The Relationship between Value Creation and Subsidiarity within Public Administration

The process of change being undertaken by public administration in recent years leaves us, as citizens, surprised by the intensity and the constancy of the efforts being made in rethinking both reference systems as well as organizational procedures adopted by public institutions to provide services to communities. This concept can be summarized by the term “corporatization” of public administration. The prevailing business model is a stakeholder oriented model, in which a company is conceptualized as the centre of a network of interests in which stakeholders are the subjects that make up the administrative community: citizens, public administrations, providers of goods and services, investors, employees and interest groups. Within this context, in order to proceed uninterrupted and with constant forward momentum, public administration must work to ensure the simultaneous satisfaction of diverse interests.

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An Empirical Case Study of Sada Shiv Modern Group in Kandi Area of Punjab

Self help groups (SHGs) have been instrumental in women empowerment by enabling them to work together. Members engaged in food processing activities have the potential to empower them through the capacity building that underpins sustainable agriculture. The findings of the study reveals that women who never used to step outside the four walls of their home is now becoming business women and supplementing their family income. The results indicates that majority of the respondents are young, matriculates, labourers, belongs to SC category, have family size of 4-6 members and earn up to Rs. 65000 per annum. The economic benefits gained from enrolling in the groups are found to be high in terms of selling products individually, understand banking operations to avail credit facility, develop courage to think independently, understand group activity and manage group activities after joining the group. Furthermore the social empowerment of the members in terms of team spirit, talking freely within family, confidence in dealing with people is enhanced. It indicates that self help groups bring economic upliftment, leadership skills in managing the group and inculcate great confidence in the members of selected groups to succeed in their day to day life.

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Creativity versus Innovativeness: Exploring the Differences between the Two Constructs May Lead to Greater Innovation in Large Firms

Several individuals from top management seem to be confused about the difference between creativity and innovativeness. [1] suggests that while innovation begins with creative ideas, creativity by individuals and teams is only a starting point for innovation. Individual creativity is necessary but not sufficient to yield breakthrough innovation in organizations. This can sometimes cause confusion in employee development efforts and actions taken by management. Companies often look for ways to hire and retain creative employees and at the same time they are also interested in establishing a creative environment for knowledge workers… but should creativity be the primary focus? These firms hope that creativity enhancing steps will eventually lead to greater innovation and therefore help it to achieve sustained competitive advantage. This paper attempts to demonstrate that there are potentially other dimensions beyond creativity related to innovativeness, which should be considered at the individual level in order to foster innovation in firms. Empirical results in this study support the idea that intrinsic motivational orientation, sociability and political astuteness are enhancers to employee innovativeness while perfection seeking behavior detracts employee innovativeness. These findings may serve to extend Amabile’s [1] componential framework to center on the “innovativeness” construct versus creativity to help explain how firms need to hire, cultivate and retain the right talent.

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Impact of Vermicomposting Training Programme on Production, Economics and Employment Generation of Farmer – A Case Study

Vermicomposting technology is a simple and quick process of converting farm waste into valuable compost which in-turn acts as a source of the organic amendment for improving soil health enhancing crop production, in which certain species of earthworms are used to enhance the process of waste conversion and produce a better end product. Vermicompost has at least four times more plant nutrients than conventional cattle dung compost. Vermicomposting is also act as a source of creating self employment and revenue generation. The technologies available at present in the field of agriculture have no relevance whatsoever if these are not reached and adopted by the farmers for the improvement of crop productivity. Krishi Vigyan Kendra is a district level knowledge centre formed under the policy guidance of Indian Council of Agricultural Research (ICAR) and which acts as the apex body to govern the Transfer of Technology (TOT) across the nation. One of the mandates of such district level knowledge centre is to provide vocational training to the farming individuals’ viz. farmer, farm women, rural youths, and unemployed school drop-outs. The farmers can learn the vermicomposting technology through hands on training and take-up this as a venture for additional income generation apart from crop husbandry and make this as one of the components in Integrated Farming System (IFS) for creating employment. Keeping this in view, the present study was undertaken to analyse the impact of vocational training in specific relevance to vermicomposting technology provided to the intended clientele group during 2012. The crux of the study was focused on the impact indicators like a) change in the level of production b) economics c) additional employment generated etc., on the intended clientele group. The present research study was confined to the operational cum jurisdictional area catered by Krishi Vigyan Kendra of Cuddalore district in the state of Tamil Nadu, India. One of the farmers by name Mr. V. Sekar of Kodukoor village in Cuddalore district attended the vocational training on vermicomposting organized by ICAR- KVK Cuddalore during 2012. Mr. V. Sekar got motivated and started a vermicomposting unit of size 6 x 2 x 2 feet with the technical guidance from KVK Cuddalore. The scientific validation of study revealed that Mr. V. Sekar was earning a net annual income of Rs. 1,15,500/- through the sale of vermicompost and earth worms, thereby generating an additional employment of 426 man-days per year. It was concluded that the vocational training and technical backstopping extended by the KVK Cuddalore was the most viable technology transformation tool in enhancing farmers’ income and employment generation.  So, vermi-composting is a potent technology to convert organic waste to valuable product and to provide additional income for farmers. The success of any production system basically depends on need, availability of inputs and marketing channels by which one can market with remunerative price by using locally available resources.  Some of the teething issues like marketing and linkages must be formulated by the policy makers to promote marketing of such farm products to sustain the farmers’ income and soil health in future so as to maintain nature ecology intact.

