Forging New Urban Policies for the 21st Century

As mankind enters what has been dubbed the Anthropocene Age and the Urban Age, we must be globally aware of how we may successfully establish a sustainable urbanity. While our various national political systems have taken a number of actions to combat global warming and other aspects of sustainability, these actions have clearly been insufficient, so the focus of this article is on what cities and their governments, which contain the vast majority of our planet’s population and economic products, can do to bring about enlightenment. To do this, planners will need to develop both environmental and economic sustainability models, as well as governance, quality of life, and urban planning models that promote both urban and environmental sustainability. The goal of this article is to uncover the interconnected solutions that our metropolitan regions can use to become truly sustainable cities. The creation of a new shared economy to replace global laissez-faire capitalism’s current dominance, the need to establish democratic urban governance globally, to prioritise quality of life over GDP growth, and the establishment of urban planning and design guidelines will pave the way for global sustainability of our common human heritage into our collective, global future.

Author (s) Details

Glenn Robert Erikson
City University of New York (CUNY), USA.

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Study of a Possible Global Environmental Forecast and Roadmap Based on 420 kY of Paleoclimatology

Worldwide annual carbon dioxide emissions have quadrupled (4x) since 1950, and global energy demand has quintupled (5x), all in the same time period, as the world’s population has tripled (3x) since 1950, with another 50% increase anticipated by 2100. The abrupt acceleration in all three sectors is too stressful on the ecosystem, and the harmful impacts will be felt globally for generations unless drastic action is taken. More crucially, the energy demand is outstripping the other two by a factor of five. As fossil-fueled generators proliferate over the world and contemporary amenities become more and more popular, this plainly means that the emerging middle class demands almost twice as much as their typical share. However, such a 5x increase in energy demand is an artificial human need, according to RMI.org, which predicts that by 2050, four to five billion more window-mounted air conditioners will be installed, contributing even more to global warming caused by rising atmospheric carbon. Paleoclimatology over the past 420,000 years has been studied. It is demonstrable that lowering the concentration of this single most abundant heat-trapping gas by geoengineering to pre-industrial levels of less than 300 ppm can give humanity collective control over the world’s rapidly rising average global temperature and, once again, a temperate climate to live in.

Author (s) Details

Thomas F. Valone
Integrity Research Institute Beltsville, MD, USA.

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Study on the Ecological Outcome of Climate Change in Lake Kinneret, Israel: An Approach towards Thermal Pollution

The goal of this research is to determine the effects of thermal fluctuations on water quality. Pollution-related water quality degradation includes a number of factors, including nutrient input loads, fishery management, hydrological budget, toxicity, watershed deforestation, soil exposure, and exotic invaders. Thermal pollution is usually thought of as the result of power plant or nuclear power plant effluent, or as the result of a severe thermal shock. The long-term impact of global warming consideration has not been thoroughly investigated. The influence of climate change (warming and precipitation loss) on the Lake Kinneret ecology over time (1969-2001) is discussed. Temperatures of water and air, as well as heat capacity and thermal conductivity of water, are investigated in conjunction with less precipitation and a drop in lake water level. The temperature of surface water increased with WL reduction and reduced in deep layers during high WL, according to the findings. This study demonstrates that even slight thermal changes can signify ecological change. For a lake under water inflow reduction followed by WL and volume drop, the single thermal measure of degrees may be insignificant. It is advised that future management design be implemented.

Author (s) Details

Moshe Gophen
MIGAL, Scientific Research Institute, Kiryat Shmona, Israel.

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A Review on an Open Management Dilemma of Lake Kinneret Dam, Israel

Along the Kinneret-watershed ecosystems’ historical record, significant changes in ecological and anthropogenic processes have been documented: Climate change, which included air temperature swings, periodic occurrence of droughts, river (Jordan and others) discharge reductions, and subsurface flows in the Hula Valley, was accompanied by high amplitude Lake Water Level (WL) variations. Natural and artificial factors influence the lake and its drainage basin, which are two biologically connected components of one ecosystem. Regional climate change and dryness processes (SPI, Standard Precipitation Index enhancement) expressed as precipitation decline, air and lake water temperature increase, river discharges and lake input volumes restriction, and consequently decline of WL and water availability for domestic and agricultural supply and elongation of RT duration.

Author (s) Details

Moshe Gophen
MIGAL-Scientific Research Institute, P.O.B. 831, Kiryat Shmona (11016), Israel.

