Latest News on Food Security : April 21

[1] Food security: a post-modern perspective

The paper explores post-modern currents in food security. It identifies three main shifts in thinking about food security since the World Food Conference of 1974: from the global and the national to the household and the individual; from a food first perspective to a livelihood perspective; and from objective indicators to subjective perception. It finds these shifts to be consistent with post-modern thinking in other spheres, and it draws on the wider debate to recommend food security policy which eschews meta-narratives in favour of recognizing diversity, providing households and individuals with choices which contribute to self-determination and autonomy. The current conventional wisdom on food security is reviewed and some post-modern amendments are suggested.

[2] Global Food Security: Challenges and Policies

Global food security will remain a worldwide concern for the next 50 years and beyond. Recently, crop yield has fallen in many areas because of declining investments in research and infrastructure, as well as increasing water scarcity. Climate change and HIV/AIDS are also crucial factors affecting food security in many regions. Although agroecological approaches offer some promise for improving yields, food security in developing countries could be substantially improved by increased investment and policy reforms.

[3] Food security: The challenge of the present

The group of basic problems that determine the existence of mankind involves the surplus of food for some and the malnutrition of others. There is an opinion that ensuring food security is an integrated task of agriculture and political will, combined with the logistics of product delivery. Despite joint efforts and various UN programs to combat hunger, only short-term local results have been achieved. Food security, especially in the global sense, has not yet been implemented, and there are reasons for this. The analytical review presents evaluation of the achieved result and points out the activities that require adjustments.

[4] Determinants of Rural Farm Household Food Security in Boloso Sore District of Wolaita Zone in Ethiopia

The study was conducted to identify determinants of rural farm household food security status in Boloso Sore district of Wolaita Zone, Ethiopia. A three-stage sampling technique was utilized to obtain a sample size of 90 rural farm households. Cross sectional data were collected through structured questionnaire, focus group discussion and personal observation. Data were analyzed using head count index, food insecurity gap index, food surplus gap index and binary logit model. The result showed that only 34.5% of rural farm households were found food secure while 65.5% were food insecure. The food insecurity gap and food surplus index showed that food secured households exceeded the food security line by 34.6% while 27.8% of food insecure households fall below the poverty line. The severity of the food insecurity gap among the food insecure households was found to be 11.7%. The binary logit model result revealed that the major factors determining food security of rural farm households were family size in adult equivalent, total cultivated land size, annual income of household, oxen ownership of households, access to extension and credit and age of the household head.

[5] Food Security Determinants among Urban Food Crop Farming Households in Cross River State, Nigeria

The study investigated food security determinants among urban food crop farming households in Cross River State, Nigeria. A two-stage sampling technique was utilized to obtain a sample size of 217 urban food crop farming households. The study was conducted in three urban areas in Cross River State, namely: Calabar, Ikom and Ugep. Cross sectional data were collected through well structured questionnaires and oral interview. Data were analyzed using headcount index, food insecurity gap index, food surplus gap index as well as logistic regression. The result showed that only 52.5% of urban food crop farming households were food secure while 47.5% were food insecure. The food insecurity gap and food surplus index showed that food secure households exceeded the food security line by 44% while 53% of food insecure households fall below the poverty line. The logistic regression result revealed that, years of formal education, farming experience, age of farmers, farming as main occupation, household size, income from farm and output of food crops produce were major determinants of food security status of urban farming households in the study area. The study recommends among others that in other to increase the output of food crop produced by urban farming households, government should encourage the use of improved planting materials, adoption of improved land management techniques and fertilizer should be made affordable and available to farmers.

 

Reference

[1] Maxwell, S., 1996. Food security: a post-modern perspective. Food policy21(2), pp.155-170.

[2] Rosegrant, M.W. and Cline, S.A., 2003. Global food security: challenges and policies. Science302(5652), pp.1917-1919.

[3] Prosekov, A.Y. and Ivanova, S.A., 2018. Food security: The challenge of the present. Geoforum91, pp.73-77.

