Mid-Arm Circumference and Triceps Skin-Fold Thickness in Rural School Children: A Cross Sectional Study

A cross-sectional study looked at the mid-arm circumference and triceps skin-fold thickness in rural kids aged 5 to 13. The study took place at Sangli district schools in Maharashtra, India. A total of 910 students (500 boys and 410 girls) from rural schools were studied. The mid-arm circumference gives you a general idea of how well your muscles are developing. Girls had larger mid-arm circumferences and triceps skin-fold thicknesses than boys in rural schools. Because there was no clear Indian standard for the circumference of the mid-arm, the The findings of this study were compared to those of other researchers who studied well-nourished and affluent schoolchildren who were not stunted by hunger or infection. Rural pupils exhibited a smaller mid-arm circumference and triceps skin-fold thickness than well-fed, rich schoolchildren, possibly due to the latter’s better socioeconomic status.

Author(s) Details

Sunil M. Kolekar
Alluri Sitarama Raju Academy of Medical Sciences, Eluru, Andhra Pradesh, India.

Sunita U. Sawant
Alluri Sitarama Raju Academy of Medical Sciences, Eluru, Andhra Pradesh, India.

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Assessing Professional Development and Competence in Undergraduate Medical Laboratory Sciences Education Using Portfolio of Learning

In competency-based health professions education, portfolio evaluation is becoming more common. However, in Medical Laboratory Sciences, this form of evaluation is not often used. This study looked at how portfolio assessment is being used in Uganda’s medical laboratory sciences. The goals were to see if portfolio evaluation was accepted and if it fostered feedback, reflection, and student engagement. During their clinical laboratory training, eighteen final-year students created learning portfolios. These were assessed as part of exit exams, which included documentation, reflection, appraisal, presentation, and decision. employed a questionnaire to get feedback from participants on how they felt about the procedure The results suggest that the procedure was well appreciated by the participants, and that it encouraged feedback and student engagement. It should not, however, be utilised as the sole technique of evaluation. The study concludes that evaluating a learning portfolio is a legitimate way for identifying professional progress and development in the field of medical laboratory sciences.

Author(s) Details

Christian Chinyere Ezeala
School of Medicine and Health Sciences, Mulungushi University, Livingstone Campus, Livingstone, Zambia.

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Etiological Evaluation of Pancytopenia in a Tertiary Care Hospital: A Prospective Study

Background: Pancytopenia is a common haematological problem characterised by the presence of anaemia, leucopenia, and thrombocytopenia all at the same time. The disease pattern linked with pancytopenia varies depending on geographic area, age group, nutritional status, drug intake, and infective condition prevalence. The purpose of this prospective study was to investigate and discover possible causes of pancytopenia, as well as to determine the percentage of people who have pancytopenia, as well as to compare the findings with those of other similar studies. From June 2012 to June 2014, 80 patients with pancytopenia were clinically assessed at Justice K. S. Hegde Hospital, Nitte University, Deralakatte, Mangalore, with full blood counts, peripheral smears, and bone marrow aspiration-biopsy whenever possible. Results: The majority of the 80 cases studied were in the 41-50 year age range, with a male predominance. The three most common reasons in our hospital were hypersplenism (28.75 percent), malaria (16.25 percent), and megaloblastic anaemia (13.75 percent). Plasmodium vivax (8 instances) was the most prevalent parasite found in 13 cases of malaria. Conclusion: Different causes of pancytopenia can be related to geographic location, nutritional and pharmacological intakes, personal habits, infectious causes, diagnostic criteria stringency, and variances in methodology used, according to the current study. Thus, in the comprehensive workup of patients with pancytopenia, a detailed clinical history and meticulous examination, as well as haematological assays, give vital information for understanding disease processes, planning additional investigations and management, and determining the cause.

Author(s) Details

Anuja Dasgupta
Deptartment of Pathology, Akash Institute of Medical Sciences and Research Centre, Devanahalli, Bengaluru, India.

Shetty K. Padma
Deptartment of Pathology, K.S Hegde Medical Academy, NITTE University, Deralakatte, Mangalore, India.

K. Sajitha
Deptartment of Pathology, K.S Hegde Medical Academy, NITTE University, Deralakatte, Mangalore, India.

Jayaprakash Shetty
Deptartment of Pathology, K.S Hegde Medical Academy, NITTE University, Deralakatte, Mangalore, India.

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Study on Invasive Procedures of the Chest Lesions: Are they Must be Performed and Why?

