Assessment and Evaluating the Effects of Generalisation Approaches and DEM Resolution on the Extraction of Terrain Indices in Kwazulu Natal, South Africa

In deriving primary topographic attributes that serve as input variables for a variety of hydrological and geomorphological studies, digital elevation model (DEM) data is basic. However, consensus on the influence of the source and resolution of DEM on the application of these topographic attributes to landscape characterization is still varied. At the same time, elevation data from many major sources and resolutions are available for South Africa: the Shuttle Radar Topographic Mission (SRTM), the EarthEnv and Stellenbosch University DEM (SUDEM). In a local context, limited research was conducted comparing the extraction of terrain attributes increasingly accessible to high-resolution Digital Terrain Data (DTM) such as LiDAR (Light Detection and Ranging). However, LiDAR ‘s usefulness in topographic analysis poses its difficulties in terms of operational resolution, processing requirements and limited spatial coverage. Elevation, slope, topographic wetness index and surface roughness attributes of terrain derived from DEMs from different sources, at different spatial resolutions and using three generalisation algorithms, namely: mean cell aggregation, nearest neighbour and topo-to-raster corrected hydrological. We demonstrate that topographic variable extraction is heavily dependent on the approach of DEM source and generalisation. Although higher resolution DEMs can reflect the “real” surface more accurately, for all extracted variables, they do not necessarily give the best results. Our findings illustrate the caveats of selecting non-fit-for – purpose DEMs for topographic analysis and provide an easy but efficient solution for reconciling the selection of DEMs before terrain analysis and topographic feature characterization based on neighbourhood size resolution. Finding the best mix of when surface data can be upgraded, what DEMS to use, and what spatial scale works to ensure that The most optimal surface integrity is also still context-specific. This research , however , shows a robust structure for the interpretation of optimal sensor choice and spatial scale for the southern-coastal region of KZN to understand the geomorphological processes in the landscape.

Author (s) Details

Jonathan T. Atkinson
Stellenbosch Department of Soil Science, Matieland, Stellenbosch, South Africa.

Dr. Willem P. De Clercq
Stellenbosch Water Research Institute, Matieland, Stellenbosch, South Africa.

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Applied Study on Using of GIS Technology for Conservation of the Ottoman Bathroom and Its Urban Surrounding in Qena—Egypt

In Qena Region, the Bathroom area suffers from urban, social and economic issues, adversely affecting one of the most prominent Islamic buildings (the Ottoman Bathroom). In the current research, the technique of Geographic Information Systems ( GIS) was selected to determine the current state of the Ottoman Bathroom and its urban surroundings within Qena Region. The urban, economic , and social status of the urban environment of the bathroom was carried out in three categories of the assessment. The spatial database was designed to track and analyse spatial and descriptive data on the surrounding area of the bathroom; the study findings revealed that the residential buildings were heavily damaged. Samples were obtained from various locations in the bathroom, examined with EDX analytical methods by Scanning Electron Microscopy ( SEM) and X-Ray Diffraction (XRD). Previous studies have shown that there is crystallised salt in the pores of bricks, micro-cracks, and losses in the internal structure of construction materials. The paper concludes that the GIS technique is an effective method for the rehabilitation of the Ottoman Bathroom and the surrounding area, with the need to reuse the bathroom in the same old function in order to maintain, revitalise and benefit it in Qena City’s tourism growth. In addition to determining the key roads to enter the region, where the GIS technique is used to determine the boundaries of the macro and micro background of the old Qena city, architecture maps of the region In addition to the construction of databases for the modernization of facilities and the conceptualization of utilities areas to be carried out in the vicinity of the toilet, sewerage, drinking water, power delivery, and communication lines networks.

Author (s) Details

Dr. Essam H. Mohamed
Archaeological Conservation Department, Faculty of Archaeology, South Valley University, Qena, Egypt.

