Sustainable Biological Life instead of Sustainable Development

It can be inferred on the basis of the evidence that such energetic and significant processes have occurred on our closed Planet since the emergence of the first living unit, quite different from the initial ones of its abiotic physical existence. The changes became more intense after the formation of the first human-like beings. The fundamental issue at present is that not only has the quantity of CO2, other substrates and heat released from various sources continuously increased, but that the processes that denature our ecosystem have also been carried out as a result of the growing number of human beings and farm animals.

Author(s) Details

Ralovich Béla
Ministry of Welfare (Retired), Budapest, Pin Code: 1054, Hungary.

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Environmental Factors in Peatland Ecosystems

Since they act as a reservoir or sink of gases, the peatland ecosystem plays an important role in global climate change. Particularly in relation to climate change, there are many factors that affect the environmental impact of peatlands. Biological and chemical factors that can impact peatland ecosystems are the main influences. The biodiversity of peatlands and the myriad adaptations of species to these unusual environments are biological factors. I carbon dioxide, (ii) methane flux, (iii) nitrous oxide (N2O) and (iv) other environmental factors are the chemical variables. These concentrated atmospheric gases account for approximately 73 percent of the total positive difference in energy flux. A detailed coverage of fundamental concepts and current practises and developments in the field of wetland ecology is given in the current book series. To understand how biological and chemical variables can influence the ecosystems of peatlands. To better understand peatlands ecology and how they affect our environment.

Author(s) Details

Ihab Alfadhel
China University of Geoscience, China.

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A Critical Overview of The Magnetic Field of Earth and Other Celestial Bodies

The majority of terrestrial magnetism models aim to explain why the Earth’s main magnetic field at the poles is of the order of 1 Oe. Such a suggestion about the fundamental issue of models of terrestrial magnetism today is unreasonable. Space flights and the development of astronomy show that the magnetic moments of all the planets of the solar system, some of their satellites and a number of stars, are proportional to their angular moments, a remarkable and previously unknown fact. Therefore, these geophysical problems have become a special case of a more general problem of celestial body magnetism. This reality makes it appropriate to reformulate the primary task of the terrestrial magnetism model and the whole of the Earth. It should explain, firstly, why the Earth’s magnetic moment, as well as that of other space bodies, is proportional to its angular momentum, and, secondly, why the coefficient of proportionality is similar to the ratio of world constants to         G1/2/c. This involves rethinking the model of the Earth’s internal structure and reformulating the main goals of terrestrial magnetism, while it must be clarified why the ratio of the Earth’s magnetic moment to its torque, as well as that of other celestial bodies, is similar to the ratio of the G1/2/c universal constants. In the theory discussed, it is shown that having its centre made up of dense electron-nuclear plasma with constant density and temperature is energetically favourable for hot stars. It is shown that having the core made of dense electron-ion plasma is energetically advantageous for the Planet. At that point, the measured parameters are in line with the results of the measurement.

Author(s) Details

B. V. Vasiliev
Department of the Ural Polytechnic Institute, Pontecorvo Street, 17-408, Dubna, Moscow District, Russia.

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Occupational Health and Safety of Workers in Certain Work Environment in Enugu, Nigeria under COVID-19 Pandemic

Objectives: In the face of the COVID 19 pandemic, to classify health issues associated with such working conditions in Enugu. Research Design: Descriptive design of the cross-sectional sample was used to observe the occurrences in the study area for employees. Place and Period of the Study: The study was conducted between May 2020 and August 2020 in the Nigerian metropolis of Enugu. Methodology: For data collection, questionnaires, personal interviews and personal observations have been introduced. In the analysis of results, descriptive statistics are used. Result: The current survey reveals that while some employers have put in place some steps to avert corona virus touch, many employees in various industries have not taken full advantage of the provisions.

Author(s) Details

Emodi, Edmund Emeka
Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Awka, Nigeria.

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Recent Investigation on Hydrogeology of the Basin Granitoids in the Sekyere South District of Ashanti Region, Ghana

Water shortages are faced by communities in the Sekyere South District of the Ashanti Region of Ghana since most of the current water supply systems are predominantly dependent on ephemeral surface water supplies that are fed by rainfall but not distributed uniformly throughout the year. The hydrogeology of the Basin Granitoids has been evaluated using the geophysical technique of electrical resistivity imaging (ERI) and pumping test study in the Sekyere South District of the Ashanti Region of Ghana. The ERI was carried out to obtain information on the distribution of resistivity for groundwater deposition, and the pumping test was used to obtain boreholes’ transmissivity and sustainable yields. ERI findings indicate that the general distribution of resistivity in the region is between (20 – 4000) Ω -m and the resistivity range associated with the occurrence of groundwater is between (50 – 300) Ω -m for the weathered rocks and (100 – 600) Ω -m for the fractured granitic rocks. The aquifers are typically shallow to medium depth and high yields are likely to be achieved where the resistivities of the aquifer zones are less than 400 Ω -m in the fresh granites. The pumping test also revealed that transmissivity values range from (5.89 to 43) m2/day, ranging from 50 to 380 m3/day with sustainable yields. These findings indicate that for domestic supplies, boreholes in the region would be sustainable. Transmissivity values obtained suggest that the boreholes in the area can be used for individual homes and small town water supply systems for domestic purposes. The findings from this study could serve as a guide to groundwater exploration and related geology in the region of the Granitoids.