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Proposing a Modeling Algorithm of Acoustic Waves Penetrating through a Medium with Composite Hierarchical Inclusions

The stability and needed strength properties of novel materials having a multilayer hierarchical structure must be investigated on a regular basis. For this goal, a new method for simulating acoustic monitoring in a layer-block elastic medium with multiple inclusions of diverse physical-mechanical hierarchical structures was proposed.

Methodology of investigation: The usage of 2D integral- differential equations is used to build an iterative technique for addressing the direct issue for the situation of an acoustic field penetrating three hierarchical inclusions of l, m, and s-th ranks. The values of their ranks, which can differ, determine the degree of hierarchy of inclusions.

Results: Hierarchical inclusions are layered one on top of the other, with the top being abnormally plastic, the second being abnormally elastic, and the third being abnormally plastic. For all three hierarchical inclusions, the degree of filling inclusions of each tier can vary. Application: The simulation results can be used to track the stability of structures in a complex hierarchical system as they are subjected to different mechanical forces.

Author (s) Details

Olga Hachay
Institute of Geophysics, UB RAS named after Yu. P. Bulashevitch, Amundsen str.100, Yekaterinburg, 620016, Russia.

Andrey Khachay
Ural Federal University (Named after the first President of Russia Boris Yeltsin), Mira, 16, Yekaterinburg, 620002, Russia.

Oleg Khachay
Ural Federal University (Named after the first President of Russia Boris Yeltsin), Mira, 16, Yekaterinburg, 620002, Russia.

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Initial Formation of Polar Lows in the High-latitude Atmosphere: A Modeling Based Study Approach

A regional mathematical model of the lower atmosphere’s wind system, built previously at the Polar Geophysical Institute, is used to explore the early stages of the genesis of polar lows at European Arctic latitudes. The mathematical model generates three-dimensional distributions of atmospheric parameters in the height range of 0 to 15 km over a constrained region of the Earth’s surface by numerically solving nonsimplified gas dynamic equations. The establishment of a polar low can be triggered by the emergence of a convexity in the arctic front’s shape during a one-day period, according to simulation data.

Author (s) Details

Igor V. Mingalev
Polar Geophysical Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, Academgorodok Str. 26a,  Apatity 184209, Murmansk Region, Russia and Apatity Branch of the Murmansk Arctic State University, Lesnaiy Str. 29, Apatity 184209, Murmansk Region, Russia.

Konstantin G. Orlov
Polar Geophysical Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, Academgorodok Str. 26a, Apatity 184209, Murmansk Region, Russia.

Victor S. Mingalev
Polar Geophysical Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, Academgorodok Str. 26a, Apatity 184209, Murmansk Region, Russia.

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Permian-Triassic Intrusions of the South Norilsk trough, Siberian Traps Province: Mineralogy and Geochemistry

The Norilsk ore region is part of the Siberian traps province, which contains the PGE-Cu-Ni deposits, which are made up of volcanic and intrusive rocks. Many distinct intrusions, some with associated mineralization, can be found in the Turumakit area, which is located inside the southern Norilsk trough. Within the Turumakit area, we researched magmatic rocks (83 samples). The Norilsk, Ergalakh, Daldykan, and Ogonersky intrusive complexes are thought to be responsible. The baddeleyites’ U-Pb system, as well as the derived mineralogical and geochemical data, There is a distinction between the Turumakit area’s sub-alkaline rocks and the typical Eragalakh trachydolerites found at the Norilsk and Talnakh ore junctions. In contrast to the normally fine-grained Ergalakh trachydolerites, the Turumakit subalkaline rocks are coarse-grained, with pegmatite gabbro segregations. They also have a greater TiO2 content (up to 4.7 wt%) than ordinary Ergalakh rocks (2.2-3.3 wt%). The Turumakit sub-alkaline rocks have low U, lower La/Yb, and lower La/Sm ratios (5-7 versus 8-10 for and 2.5-2.6 compared 3.0-3.3 for the Ergalakh dolerites). The age of the mafic rocks conventionally linked to the Ergalakh intrusion inside the Turumakit area was estimated using U-Pb methods on baddeleyite and zircon (244.82.7 Ma), and it looks likely that they are younger than the Norilsk intrusions (2501.4 Ma). These findings clearly suggest that the Turumakit intrusions formed at the end of the Norilsk district’s magmatic history. The Norilsk district’s sub-alkaline magmas are thought to have intruded during two separate magmatic episodes.

Author (s) Details

Nadezhda Krivolutskaya
Vernadsky Institute of Geochemistry and Analytical Chemistry, Russian Academy of Sciences, Kosygin St.19, 119991 Moscow, Russia.

Boris Belyatsky
A. P. Karpinsky Russian Geological Research Institute, Sredny Prospect, 74, 199106 St. Petersburg, Russia.