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Studies on Multiplication of the Depth of Detectability Using y 11n Arrays

A basic parameter of all geophysical methods, including geoelectrics, is the depth of investigation (DI). A critical parameter in geophysical exploration has always been the depth from which knowledge can be accessed. This paper deals with the detectability depth (DD) of configurations of 2D electric resistivity tomography. In the presence of a given noise level, DD is the maximum depth from which a given model body is observable. This paper shows that there is a nearly linear relationship between the maximum value of their parameter-sensitivity (PS) maps and their DD values, based on previous DD measurements for traditional electrode arrays. We found that many of them have higher PSmax values than those of traditional arrays when analysing the PS maps of other arrays, as well. Therefore, these so-called γ arrays are supposed to also have larger DD values. This expectation has been verified by the executed DD calculations. Linear geoelectric arrays, where γ refers to the CPCP, are γ arrays Arrays have consistently generated higher DD values than the best traditional arrays if n is greater or equal to 2. The DD value of these arrays can be 2-3 times greater than the best value of the conventional array. Such an improvement in the DD value is particularly useful when the measurement space available is reduced, e.g. due to infrastructural conditions. Large-depth anomalies, for example, that are not seen by traditionally used arrays, can be detectable using γ-arrays, as numerical studies have also verified. In addition, these arrays require less measurement than most conventional arrays, which results in shorter measurement time. According to the above observations, the γ ⁇ arrays and particularly the γ ⁇ -, γ ⁇ – and γ ⁇ arrays can be a useful alternative to traditional arrays, especially in sites where the place available for measurements is limited (e.g. built-up areas), because they can provide information from greater depths. Measurements are mor with these arrays more Consuming less time

Author (s) Details

Sándor Szalai
CSFK GGI, H-9401 Sopron POB 5, Hungary and Department of Geophysics, University of Miskolc, H-3515 Miskolc-Egyetemváros, Hungary.

Dr. Mátyás Krisztián Baracza
Research Institute of Applied Earth Sciences, University of Miskolc, H-3515 Miskolc-Egyetemváros, Hungary.


István Lemperger
CSFK GGI, H-9401 Sopron POB 5, Hungary.

Mohamed Metwaly
Archaeology Department, College of Tourism and Archaeology, King Saud University, Saudi Arabia and National Research Institute of Astronomy and Geophysics (NRIAG), Cairo, Egypt.

Árpád Kis
CSFK GGI, H-9401 Sopron POB 5, Hungary.

Attila Novák
CSFK GGI, H-9401 Sopron POB 5, Hungary.

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Critical Evaluation and Estimation of Shear Wave Structure and Horizontal to Vertical Spectral Ratio at Different Sites in Kathmandu Valley

The present study was conducted to determine the resonant frequency of the soil and to classify the subsurface soil based on the structure of the shear wave velocity. Five sites have been chosen for this reason, such as Pulchowk, Chhauni, Gaushala, Buddhanagar and Bhainsepati. Approximately 20 data were collected at each location, and then the structure of shear wave velocity and graph of amplification ratio with their spatial distribution were generated using software, i.e. Seisimager / Controller for Seismodule. The outcomes of both methods of study were then compared to the Gorkha Earthquake and borehole data amplitude. All these data and studies show that the sediments of the Kathmandu Valley depend on the frequency of the seismic waves, and in the peripheral area the wave velocity is greater than in the central part of the Valley. The outcome has also shown the silty-sand presence, Devastation is caused by clay and loose gravel soil with poor bearing capacity and elastic modulus at most of the sites. It was also noted that a non-intrusive microtremor analysis can be adopted for earthquake site characterization in the Kathmandu Valley, apart from a few limitations, which can be easily extended and expanded for Kathmandu in future seismic hazard and microzonation efforts. For most of the sites, the low velocity model is due to the presence of soft soil in that region that is responsible for most of the sites’ destruction. The findings have also shown that in the peripheral area, the parametric values of ground motion are greater than in the central part of the valley.

Author (s) Details

Mrs. Srijana Poudel
Central Department of Geology, Tribhuvan University, Kathmandu, Nepal.

Dr. Subesh Ghimire
Central Department of Geology, Tribhuvan University, Kathmandu, Nepal.

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Studies on the Correlation of North Magnetic Dip Pole Motion and Seismic Activity

In his paper, Viterito states that increasing seismic activity for the high geothermal flux regions (HGFA) of the globe is correlated with a correlation factor r of 0.785 with the average global temperature from 1979 to 2015 and that this explains 62 percent of the variation in the surface temperature of the earth. This makes geothermal activity at this time the most important factor in the change in the earth’s temperature. The mechanisms surrounding seismic activity were studied, recognising that this is the source of a major concern for so many and a vital part of understanding our planet and its processes. A high positive correlation (r = 0.935) was observed between the velocity of the motion of the North Magnetic Dip Pole and the seismic activity during this time period. Before conclusive answers can be reached, both of these aspects and several more must be taken into account and evaluated. But the first step in assessing their origin and their ultimate impact on both the atomic and macroscopic scales is only understanding that these unique features exist.

