation (LHZ) Mapping Using RS and GIS Techniques: A Case Study of Kumbur River Basin of Kodaikanal Taluk, Dindigul District, Tamilnadu, India”, Journal of Geography, Environment and Earth Science International, 16(4), (Web Link)

News Update on Ecosystem Research: Oct – 2019

Ecosystem-Based Fishery Management

Ecosystem-based piscary management (EBFM) may be a new direction for piscary management, basically reversing the order of management priorities so management starts with the system instead of a target species. EBFM aims to sustain healthy marine ecosystems and also the fisheries they support. Pikitch et al. describe the potential edges of implementation of EBFM that, in their read, so much outweigh the difficulties of constructing the transition from a management system supported increasing individual species. [1]

Organisms as Ecosystem Engineers

Interactions between organisms are a serious determinant of the distribution and abundance of species. Ecology textbooks (e.g., Ricklefs 1984, Krebs 1985, Begon et al. 1990) summarise these necessary interactions as intra- and interspecies competition for abiotic and organic phenomenon resources, predation, interdependency and mutuality. prominently lacking from the list of key processes in most text books is that the role that several organisms play within the creation, modification and maintenance of habitats. These activities don’t involve direct biological process interactions between species, however they’re withal necessary and customary. [2]

Assessing ecosystem health

Evaluating scheme health in relevance the ecological, economic and human health spheres needs group action human values with biophysical processes, Associate in Nursing integration that has been expressly avoided by standard science. the sector is advancing with the articulation of the linkages between act, regional and world environmental amendment, reduction in ecological services and therefore the consequences for human health, economic chance and human communities. Increasing our understanding of those interactions can involve a lot of active collaboration between the ecological, social and health sciences. In this, ecologists can have substantive and chemical action roles. [3]

Ecosystem-bedrock interaction changes nutrient compartmentalization during early oxidative weathering

Ecosystem-bedrock interactions power the biogeochemical cycles of Earth’s shallow crust, supporting life, stimulating substrate transformation, and encouragement organic process innovation. whereas aerobic  processes have dominated half terrestrial history, the relative contribution of the part and its chemical fingerprints on Earth’s developing regolith are still poorly strained. Here, we have a tendency to report results from a biennial inchoate weathering experiment. [4]

Enzyme–based Assay for Toxicological Evaluation of Soil Ecosystem Polluted with Spent Engine Oil

Aim: during this study, the experiment was designed to analyze the result of contamination of soil scheme with spent engine oil at numerous concentrations.

Design: Soil samples were obtained from installation University of African nation Nsukka whereas spent engine oil was obtained from the Mechanic Village, Nsukka. check tubes tagged one- seven containing numerous percentages of spent engine oil 1.0, 1.5, 2.0, 2.5, 3.0, 3.5% w/w (oil-soil mixture); and into the seventh tube, the management contained solely the soil sample. The study was designed for thirty-five-days (0, 14, twenty eight and thirty five day) at numerous degrees of pollution by spent oil. [5]

Reference

[1] Pikitch, E.K., Santora, C., Babcock, E.A., Bakun, A., Bonfil, R., Conover, D.O., Dayton, P., Doukakis, P., Fluharty, D., Heneman, B. and Houde, E.D., 2004. Ecosystem-based fishery management. (Web Link)

[2] Jones, C.G., Lawton, J.H. and Shachak, M., 1994. Organisms as ecosystem engineers. In Ecosystem management (Web Link)

[3] Rapport, D.J., Costanza, R. and McMichael, A.J., 1998. Assessing ecosystem health. Trends in ecology & evolution, 13(10), (Web Link)

[4] Ecosystem-bedrock interaction changes nutrient compartmentalization during early oxidative weathering
Dragos G. Zaharescu, Carmen I. Burghelea, Katerina Dontsova, Jennifer K. Presler, Edward A. Hunt, Kenneth J. Domanik, Mary K. Amistadi, Shana Sandhaus, Elise N. Munoz, Emily E. Gaddis, Miranda Galey, María O. Vaquera-Ibarra, Maria A. Palacios-Menendez, Ricardo Castrejón-Martinez, Estefanía C. Roldán-Nicolau, Kexin Li, Raina M. Maier, Christopher T. Reinhard & Jon Chorover
Scientific Reports volume 9, Article number: 15006 (2019) (Web Link)

[5] Otitoju, O., Udebuani, A. C., Ebulue, M. M. and Onwurah, I. N. (2017) “Enzyme–based Assay for Toxicological Evaluation of Soil Ecosystem Polluted with Spent Engine Oil”, Journal of Agriculture and Ecology Research International, 11(3), (Web Link)