[4] Leza, T. and Kuma, B., 2015. Determinants of rural farm household food security in Boloso Sore District of Wolaita Zone in Ethiopia. Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, pp.57-68.

[5] Ibok, O.W., Bassey, N.E., Atairet, E.A. and Oto-obong, J.O., 2014. Food security determinants among urban food crop farming households in Cross River State, Nigeria. Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, pp.76-90.

Latest News on chicken meat April 2021

[1] Antioxidative mechanisms of tea catechins in chicken meat systems

The effects of dietary tea catechins (TC) supplementation at levels of 50 (TC50), 100 (TC100) 200 (TC200), and 300 (TC300) mg/kg feed on oxidative stability and on protection of α-tocopherol (VE) in long-term frozen stored (−20 °C×12 months) chicken breast and thigh meat were investigated. Dietary TC (TC200) showed inhibiting effects on lipid oxidation equivalent to dietary α-tocopheryl acetate (VEA200) for long-term frozen stored chicken meat. The level of VE in long-term stored frozen chicken meat from TC dietary treatments (TC50, TC100, TC200 and TC300) was significantly (P<0.05) higher than that of meat from control diet containing no TC (C). The protective effects of TC against VE-depletion may partly elucidate the antioxidant activity of TC in vivo. The effects of TC on iron-induced docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)-incorporated L-α-phosphatidylcholine (PC) liposome oxidation, and on Fe2+-chelating and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical-scavenging were also examined. Added TC showed significantly (P<0.05) higher antioxidant activity in oxidized DHA-PC liposomes than in controls. In addition to chelating effects on Fe2+, TC showed strong scavenging capacity for the DPPH free radical. The strong free radical-scavenging ability plus the iron-chelating effects of TC provide a plausible mechanism for the antioxidant effects of added TC in the in vitro meat system.

[2] Consumer perception of food risk in chicken meat

Growing concerns about risks to public health have heightened consumer awareness of safety in food consumption. Understanding consumer perception of risk and impact on purchase behaviour is a key issue for the mutual benefit of both consumers and food industry. An exploratory study in the form of personal interviews was carried out to investigate the perceived main food risks in chicken meat product, together with the components of perceived loss and risk reducing strategies. The results suggested the importance of lifestyle loss as a separate factor along with health, financial, time, and product performance loss. Risk reducing strategies adopted by consumers were matched with the marketing strategies used by the food industry, such as product quality assurance, product information and pricing. Consumers felt able to reduce exposure to food safety risk by personal control in the post‐purchase handling and preparation of chicken meat.

[3] Dutch patients, retail chicken meat and poultry share the same ESBL genes, plasmids and strains

Intestinal carriage of extended‐spectrum beta‐lactamase (ESBL) ‐producing bacteria in food‐producing animals and contamination of retail meat may contribute to increased incidences of infections with ESBL‐producing bacteria in humans. Therefore, distribution of ESBL genes, plasmids and strain genotypes in Escherichia coli obtained from poultry and retail chicken meat in the Netherlands was determined and defined as ‘poultry‐associated’ (PA). Subsequently, the proportion of E. coli isolates with PA ESBL genes, plasmids and strains was quantified in a representative sample of clinical isolates. The E. coli were derived from 98 retail chicken meat samples, a prevalence survey among poultry, and 516 human clinical samples from 31 laboratories collected during a 3‐month period in 2009. Isolates were analysed using an ESBL‐specific microarray, sequencing of ESBL genes, PCR‐based replicon typing of plasmids, plasmid multi‐locus sequence typing (pMLST) and strain genotyping (MLST). Six ESBL genes were defined as PA (blaCTX‐M‐1, blaCTX‐M‐2, blaSHV‐2, blaSHV‐12, blaTEM‐20, blaTEM‐52): 35% of the human isolates contained PA ESBL genes and 19% contained PA ESBL genes located on IncI1 plasmids that were genetically indistinguishable from those obtained from poultry (meat). Of these ESBL genes, 86% were blaCTX‐M‐1 and blaTEM‐52 genes, which were also the predominant genes in poultry (78%) and retail chicken meat (75%). Of the retail meat samples, 94% contained ESBL‐producing isolates of which 39% belonged to E. coli genotypes also present in human samples. These findings are suggestive for transmission of ESBL genes, plasmids and E. coli isolates from poultry to humans, most likely through the food chain.