Author (s) Details

Bruce Williams
Retired, Gillette, Wyoming, USA.

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Climate Change Responsibles

The Covid disaster keeps ravaging Planet Earth. It is hardly a turning point for global environmental policy coordination. The economic costs of the corona virus are now arriving in the form of unemployment, lower production and steeply increasing deficits and public debt. How to manage the much needed climate change policies? The big polluters are governed by leaders who fail to take global warming seriously.

Author (s) Details

Jan-Erik Lane
University of Geneva, Jan-Erik Lane, Geneva, Switzerland.

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A Study of Deep Geoelectric Structure and Its Relation to Seismotectonics and Economic Development of Saurashtra Region, Western India

One of the significant sections of the Indian continental lithosphere with fascinating geophysical anomalies, tectonothermal evolution since the Mesozoic times, is the Saurashtra Peninsula and its neighbouring regions covered by Deccan Traps (DT). For the understanding of seismo-tectonics and economic development of the region, knowledge of the deep structure beneath these formations is essential. After the occurrence of a major earthquake (7.9 Mw) north of Saurashtra, the Bhuj earthquake in 2001, this region gained significance. It is also noted that many earthquake swarms restricted to small regions have also been encountered in the Saurashtra region. Magnetotelluric outcomes of the deep crustal structure along five NS-oriented traverses are presented in our study. Halvad-Rohisa (HR), Sapar-Iswaria (SI), Mota Dahinsara-Bamagadh (MB), JodiyaJamkhandorna (JJ) and Vav Beraja-Devda (VD) are the five crossing routes. More confidence in the findings that are derived. In areas ranging from 20 km to around 40 km, the 2-D geoelectric segment has delineated buried sediments below the basalt and also has an irregular high conductivity structure. An anomalous high conductive structure derived from MT data with extreme localised seismic activity from the spatial correlation is an important observation. The results of magnetotelluric studies along with other geophysical results are described in the present report. In addition, the outcome of the current study has significant consequences for the region’s economic growth. Large infrastructure near the Chotila region of Gujarat is suggested and large quantities of crude hydrocarbons can be stored in deep buried sediments by drilling 1-1.5 km and can be recovered if necessary.

Author (s) Details

D. N. Murthy
CSIR-National Geophysical Research Institute, Hyderabad, India.

K.Veeraswamy
CSIR-National Geophysical Research Institute, Hyderabad, India

K. Kanmani
CSD and Civil Engineering Department, BS Abdur Rahaman Crescent Institute of Science and Technology, Chennai, India.

Dr.T. Harinarayana
CSIR-National Geophysical Research Institute, Hyderabad, India (Rtd) and SDG, BS Abdur Rahaman Crescent Institute of Science and Technology, Chennai, India.

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A Case Study on Road Information System of a Modern City

This paper addresses the suitability and applications of GIS and GPS technology in the creation of a modern city interactive road information system (RIS) to help planners and administrators recognise the problems associated with rural road development activities, the location and provision of suitable facilities, the monitoring and maintenance of assets generated in rural road development activities, and the management of assets. This RIS offers an interactive database of knowledge consisting of a variety of utility resources available throughout the road network chosen. This interactive system gives a list of query-based services to end-users. These query-based services include road connectivity between each of the two points selected, distance and accessibility information, buffering services, etc. Knowledge bank and associated study of proximity, etc. During different emergency situations, it will also include the required details regarding various network analysis-based route information ( e.g. alternative route, shortest possible route, locating the nearest facility, etc.) in any selected location. This study confirmed the need, in an coordinated way, for road network planning in the city and this is the first step towards the development of the city. The RIS built under the GIS environment is successful in controlling, managing, planning and subsequent creation of the Agartala City road network.