Latest Research News on Tsunami: Oct – 2019

Mechanism of tsunami earthquakes

The mechanism of the Aleutian Islands earthquake of 1946 and therefore the Sanriku earthquake of 1896 is studied on the idea of the info on unstable waves from five to one hundred s and on tsunamis. These earthquakes generated, despite their comparatively tiny earthquake magnitude, 2 of the biggest and most widespread tsunamis in history. the info obtained at completely different periods square measure taken in terms of the effective moment, Me. The effective moment at a precise amount is outlined as a unstable moment of a virtual step operate dislocation that explains the observation at this era. The effective moment of the wave earthquakes will increase quickly towards zero.5 to 1.0 × 1029 force unit • cm because the amount will increase whereas, for normal earthquakes, it’s a lot of or less constant. This dependence are often explained in terms of a supply deformation having a time constant of regarding one hundred s. [1]

The Asian Tsunami: A Protective Role for Coastal Vegetation

The twenty six Dec 2004 Indian Ocean moving ridge had major effects on coastal communities and ecosystems. Associate in Nursing assessment of coastlines once the moving ridge indicates that coastal vegetation like mangroves and beach forests helped to supply protection and cut back effects on adjacent communities. In recent years, mangroves and different coastal vegetation are cleared or degraded on several coastlines, increasing their vulnerability to storm and moving ridge injury. Establishing or strengthening greenbelts of mangroves and different coastal forests might play a key role in reducing the result of future extreme events. [2]

Bibliometric analysis of tsunami research

The use of the bibilometric analytical technique for examining wave analysis doesn’t exist within the literature. the target of the study was to perform a bibliometric analysis of all tsunami-related publications within the Science Citation Index (SCI). analyzed parameters enclosed document kind, language of publication, publication output, authorship, publication patterns, distribution of subject class, distribution of author keywords, country of publication, most-frequently cited article, and document distribution once the Republic of Indonesia wave. The U.S.A. and Japan created fifty three of the entire output wherever the seven major industrial countries accounted for the bulk of the total production. English was the dominant language, comprising ninety fifth of articles. [3]

Palaeo-tsunami inundation distances deduced from roundness of gravel particles in tsunami deposits

Information on palaeo-tsunami magnitude is scientifically and socially essential to mitigate wave risk. However, estimating palaeo-tsunami parameters (e.g., inundation distance) from sediments isn’t easy as a result of wave deposits replicate complicated transport processes. Here, we have a tendency to show a replacement approach to estimate wave inundation distance supported the mixture magnitude relation of gravels from many sources in wave deposits. we have a tendency to measured the configuration of supply gravels in trendy beach and stream deposits in an exceedingly coastal depression in Japan through image analysis and so calculated the mixture magnitude relation of each sediment sorts in wave deposits. [4]

Mangroves for Protection of Coastal Areas from High Tides, Cyclone and Tsunami

Mangroves are salt-tolerant evergreen dense forests that grow in coast zones in tropical and climatic zone estuarial regions and mud-flats. to boot, angiospermous tree forests give several economical, ecological and environmental values to the individuals. the entire angiospermous tree forest space of the planet in 2000 was one, 37,800 sq. kilometres spanning 118 countries and territories [1]. per state forest report of 2015 of Forest Survey of Asian country, mangroves meet four,740 sq. klick that is regarding three p.c of world’s angiospermous tree vegetation and zero.14 per cent of the country’s total geographic area. Ecological valuation of the mangroves is especially for its necessary role of protection and stabilization of coastal lands and estuarial. Mangroves are necessary means that to regulate coastal erosion. They not solely scale back erosion on the coast however conjointly enhance sediment deposition that is crucial to keep up their ecosystems. many studies are conducted exploitation remote sensing and GIS that show that there’s augmented erosion rate in coastal areas wherever angiospermous tree forests have died. [5]

Reference

[1] Kanamori, H., 1972. Mechanism of tsunami earthquakes. Physics of the earth and planetary interiors, 6(5), (Web Link)

[2] Danielsen, F., Sørensen, M.K., Olwig, M.F., Selvam, V., Parish, F., Burgess, N.D., Hiraishi, T., Karunagaran, V.M., Rasmussen, M.S., Hansen, L.B. and Quarto, A., 2005. The Asian tsunami: a protective role for coastal vegetation. Science, 310(5748), (Web Link)

[3] Chiu, W.T. and Ho, Y.S., 2007. Bibliometric analysis of tsunami research. Scientometrics, 73(1), (Web Link)

[4] Palaeo-tsunami inundation distances deduced from roundness of gravel particles in tsunami deposits
Daisuke Ishimura & Keitaro Yamada
Scientific Reports volume 9, Article number: 10251 (2019) (Web Link)

[5] Shedage, S. and K. Shrivastava, P. (2018) “Mangroves for Protection of Coastal Areas from High Tides, Cyclone and Tsunami”, International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, 23(4), (Web Link)

Latest Research on Rainfall: Oct – 2019

Rainfall infiltration into bare soils

Raindrop impact destroys the surface aggregates of soils and gradually forms a continuous crust. Infiltration rates of bare soils are determined by this process. A theoretical model presented previously was tested under field conditions with a sandy loam soil. The effect of the crust’s structure was tested under three rainfall intensities and in wetting and drying cycles. The results of the tests confirmed the theoretical model. [1]

Predicting rainfall erosion losses – a guide to conservation planning.