[4] Levels of Selected Heavy Metals in Fresh Meat from Cattle, Sheep, Chicken and Camel Produced in Algeria

Aims: Levels of selected heavy metals iron, copper, zinc, lead, cadmium and mercury were determined in fresh meat from cattle, sheep, chicken and camel produced in Algeria.

Methodology: We are using atomic absorption spectrophotometry in some different samples of beef (n=120), sheep (n=120), chicken (n=120) and camel (n=120) of fresh meat collected in two areas north and south from Algeria.

Results: The order of the levels of the trace elements obtained was iron >zinc >copper> lead >cadmium >mercury. The highest concentration of iron and lead were found in the chicken meat (246.83µg/g, 8.80µg/g respectively) while camel’s meat maintained the lowest values of most studied metals except values of lead (3.21µg/g) and zinc (4.17µg/g) in southern area.

Samples from the north area are more contaminated due to massive industrialization and agricultural practices.

Conclusion: The concentrations of all essential elements in the selected products were high and often exceeded legal limits set by health authorities.

[5] The Effects of a Probiotic Dietary Supplementation on the Amino Acid and Mineral Composition of Broilers Meat

Commercially available probiotic “Vetosporin Active” was used in chicken broilers feed as an additive. The study was carried out to evaluate the effect of a dietary probiotic supplementation on the amino acid and mineral composition of broilers meat. One control and three experimental groups of chicken broilers were fed for 42 days where for II, III and IV experimental group the “Vetosporin Active” probiotic additive has been added at the level of 0.5, 1.0 and 1.5 g/kg to feed for broilers. The broiler meat from III experimental group was more nutritious being richer in protein (21.2%), while similar protein content was detected in I and II groups (20.2% and 20.3%, respectively) and III and IV groups (21.2% and 21.0%, respectively). Significant reducing of fat amount was in III group (up to 3.9% comparing with 4.7% in the meat of I group). The analysis revealed differences in the amino acid composition of broilers meat. The sum of essential amino acids was highest in III group. Thus, the amount of leucine and isoleucine in III group was higher to 1.8% comparing to I control group. However, the methionine content was lower in III group than in other groups. The mineral content is higher in samples of meat from II, III and IV groups comparing with I control group. The concentration of calcium in the samples from III group was higher to 4.6 mg, 1.9 mg and 1.4 mg of those samples from I, II and IV group, respectively.

On the contrary summarized evaluation was done to find out whether the amino acid or other mineral contents are significant in the broiler meat or not, rather if it is not sufficient enough to assure the values, then further processing of the meat in needed to be done with much professional attitude. Diets of the animals also have to be improved enough so that all the animals could ensure the required dietary need.

 

 

Reference

[1] Tang, S.Z., Kerry, J.P., Sheehan, D. and Buckley, D.J., 2002. Antioxidative mechanisms of tea catechins in chicken meat systems. Food Chemistry76(1), pp.45-51.

[2]  Yeung, R.M. and Morris, J., 2001. Consumer perception of food risk in chicken meat. Nutrition & Food Science.

[3] Leverstein‐van Hall, M.A., Dierikx, C.M., Cohen Stuart, J., Voets, G.M., Van Den Munckhof, M.P., van Essen‐Zandbergen, A., Platteel, T., Fluit, A.C., Van de Sande‐Bruinsma, N., Scharinga, J. and Bonten, M.J.M., 2011. Dutch patients, retail chicken meat and poultry share the same ESBL genes, plasmids and strains. Clinical Microbiology and Infection17(6), pp.873-880.