Author (s) Details

Dr. Kamal Kumar Tanti
Department of Physics, Assam Energy Institute (a Centre of Rajiv Gandhi Institute of Petroleum Technology, Jais, Amethi), Sivasagar, Assam, India.

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Which Geoelectric Array Sees the Deepest in Noisy Environment? Depth of Detectability Values of Multielectrode Systems over Various TwoDimensional Models

The two dominating difficulties of any geophysical measurement in the urban setting are as follows : ( 1) the area available for measurement is small, so the geoelectric layout length is also small; (2) the noise level is high, and the noise reduces the maximum depth from which any subsurface target can be detected. From the results of two-dimensional numerical model computations assuming multielectrode (electrical resistivity tomography) measurements, we determined the depth of detectability values ( i.e. maximum depth values at which still useful information about a given inhomogeneity is obtained at a given noise level). We conducted detectability studies in detail for six different geoelectric arrays, assuming different noise levels. The depth of detectability is both array-and model-dependent, as it has been found. Therefore, it is recommended to pick an array in a field study that has the greatest possible depth of detectability values for the given model. At the noise level given. If there is no a priori assumption about the subsurface model, we suggest either the pole-dipole (P-DP) array or the dipole axial (DP-ax) array as a default option, because they have the largest detectability values for most models we have studied. A double increase in the level of noise can lead to a decrease of approximately two in the detectability depth itself.

Author (s) Details

Sándor Szalai
1CSFK GGI, H-9401 Sopron POB 5, Hungary and Department of Geophysics, University of Miskolc, H-3515 MiskolcEgyetemváros, Hungary.

Mátyás Krisztián Baracza
3Research Institute of Applied Earth Sciences, University of Miskolc, H-3515 Miskolc-Egyetemváros, Hungary.

Attila Novák
CSFK GGI, H-9401 Sopron POB 5, Hungary.

László Szarka
CSFK GGI, H-9401 Sopron POB 5, Hungary.

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Characterisation of Fractures and Fracture Zones in a Carbonate Aquifer Using Electrical Resistivity Tomography and Pricking Probe Methodes

In the carbonate aquifer, the goal was to determine the location, width and fragmentation degree of the fracture zones and the location, significance and characteristic distance of the fractures. These are fundamental parameters due to their role in the movements of subsurface water , e.g. in hydrogeological modelling of aquifers. However, defining small-scale fracture systems is a difficult task. Two methods proved to be applicable in the test area (Kádárta, Bakony Mts, Hungary) to obtain reasonable details on the fractures: Electrical Resistivity Tomography (ERT) and Pricking-Probe (PriP). PriP is a basic mechanical instrument that has been used successfully in archaeological studies. In this small-scale fracture analysis, ERT outcomes demonstrated its applicability. PriP proved to be a successful organisation, Verification method for both fracture zone mapping and fracture detection, but it provided distinct results in some areas than the ERT. Therefore, the applicability of this approach has yet to be checked, although its problems most likely derive from human activity that reorganises the distribution of the nearsurface debris. Both methods showed fracture zones, including a very characteristic one and a number of individual fractures, at the test site and calculated their characteristic distance and significance. Both methods have proven to be capable of even individually generating hydrogeologically important parameters, but their simultaneous application is recommended to reduce the potential discrepancies.

Author(s) Details

Sándor Szalai,
CSFK GGI, H-9401 Sopron POB 5, Hungary and Department of Geophysics, University of Miskolc, H-3515 MiskolcEgyetemváros, Hungary.

Dr. Mátyás Krisztián Baracza
Research Institute of Applied Earth Sciences, University of Miskolc, H-3515 Miskolc-Egyetemváros, Hungary.

Attila Kovács
Geological and Geophysical Institute of Hungary, 14 Stefánia út, Budapest, H-1143, Hungary.

Lukács Kuslits
CSFK GGI, H-9401 Sopron POB 5, Hungary.

Gábor Facskó
CSFK GGI, H-9401 Sopron POB 5, Hungary.


Katalin Gri-bovszki
CSFK GGI, H-9401 Sopron POB 5, Hungary

János Kalmár
CSFK GGI, H-9401 Sopron POB 5, Hungary.

László Szarka
CSFK GGI, H-9401 Sopron POB 5, Hungary.

View Book :- https://bp.bookpi.org/index.php/bpi/catalog/book/283