Author(s) Details

A. Ewusi
Geological Engineering Department, University of Mines and Technology, Tarkwa, Ghana.

J. Seidu
Geological Engineering Department, University of Mines and Technology, Tarkwa, Ghana.

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Study on Application of the Electrical Resistivity in Building Foundation Study around Led School Area in Bishini, Northwestern Nigeria

For the preparation of geoelectric sections along four cross sections, the findings from the 2-D interpretation of the VES data were used. The interpreted results showed that three to five layers of geoelectric sections consist of: top soil, laterite, lateritic clay, weathered layer and fresh basement. For the top soil, the resistivity value and subsurface layer thickness ranged between 191.7 Ω m and 8146 Ω m and 0.3 m to 7.0 m respectively. Resistivity values ranging from 1000 Ω m to 1627.3 Ω m and thickness from 1.8 m to 2.5 m were present in the laterite layer. The resistivity of the weathered layer ranged from 33.5 Ω m to 850 Ω m with a 3.6 m to 44 m thickness. The resistivity of the bedrock ranged from 1238.3 to 33438.6 by Ωm. The thinnest sequence of loose overburden materials and fresh basement at the shallowest depth were revealed by geoelectric sections along profile 4 and 1. For building growth, the area covered by these profiles is appropriate. Because of relatively thick weathered soils, building creation should not be located along profiles 2 and 3. The region can, however, be considered for citing the borehole to harness its capacity for groundwater.

Author(s) Details

Olufemi F. Ojo
Department of Geology, Ekiti State University, Ado-Ekiti, Ekiti State, Nigeria.

Abel O. Talabi
Department of Geology, Ekiti State University, Ado-Ekiti, Ekiti State, Nigeria.

Lekan O. Afolagboye
Department of Geology, Ekiti State University, Ado-Ekiti, Ekiti State, Nigeria.

Akintunde A. Oyedele
Department of Physics, Ekiti State University, Ado-Ekiti, Ekiti State, Nigeria.

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Neural Network Classification of Corals

The recording of ecological change over time is a key challenge of contemporary ecology. The most diverse and complex of marine environments are coral reefs. In addition, coral reefs worldwide are suffering a serious decline due to the detrimental synergistic effects of global climate change, ocean acidification and seawater warming, intensified by anthropogenic eutrophication and pollution. These factors influence the decrease in live reef cover and the decrease in coral species, depending on site exposure to stressors, taking place at various rates and grades of severity. Any remediation steps include intensive monitoring, over long periods and short intervals, at numerous locations. The time-consuming, boring, manual classification of coral species and their real-time abundance in many reefs is a daunting task that is almost impossible. Deep learning (DL) has unique features for streamlining the description, analysis and monitoring of coral reefs, saving time and achieving greater reliability and accuracy compared to error-prone human results, and for managing and analysing the vast quantities of resulting data. Live coral cover and coral biodiversity are two key reef health indicators. The main objective of this analysis is to highlight the intensity and reliability of the deep learning approach to the documentation of the features of coral reefs, based on the assessment of the published application of this method to the definition of coral reefs and their assemblages of organisms. We evaluate the latest trends in the sector, describe its present constraints and future developments.

Author(s) Details

Alina Raphael
The Mina and Everard Goodman Faculty of Life Sciences, Bar-Ilan University, Ramat-Gan 5290002, Israel.

Zvy Dubinsky
The Mina and Everard Goodman Faculty of Life Sciences, Bar-Ilan University, Ramat-Gan 5290002, Israel.

Nathan Netanyahu
Department of Computer Science, Bar-Ilan University, Ramat-Gan 5290002, Israel.

David Iluz
The Mina and Everard Goodman Faculty of Life Sciences, Bar-Ilan University, Ramat-Gan 5290002, Israel.