[4] Badis, B., Rachid, Z. and Esma, B., 2014. Levels of selected heavy metals in fresh meat from cattle, sheep, chicken and camel produced in Algeria. Annual Research & Review in Biology, pp.1260-1267.

[5] Sharipova, A., Khaziev, D., Kanareikina, S., Kanareikin, V., Rebezov, M., Kazanina, M., Andreeva, A., Okuskhanova, E., Yessimbekov, Z. and Bykova, O., 2017. The effects of a probiotic dietary supplementation on the amino acid and mineral composition of broilers meat. Annual Research & Review in Biology, pp.1-7.

The Recipes: Traditional Delicacies of Bandung, Indonesia Volume 1

The Five Delicacies Recipes in Bandung, Indonesia are finally created after sweat and blistering. This cookbook describes a journey through two countries and shares experience. This book offers delicious and delicious recipes and should be tried at home.

Author(s) Details

Nik Alif Amri Nik Hashim
Universiti Malaysia Kelantan, Malaysia.

Selvi Novianti
Sekolah Tinggi Pariwisata Bandung, Indonesia.

Abdullah Muhamed Yusoff
Universiti Malaysia Kelantan, Malaysia.

Nur Hafizah Muhammad
Universiti Malaysia Kelantan, Malaysia.

Zaimatul Awang
Universiti Malaysia Kelantan, Malaysia.

Roslizawati Che Aziz
Universiti Malaysia Kelantan, Malaysia.

View Book :- https://bp.bookpi.org/index.php/bpi/catalog/book/365

Importance of Diet, Genetic and Lifestyle on Human Aging, Health and Cognition

Several intrinsic/extrinsic factors will interfere in our body, deciding human health, lifespan, and cognitive impairment, from conception to old age. It has become clear in recent years that the ageing process is not only a matter of years of life, but also a result of a number of biological processes involving multicausal factors correlated with age. To a certain degree, it is possible to regulate extrinsic factors, such as diet, environmental conditions, and lifestyle, differently from intrinsic factors such as genetic characteristics inherited. The aim of the book “Factors on Aging, Memory and Cognitive Decline” is to explain the effect of these various factors, which can either contribute to metabolic disorders and metabolic diseases or enhance metabolic equilibrium. A conceptualization of how these factors naturally interact is discussed in the first chapter, while the mechanisms responsible for cell and tissue degradation in human diseases and ageing are defined in Chapter 2. Chapters 3 to 6 identify the interaction of nutrient and non-nutrient food components and metabolites in general metabolism, health, memory and cognition, either improving or worsening the metabolic balance. Relevant foods and specific dietary habits that can lead to the preservation of metabolic equilibrium and cognitive function, retardation of normal ageing and related processes are discussed in Chapters 7 to 10. With most dietary profiles and patterns suggesting deficiency in some basic nutrients and over intake of unhealthy dietary components, Chapters 11 and 12 address the key issues prevailing. This up-to-date research collection extends the awareness and highlights the interrelationship between many sciences, such as food, chemistry, biochemistry, nutritional, medicinal, and pharmaceutical sciences, in a multidisciplinary approach. Some ideas are provided as potential perspectives on research in these fields.

Author(s) Details

Valdemiro Carlos Sgarbieri
Faculty of Food Engineering, State University of Campinas, Campinas, São Paulo, Brazil.

Maria Teresa Bertoldo Pacheco
Institute of Food Technology (ITAL), Campinas, São Paulo, Brazil.

Nádia Fátima Gibrin
“Universidade Paulista” (UNIP), Campinas, São Paulo, S.P., Brazil.

Denise Aparecida Gonçalves de Oliveira
“Universidade Paulista” (UNIP), Campus Jundiaí, S.P., Brazil.

Maria Elisa Caetano Silva
Institute of Food Technology (ITAL), Campinas, São Paulo, Brazil.

View Book :- http://bp.bookpi.org/index.php/bpi/catalog/book/336