Introduction: Lung cancer is one of the leading causes of death in the globe. MDCT is discovering an increasing number of lung and mediastinal lesions, and histological diagnosis is frequently necessary to establish the optimal treatment choice. The goals of this article are to detail invasive techniques for chest lesions, including indications, contraindications, technical features, and diagnostic accuracy of percutaneous lung biopsies. Fine-needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB) and core-needle biopsy (CNB) are the methods of choice for collecting tissue specimens in patients with lung lesions. Histology diagnoses are commonly used to guide treatment techniques. FNAB biopsy is conducted in 85 of the 97 patients in our study when logistically feasible or when other procedures (such as bronchoscopy with lavage) are equivocal, and CNB is performed in 12 of the 97 patients. Disposable needles sized 19-22G were used. Results: All 76 patients, ages 21 to 79, who had lung lesions with a diameter of 2.0 cm or smaller had FNAB under CT control. FNAB under US control is conducted in 13 individuals because to the superficial location of the lesions. All patients’ tissue samples are cytologically and histologically examined. It is computed the diagnostic sensitivity and accuracy, as well as the sort of complications that occurred. The overall sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of CNB improved slightly. Conclusion: Percutaneous FNAB and CNB are safe procedures for evaluating focal pulmonary lesions for diagnostic purposes. Although some problems, such as pneumothorax and pulmonary haemorrhage, are uncommon, others, such as air embolism and metastatic seeding, can have serious effects.

Author(s) Details

Assoc. Prof. Dr. A. Hilendarov
Medical University-Plovdiv, Мedical Faculty, Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Plovdiv, Bulgaria.

Dr. A. Georgiev
Medical University-Plovdiv, Мedical Faculty, Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Plovdiv, Bulgaria.

Dr. A. Chervenkov
Medical University-Plovdiv, Мedical Faculty, Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Plovdiv, Bulgaria.

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Determining the Impact of Diet and Nutrition on Periodontal Health and Disease

The role of micronutrients has been extensively studied in recent decades, with the conclusion that proper daily nutrition and a proper balance of antioxidants, probiotics, natural agents, vitamin D, and calcium should be included in the prevention and treatment of periodontitis. The impact of nutraceutical dietary aliments on oral and overall health has recently piqued interest in the literature. An imbalance between host defence and environmental factors including smoking, poor nutrition, and a large percentage of periodontopathogenic bacteria is usually the cause of periodontal illnesses, chewing problems, and many destructive oral inflammatory diseases. For these reasons, It’s also crucial to pay attention to plaque control and boosting host resistance by quitting smoking, reducing stress, and eating a nutritious diet. Numerous clinical and experimental research have found a substantial link between periodontitis and a variety of systemic disorders, including cardiovascular disease, diabetes, lung disease, and pregnancy difficulties. The goal of this chapter was to examine the impact of diet, micronutrients, and macronutrients on oral health, as well as to present a current and thoughtful viewpoint on the interaction between diet and natural agents on oral and periodontal disorders, using a right clinical approach.

Author(s) Details

Dr. Gaetano Isola
Department of General Surgery and Surgical-Medical Specialties, School of Dentistry, University of Catania, Catania, Italy.

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An Advances Study Approach to Calculation of Proposed Recruitment by Clinical Sites on Stage of Feasibility to Clinical Trial of II – III Phases

Many clinical studies have failed due to a lack of required per protocol enrollment of participant patients. During the feasibility stage, the PI of clinical sites announces the recruitment of subjects in centralised trials. This is a subjective choice made by the investigator based on a holistic approach that includes factors such as experience, disease occurrence, and a variety of other factors. On the stage of feasibility, an objective approach such as calculation appears to be required for the calculation of suggested recruitment. Materials and Methods: data from four clinical trials II-III stages conducted between 2007 and 2017 were analysed retrospectively. Study Goals: To determine the method for calculating the proposed by sites recruiting on a specific study on the basis of feasibility. Data was acquired from feasibility questionnaires and available statistical sources for statistical analysis. Results: A formula for calculating planned patient recruitment on the feasibility stage was proposed. Discussion: Patient recruitment could be calculated, reducing the number of failed clinical studies. The calculation was dubbed “Calculated proposed recruitment of patients” or “CPRP.”

Author(s) Details

Svyatoslav Milovanov
Department of Physician, Moscow Москва, Russia.

