Modelling the urban water cycle
Current urban water management practices aim to remove stormwater and wastewater efficiently from urban areas. An alternative approach is to consider stormwater and wastewater as a potential resource substitute for a portion of the water imported via the reticulated supply system. A holistic view of urban water resources provides the framework for the evaluation of the demand for water supply, the availability of stormwater and wastewater, and the interactions between them. The water balance model (Aquacycle) developed in this study represents water flows through the urban water supply, stormwater, and wastewater systems. Its daily time step provides temporal distribution of the flows, and enables comparison of the different components of the urban water demand. Aquacycle was tested using data from the Woden Valley urban catchment in Canberra, Australia and found able to satisfactorily replicate its water supply, stormwater and wastewater flows.
 The concept of sustainable Urban Water Management
Urban Water Management involves the fields of water supply, urban drainage, wastewater treatment and sludge handling. On the basis of the Agenda 21, principles and guidelines for sustainable urban water management are discussed. Sustainable technology leads to acceptable gradients in state variables. New technologies departing from an analysis of required services rather than stepwise improvement of existing technology is preferred. An efficient use of resources will lead to a minimal increase of entropy and will require an active rather than a reactive approach. The analysis of the transition period from today’s to a sustainable situation is important. An example is introduced which deals with global cycling of nutrients and which may be approached on a regional scale.
 A framework for systems analysis of sustainable urban water management
The increasing demand for sustainable development will have a profound impact on all types of urban infrastructures. However, there is a lack of knowledge of how sustainable development should be attained and how sustainability of various technical systems should be assessed. This paper describes the framework of a systems analysis project dealing with the above issues, which focuses on urban water and wastewater systems. The project is part of large national research program in Sweden entitled “Sustainable Urban Water Management.” A set of sustainability criteria—covering health and hygiene, social and cultural aspects, environmental aspects, economy and technical considerations—are defined. To promote the practical use of a set of sustainability criteria it must be concise and related to quantifiable indicators that are easily measured. This paper suggests suitable indicators for the proposed criteria. It also contains a brief analysis of the contribution to various environmental effects and resource utilization of the Swedish urban water system in relation to the impact of Swedish society in total, to allow for a correct prioritization of the criteria.
 Evaluation of Water Sources in Abakaliki Southeastern Nigeria for Domestic Uses
This work aimed at evaluation of the qualities of water sources in Abakaliki for domestic uses. The water sources used were rain water, borehole water, Ebonyi River and bottled water. The water samples from these sources were taken to laboratory for analysis of SO42-, Cl–, NO3–, Mg2+, Ca2+, pH, Fe, Pb, Cu, Mn, and Zn. The data obtained were analysed using standard deviation and coefficient of variance and compared with World Health Standard. The concentration of SO42-, Cl–, NO3–, Fe and Cu observed in all the water sources studied were within acceptable limit for domestic uses of water. The bottled water recorded the acceptable concentrations of Ca2+, Mg2+ and Pb whereas the concentrations recorded by other sources were above the World Health Organization Standards. On the other hand borehole water and bottled water recorded the concentration of Mn that is within the recommended standard. Whereas with exception of rain water the pH of all the water sources studied were within the acceptable concentration. Apart from bottled water which recorded the concentrations of all the parameters studied within the recommended ranged, all the other sources must be treated to bring them to the acceptable concentrations before usage in order to prevent health hazards associated with the parameters studied.
 Water Management in Kenya: Toward an Ethic of Sustainability
To promote water security of all countries worldwide, the United Nations established the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) in 2000. MDG goal number seven requires that the number of citizens worldwide who lack access to safe water and improved sanitation be reduced by 50% by the year 2015. The need for improved water quality and sanitation is heightened in the water-insecure countries like Sub-Saharan Africa, as rural communities lack adequate infrastructure, and urban migration strains existing safe water supply and sanitation facilities. Kenya provides a profound example where the government practices water use ethics that are manifest in unsustainable water use policies. Water security for the citizens of Kenya is not likely attainable under the current government mandated management paradigm. However, recent developments in the laws and constitution of Kenya, education of citizens, and improvement in agricultural water management practices have prepared the country for an aggressive movement toward sustainable water use policies and an improved water ethic.
 Mitchell, V.G., Mein, R.G. and McMahon, T.A., 2001. Modelling the urban water cycle. Environmental Modelling & Software, 16(7), pp.615-629.
 Larsen, T.A. and Gujer, W., 1997. The concept of sustainable urban water management. Water Science and Technology, 35(9), pp.3-10.
 Hellström, D., Jeppsson, U. and Kärrman, E., 2000. A framework for systems analysis of sustainable urban water management. Environmental impact assessment review, 20(3), pp.311-321.
 Njoku, C., Okoro, G.C., Igwe, T.S., Ngene, P.N. and Ajana, A.J., 2015. Evaluation of Water Sources in Abakaliki Southeastern Nigeria for Domestic Uses. Journal of Agriculture and Ecology Research International, pp.87-91.
 Hooper, L.W. and Hubbart, J.A., 2014. Water Management in Kenya: Toward an Ethic of Sustainability. Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, pp.1144-1152.