Food security: a post-modern perspective
The paper explores post-modern currents in food security. It identifies three main shifts in thinking about food security since the World Food Conference of 1974: from the global and the national to the household and the individual; from a food first perspective to a livelihood perspective; and from objective indicators to subjective perception. It finds these shifts to be consistent with post-modern thinking in other spheres, and it draws on the wider debate to recommend food security policy which eschews meta-narratives in favour of recognizing diversity, providing households and individuals with choices which contribute to self-determination and autonomy. The current conventional wisdom on food security is reviewed and some post-modern amendments are suggested.
 Global Food Security: Challenges and Policies
Global food security will remain a worldwide concern for the next 50 years and beyond. Recently, crop yield has fallen in many areas because of declining investments in research and infrastructure, as well as increasing water scarcity. Climate change and HIV/AIDS are also crucial factors affecting food security in many regions. Although agroecological approaches offer some promise for improving yields, food security in developing countries could be substantially improved by increased investment and policy reforms.
 Food security: The challenge of the present
The group of basic problems that determine the existence of mankind involves the surplus of food for some and the malnutrition of others. There is an opinion that ensuring food security is an integrated task of agriculture and political will, combined with the logistics of product delivery. Despite joint efforts and various UN programs to combat hunger, only short-term local results have been achieved. Food security, especially in the global sense, has not yet been implemented, and there are reasons for this. The analytical review presents evaluation of the achieved result and points out the activities that require adjustments.
 Determinants of Rural Farm Household Food Security in Boloso Sore District of Wolaita Zone in Ethiopia
The study was conducted to identify determinants of rural farm household food security status in Boloso Sore district of Wolaita Zone, Ethiopia. A three-stage sampling technique was utilized to obtain a sample size of 90 rural farm households. Cross sectional data were collected through structured questionnaire, focus group discussion and personal observation. Data were analyzed using head count index, food insecurity gap index, food surplus gap index and binary logit model. The result showed that only 34.5% of rural farm households were found food secure while 65.5% were food insecure. The food insecurity gap and food surplus index showed that food secured households exceeded the food security line by 34.6% while 27.8% of food insecure households fall below the poverty line. The severity of the food insecurity gap among the food insecure households was found to be 11.7%. The binary logit model result revealed that the major factors determining food security of rural farm households were family size in adult equivalent, total cultivated land size, annual income of household, oxen ownership of households, access to extension and credit and age of the household head.
 Food Security Determinants among Urban Food Crop Farming Households in Cross River State, Nigeria
The study investigated food security determinants among urban food crop farming households in Cross River State, Nigeria. A two-stage sampling technique was utilized to obtain a sample size of 217 urban food crop farming households. The study was conducted in three urban areas in Cross River State, namely: Calabar, Ikom and Ugep. Cross sectional data were collected through well structured questionnaires and oral interview. Data were analyzed using headcount index, food insecurity gap index, food surplus gap index as well as logistic regression. The result showed that only 52.5% of urban food crop farming households were food secure while 47.5% were food insecure. The food insecurity gap and food surplus index showed that food secure households exceeded the food security line by 44% while 53% of food insecure households fall below the poverty line. The logistic regression result revealed that, years of formal education, farming experience, age of farmers, farming as main occupation, household size, income from farm and output of food crops produce were major determinants of food security status of urban farming households in the study area. The study recommends among others that in other to increase the output of food crop produced by urban farming households, government should encourage the use of improved planting materials, adoption of improved land management techniques and fertilizer should be made affordable and available to farmers.
 Maxwell, S., 1996. Food security: a post-modern perspective. Food policy, 21(2), pp.155-170.
 Rosegrant, M.W. and Cline, S.A., 2003. Global food security: challenges and policies. Science, 302(5652), pp.1917-1919.
 Prosekov, A.Y. and Ivanova, S.A., 2018. Food security: The challenge of the present. Geoforum, 91, pp.73-77.
 Leza, T. and Kuma, B., 2015. Determinants of rural farm household food security in Boloso Sore District of Wolaita Zone in Ethiopia. Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, pp.57-68.
 Ibok, O.W., Bassey, N.E., Atairet, E.A. and Oto-obong, J.O., 2014. Food security determinants among urban food crop farming households in Cross River State, Nigeria. Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, pp.76-90.