Elena Sereda
A. P. Karpinsky Russian Geological Research Institute, Sredny Prospect, 74, 199106 St. Petersburg, Russia.

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Using GIS to Determine Waste Transfer Stations in Relation to Location of Landfill Sites in the Accra Metropolis

Accra’s existing landfill sites are exceeding capacity, and land acquisition for landfill construction has become extremely difficult as a result of the city’s fast development. However, given the current rate of expansion, an intermediate facility is urgently needed to avoid the creation of waste sites far from the source of generation. This is the garbage transfer station, where waste is processed and compacted in long-distance vehicles (Compactor trucks) to reduce waste transport and disposal costs. The study’s goal was to use a Geographic Information System to find optimal locations for trash transfer stations in relation to landfill sites (GIS). The Geographic Positioning System was used to identify the coordinates of all the shared container sites in Accra (GPS). To aid in the analysis of the data collected, the coordinates were transformed into points using ArcGIS and Microsoft Excel 2007. With the use of the GIS, four transfer stations were identified: Ablekuman and Amomola (Transfer station 1), Oblogo and Weija (Transfer station 2), Ashongman and Agbogba (Transfer station 3), and Ashaley Botwe and Ogbozdo (Transfer station 4). (Transfer station 4). At Accra, waste transfer stations have been built (in Teshie, Achimota, and Kokomlemle), however the majority of these are on ancient landfill grounds.

Author (s) Details

Lyndon Nii Adjiri Sackey
Waste Landfills Ghana Limited, P.O Box DT 1670, Adenta, Accra, Ghana.

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Exploration on Coral Reef Resources, Using Glint Removal and Depth Attenuation Index on Alos Imagery at Biak Island, Papua, Indonesia

The coral reef resources at Biak Island were identified and examined using ground truth data collected in July 2007 and Alos imaging analysis with a 10 m resolution recorded on May 25, 2010, with the assumption that nothing has changed for the past three years. The work uses glint removal and depth invariant index techniques to build coral reef ecosystem groups by combining 59 field data with Alos image data. Live corals, dead corals, a mixture of both, and sand are the four classes. The algorithm, which is made up of three visible bands, works best in clear water rather than turbid water. As a result, vegetation covering, as well as seagrass, seaweed, and macroalgae that are only present in small amounts and are frequently covered by fine sand materials and linked with turbid water, is overlooked. Corals on Biak Island are spatially narrow, 50 to 150 m broad, covering an area of 1031 ha., with live corals dominating 38 ha. (3 percent), and 50 – 700 m wide, covering an area of 2161 ha., with live corals dominating 215 ha (9 percent ). The powerful waves from the Pacific Ocean are thought to be preventing corals in the north from thriving. The goal of this study is to create a map of the coral reef ecosystem on Biak Island, Indonesia, which is located between 135o48’E and 136o28’E; 0o41’S and 1o15’S.

Author (s) Details

Suyarso
Research Centre for Oceanography – Indonesian Institute of Sciences, Jakarta, Indonesia.

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Studies on Integrated GIS and AHP for Marine Aquaculture Site Selection in Penghu Cove in Taiwan

In Taiwan, government policy has accelerated the transition from land-based to marine cage culture in recent years. As a result, choosing the right location is a crucial principle and determinant for future success in marine cage culture and sustainable development. It has a significant impact on economic viability by deciding capital expenditure and impacting operating expenses, production, and mortality. As a result, climate considerations, geographic environmental elements, bio-environmental factors, and social-economic aspects play a larger role in site selection. With the rapid growth of marine cage culture, there is a growing need for coastal zone environment analyses, which is a difficult task that requires one of the most useful tools for these types of analyses: the Geographic Information System (GIS). The criteria weight for site selection was evaluated using AHP (analytic hierarchy process) in this study. The weights of applicability of the four GIS grid themes were 0.322, 0.410, 0.127, and 0.141, respectively, according to AHP analysis. The findings reveal that geographic environmental elements are the most essential considerations when selecting acceptable marine culture sites in Taiwan’s Penghu bay. Meanwhile, a suitable map was created using ArcMap, a GIS software application, based on the specified grid themes. The GIS software and the AHP approach can be used to objectively choose the best sites for marine cage culture development based on the eligible sites discovered on the specific GIS grid themes.

Author (s) Details

Dr. Yi-Che Shih
Planning and Training Center of National Academy of Marine Research, Ocean Affairs Council, Taiwan and Department of Maritime Police University and Institute of Ocean Technology and Marine Affairs, National Cheng Kung University, Taiwan.

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