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Advanced Research on Potential of Remote Sensing – A Review Based on Natural Disasters Occurred during the Last Decade in Chile

Chile has been suffering from a number of natural disasters over the past decade. Via natural disasters that have occurred in Chile over the past ten years, it is demonstrated how observations gained by various currently available Remote Sensing sensors have been successfully used on many occasions. The examples given in this article are based on the February 2010 earthquake and tsunami and the 2008 and 2011 volcanic eruptions, 2012 forest fires and 2010 droughts. In addition, the most important remote sensing platforms for current disaster management are also presented. Although the most well-known public application is damage registration, Remote Sensing can also be used in all the other stages of a modern disaster management cycle: prevention, preparedness, response and recovery. This article therefore also explains how and under which situations remotely sensed data can be useful. As Remote Sensing can be considered one of the most effective instruments in the field of natural disaster management, we conclude that its use must be increased in a country like Chile to resolve any kind of natural disaster and its devastating effects. Remote sensing is expected to be an even stronger and more useful instrument in the management of natural disasters in the future, owing to the availability of continuously collected images and increased spatial and spectral resolution of satellite observations.

Author(s) Details

Guido Staub
Department for Geodetic Sciences and Geomatics, Universidad de Concepción – Campus Los Ángeles, J. A. Coloma 0201, Los Ángeles, Chile.

Hans-Peter Bähr
Institute for Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Englerstr. 7, Karlsruhe, Germany.

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Judaic, Christian and Islamic Leaders on Mitigating Human-induced Climate Change

In order to reduce the detrimental effects of human-forced climate change, leaders of Judaism, Christianity and Islam have openly urged intervention. Rabbi Arthur Waskow, Pope Francis, and Patriarch Bartholomew were especially prominent prior to, during, and after the 21st Conference of the Parties to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. A party of Islamic clerics, leaders of organisations, and academics who participated in issuing a climate change declaration three months before COP 21 were also prominent. These leaders, persuaded by the Earth sciences, expressed their faith-based rationales for acting locally and globally, as seen in the papers discussed in this essay. Examples of organisations inspired by the values of their representatives indicate their ability to be educated by scientists. These religious leaders and environmental organisations need well-substantiated findings from data gathered to address unsubstantiated arguments by climate sceptics and deniers in order to function effectively. Earth scientists will find partners among religious leaders and organisations in the quest for a thriving world. While remaining alert to scientific findings, world religious scholars need to delve deeper into the practises they concentrate on and make promising insights known to leaders who can educate, preach, act, and pray for their community members. In the search for a thriving Planet-our shared habitat, Earth scientists will find these religious scholars, officials, and affiliated groups allies.

Author(s) Details

Jame Schaefer
Department of Theology, Marquette University, Milwaukee, WI 53233, USA.

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Analyzing the Soil Water Characteristic Curve of an Unsaturated Soil under Low Matric Suction Ranges and Different Stress Conditions

Under low matric suction ranges and various stress conditions, this analysis aims to examine the soil water characteristic curve of an unsaturated soil. For the design of geotechnical and geo-environmental structures such as road pavements, foundations, and ground dams, accurate assessment of unsaturated soil properties is important. One of the main characteristics of unsaturated soil mechanics is water retention behaviour in soils that is used to predict stability or infiltration problems in the soil. Therefore, the unsaturated soil properties have been recorded by several experimental works, and the soil-water characteristic curve (SWCC) test has significantly contributed to the understanding of matric suction. Because conventional instruments in SWCC tests are unable to apply stress, some researchers have developed suction-controlled triaxial devices that conduct SWCC tests under different stress states. For the understanding of the hydro-mechanical behaviour of unsaturated soils, the determination of SWCCs under stress conditions such as those in the field is key. In both drying and wetting conditions, this study conducted SWCC tests of unsaturated silt soil in low matric suction ranges. Under one-dimensional and isotropic confining stresses varying from 50 to 450 kPa, the SWCCs were measured. Instead of the high air inlet ceramic disc, the micro porous membrane approach was used to control relatively low matric suction. The controlled matrix suction range was from 0 to 20 kPa. The research revealed that the measured SWCC seems to be influenced by the in-fluence of stress conditions in low matric suction ranges. Isotropic confining stress caused the specimen’s void structure to become dense and soil moisture flow movement also decreased as a result. For both models, the R2 (0.99) values obtained clearly show that the fitted values and the experimental data sets are almost located around the line of perfect agreement. Obviously, the water retention activity was high, and the point of reference to the air intake value was greater. Furthermore, the study indicates that the existing methods adopted to estimate unsaturated soil properties require further improvement to take into account the impact of different conditions of stress. Perhaps the findings of this study may be helpful in providing appropriate data to clarify the combined hydro-mechanical actions of unsaturated silt soil in the practise of geotechnical engineering.

Author(s) Details

Paul Habasimbi
Graduate School of Engineering, Ashikaga University, Omae Ashikaga Tochigi, Japan.

Prof. Tomoyoshi Nishimura
Department of Civil Engineering, Ashikaga University, Omae Ashikaga Tochigi, Japan.

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