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A Cross-Sectional Study of Staff Nurses’ Awareness and Practices about Standard Precautions in a Tertiary Care Hospital in South Karnataka

Hospital-acquired infections are illnesses acquired in a hospital or other healthcare facility where the sickness was not present or incubating at the time of admission (HAIs). Infections among the facility’s health care personnel, as well as illnesses acquired in the hospital but showing up after discharge, are covered. Nurses have a vital role in the control and prevention of HAIs in all health-care settings, and their knowledge and practises are critical. The purpose of this study was to see how well-informed and how well-practiced conventional precautions are among the staff nurses. Materials and Methods: The current study was a hospital-based descriptive study that took place at Chamarajanagar Institute of Medical Sciences in Chamarajanagar from January to March 2017. Simple random sampling was used to choose 40 staff nurses, and data was obtained using a pretested and semi-structured questionnaire. The statistical analysis was carried out using Microsoft Office Excel 2007. The majority of respondents, 35 (87.5%), were aware of the Infection Control Committee (ICC) and the Central Supply and Sterilization Department (CSSD), and more than 90% were aware of segregation and disposal according to BMW rules. Before and after touching patients, the majority of staff nurses, 38 (95 percent), washed their hands and put on personal protection equipment. Despite the fact that more than half of the study participants, 23 (57.5%), had suffered a needle stick injury, only 19 (47.5%) of them reported it and sought treatment. Hepatitis B vaccinations were given to 24 (60%) of the staff nurses. Conclusion: The current study shows that staff nurses have an adequate level of knowledge and practise when it comes to conventional precautions, and it also identifies numerous areas where educational interventions are needed.

Author(s) Details

Dr. Trupti B. Naik
Department of Microbiology, Chamarajanagar Institute of Medical Sciences, Chamarajanagar, Karnataka, India.

L. Bhageerathi
Department of Microbiology, Chamarajanagar Institute of Medical Sciences, Chamarajanagar, Karnataka, India.

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Informal Health Care Service Provider: A Health Protection Challenge for Developing Countries

There were less than 2.5 health workers per 1000 persons in 75 nations. According to the World Health Report, countries with less than 2.28 doctors, nurses, and midwives per 1000 population failed to meet the goal of 80 percent skilled birth attendance and child vaccination. Patients, especially the poor and disadvantaged, have been driven to seek health care from the informal sector, which is more socially and community based. A suitable formal health workforce is required to construct an effective, efficient, and equitable health system that improves population health. There is a scarcity of it, as well as a crisis. Healthcare seeking isn’t just a natural human tendency. The sum of ef Transform unregistered health care service providers (HCSP) into well-trained, government-registered HCSP. It would be able to prevent malpractice, ensure consistency in treatment, and hold people responsible for referrals. Data was gathered from both primary and secondary sources. There was a face-to-face interview and a focus group discussion. Illiterate (no education) and literate (finished primary school to a higher degree of education) people seek for informal healthcare providers. Households with earnings ranging from $10,000 to $30,000 were divided into three categories: low, middle, and high. People aged zero to sixty can seek health care from a traditional healer (kobiraj), homoeopathy, RMP, or drug seller.

Author(s) Details

Rafia Rahman
University of Dhaka, Bangladesh.

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Determining the Impact of the Interactions of CYP2B6*6 and CYP2A6 Polymorphisms on the Treatment of Nicotine Dependence

Introduction: Nicotine metabolising enzymes CYP2B6 and CYP2A6 have been linked to nicotine addiction treatment. Despite evidence that they may interact to influence nicotine dependence treatment outcomes in terms of nicotine dependence and withdrawal syndromes, as well as therapy kinds (placebo, bupropion, and NRT), their role in nicotine cessation has yet to be thoroughly proven and understood. Methods: A total of 1862 persons, including Caucasians and African Americans, were studied. Nicotine dependence and withdrawal syndrome were assessed using the Fagerström Test for Nicotine Dependency (FTND) and Wisconsin Inventory of Smoking Dependence Motives (WISDM), respectively. Before reporting their quitting status six months later, participants had to smoke at least ten cigarettes per day and use one of three types of therapy (placebo, NRT, or bupropion) for two weeks. For nicotine genotype analysis, participants were also tested for SNPs CYP2A6*1A (rs1137115), *1H (rs616636070),*4A (rs28399434), *9A (rs28399443),*12A (rs28399442), and CYP2B6*6 (rs3745274). With p-values > 0.05, the chi-squared test demonstrated that gene variants were consistently distributed in the population. CYP2A6*4A was most significantly associated with the odds ratio (OR) of quitting smoking in each treatment group with nicotine dependence syndrome (OR=1.61, 95 percent CI 1.31-1.96), and *4A in individuals with nicotine withdrawal syndrome (OR=1.70, 95 percent CI 1.15-1.95), according to logistic regression analysis. The ANOVA test demonstrated a significant main interaction impact between CYP2B6*6, *1A, *4A, and *12A gene variations in the bupropion group. Conclusion: CYP2A6 and CYP2B6*6 may work together to increase nicotine addiction therapy success.

Author(s) Details

Dr. Yawo Akrodou
Department of Public Health, Walden University Minneapolis, USA.

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