Scientific coming up with for soil and conservation needs information of the relations between those factors that cause loss of soil and water and people that facilitate to cut back such losses. The soil loss prediction procedure given during this vade mecum provides specific pointers that are required for choosing the management practices best suited to the actual wants of every web site. The procedure is based on Associate in Nursing empirical soil loss equation that’s believed to be applicable where numerical values of it factors are out there. [2]

The WSR-88D Rainfall Algorithm

A detailed description of the operational WSR-88D precipitation estimation algorithmic program is given. This algorithmic program, known as the Precipitation process System, produces radar-derived precipitation product in real time for forecasters in support of the National Weather Service’s warning and forecast missions. It transforms reflectivity issue measurements into precipitation accumulations and incorporates gage knowledge to enhance the microwave radar estimates. The product ar used as steerage to issue flood watches and warnings to the general public and as input into numerical hydrologic and part models. The process steps to internal control and work out the precipitation estimates ar delineated , and also the current deficiencies and future plans for improvement ar mentioned. [3]

Deciphering key processes controlling rainfall isotopic variability during extreme tropical cyclones

The Mesoamerican and Caribbean (MAC) region is characterised by tropical cyclones (TCs), sturdy El Niño-Southern Oscillation events, and climate variability that bring distinctive hazards to socio-ecological systems. Here we tend to report the primary characterization of the atom evolution of a TC (Hurricane Otto, 2016) within the mackintosh region. we tend to use semipermanent daily downfall isotopes from Costa Rica and event-based sampling of Hurricanes Irma and Maria (2017), to underpin the changing drivers of TC atom ratios. throughout cyclone Otto, downfall exhibited an oversized atom vary, similar to the annual atom cycle. As cyclone Otto organized into a class three, speedy atom depletion let alone a decrease in d-excess indicates economical isotopic fractionation at intervals ~200 kilometer SW of the nice and cozy core. [4]

Assessment of Prediction Schemes for Estimating Rainfall Onset over Different Climatic Zones in West Africa

This study compares the prophetical skills of some normally used prediction schemes to estimate dates of onset of precipitation in varied climatical regions of geographic region. Specifically, the skills of seven totally different schemes, that square measure comparatively straightforward to use on an oversized scale, were compared from 1980 to 2014 over the 3 major climatical regions (Forest, Guinea and Sudan-Sahel savannah) of African country. 3 of them square measure obsessed with precipitation knowledge (ogive, daily precipitation chance and Walter-Olaniran methods); 3 on rain-evapotranspiration relation (Benoit, Anyadike, Kowal and Knabe) and one obsessed with equivalent potential temperature (Theta-E). The prediction schemes incontestible that the onset dates were abundant earlier (from Julian day 061 to 084) within the south than (146 to 162) the north. [5]

Reference

[1] Morin, J. and Benyamini, Y., 1977. Rainfall infiltration into bare soils. Water Resources Research, 13(5), (Web Link)

[2] Wischmeier, W.H. and Smith, D.D., 1978. Predicting rainfall erosion losses-a guide to conservation planning. Predicting rainfall erosion losses-a guide to conservation planning. (Web Link)

[3] Fulton, R.A., Breidenbach, J.P., Seo, D.J., Miller, D.A. and O’Bannon, T., 1998. The WSR-88D rainfall algorithm. Weather and Forecasting, 13(2), (Web Link)

[4] Deciphering key processes controlling rainfall isotopic variability during extreme tropical cyclones
Ricardo Sánchez-Murillo, Ana M. Durán-Quesada, Germain Esquivel-Hernández, Daniela Rojas-Cantillano, Christian Birkel, Kristen Welsh, Minerva Sánchez-Llull, Carlos M. Alonso-Hernández, Doerthe Tetzlaff, Chris Soulsby, Jan Boll, Naoyuki Kurita & Kim M. Cobb
Nature Communicationsvolume 10, Article number: 4321 (2019) (Web Link)

[5] J. Matthew, O., G. Imasogie, O., A. Ayoola, M., E. Abiye, O. and A. Sunmonu, L. (2017) “Assessment of Prediction Schemes for Estimating Rainfall Onset over Different Climatic Zones in West Africa”, Journal of Geography, Environment and Earth Science International, 9(1), (Web Link)