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Reviewing the Impact of Climate Change on Agriculture and Farm Households through Gender Lens

Climate change is one of the greatest global challenges of our time. Impact of climate change can be felt in many areas including agriculture. Agriculture is primary occupation of a human being. Among all the human activities, agriculture being the mostly weather dependent is physically and economically more vulnerable to climate change. With climate change looming in the scene, agriculture and livelihoods of the farm-households are also affected. Vulnerability to climate change is determined by many factors of which gender and poverty are important ones. The contribution and significance of women in agriculture and livelihood cannot be undermined. What impact climate change has, how much vulnerable people are and what adaptation and mitigation strategies they adopt varies with gender. The present paper is based on reviews from different journals, papers and secondary data. It reviews the relationship between climate change, agriculture and gender roles & relations. Climate change is found to have negative impact on Brazilian crop. Mortality rate of men during cyclone was found to be more in developed countries while more women in developing countries. In Amhara, women and women headed households were found to be more vulnerable to food insecurity during flood. Women and children were the one who were more affected by rainfall and drought. To cope up with drought most men farmer commit suicide or migrate to cities on the other hand women had to take up odd job like prostitution. During flood women of Bangladesh use sugar to reduce soil salinity, raise cultivable land to save it from water inundation during floods and spring surges as coping strategy. The various cases reviewed in this paper indicates that gender mainstreaming of climate change adaptation and mitigation interventions is the need of the time.

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Social Protection Activities of Self-help Groups in Southeast Nigeria: Looking Forward and Thinking Back

Aim: This paper focused on the social protection activities of self-help groups in Southeast Nigeria against the background of the 2030 global agenda for sustainable development.

Study Design: Systematic review of relevant literature enabled the study.

Place: Southeast Nigeria at Latitude 5⁰N and 7⁰30′ and Longitude 5⁰E and 10⁰E.

Methodology: This study reviewed related studies and drew attention to the nexus existing among social protection, self-help groups and the sustainable development goals. More specifically, this study drew attention to the fact that the informality of self-help groups and the formality of government social protection activities should be designed by policymakers to more sustainably benefit the people in line with the achievement of the sustainable development goals  and in relation to social protection. Additionally, this study focused on the current national social investment programmes in Nigeria and offered suggestions on how they can be better implemented through the agency of self-help groups.

Findings: The nexus existing among social protection, self-help groups and the sustainable development goals notwithstanding, there is no conscious effort by the government to, as a matter of deliberate policy, channel the social protection activities and services to the poor and the vulnerable through self-help groups in Southeast Nigeria. Furthermore, the government social protection activities under the national social investment programmes in Nigeria are confronted with some challenges associated with the delivery mechanism. As though it is business as usual, the challenges had confronted past social protection activities. There was no form of synergy among the self-help groups as they operated as stand alone. This lack of synergy tends to limit the possibility of the characteristically informal groups to be linked to the more sustainable formal social protection services.

Conclusion: As we look forward achieving the sustainable development goals as they relate to social protection, now is the time to think back on the sustainability of the implementation and delivery mechanism especially as it relates to reaching recipients through active and functional self-help groups.

Assessment of the Contributions of the Bank of Agriculture to Cassava Production in Isoko North Local Government Area of Delta State, Nigeria

The study was conducted to assess the contribution of the Bank of Agriculture to cassava production in Isoko North Local Government Area. A simple random sampling technique was employed in the selection of six (6) towns and twelve (12) local cassava farmers from each of this six towns. The sample size was seventy two (72). Both primary and secondary data were used in the study. Data analysis was done using descriptive statistics and the chi-square test was used to test the hypothesis. The study showed that only 30.6% of the farmers had access to credit facilities. The average amount of credit obtained was N186, 500. A proportion of 54.2% of the respondents obtained N51, 000 to N100, 000. About 13.9%obtained N161, 000 to N 200,000. A negligible proportion of 8.35% obtained above N210, 000.The average farm size of the farmers is 3.5  hectares The results of the chi-square test shows that the farmers that had access to credit have statistically significant higher output and farm size than those farmers that did not have access. However, there was no significant difference in the farm capital and expenditure values between those farmers that had access and those that did not. Although the Bank of Agriculture has made some significant contribution in the provision of credit for cassava production, the credit facilities are not adequate for the farmers to expand their farm holdings in order to increase cassava production in the study area.

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Business Risk Management and the Performance of Deposit Money Banks in Nigeria

This study investigated the effect of business risk management on the performance of Deposit Money banks in Nigeria for the period 1997 to 2016. The study adopted credit risk, liquidity risk and capital adequacy risk as proxies for business risk management and return on assets as the measure of performance of Deposit Money banks. Secondary data was collected from the annual financial statements of listed banks and the Nigerian Stock Exchange fact book. The study employed multiple regression technique based on the E-views 7 software for analysis of data. The results of the analysis indicated that credit risk and liquidity risk had positive and significant effect on return on asset, while capital adequacy risk had negative and insignificant effect on return on asset. The study concluded that business risk management affected the performance of banks in Nigeria. Based on the findings, the study recommended that the management of banks should establish sound lending policies, adequate credit administration procedure, and effective and efficient machinery to monitor the lending function in line with established guidelines. Also, the character and financial statement of the borrower must be properly scrutinized and a careful evaluation of the customer’s credit worthiness be carried out before extending loan facilities to potential borrowers.

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Adoption of Precision Technologies in Bitter Gourd (Momordica charantia L.) Cultivation at Thottiyam Block of Tiruchirappalli District

Agricultural extension system is the primary delivery system for information to farmers. Agricultural extension has the potential to stimulate agricultural development and is often used as a tool for implementing government policy. Available agricultural technology does not serve its purpose till it reaches and adopted by it ultimate users, the farmers.  The present study was conducted in Thottiyam block of Tiruchirappalli district to assess the adoption of precision technologies in bitter gourd cultivation. Totally 90 farmers were selected for the study. A schedule was developed to know the adoption level of the bitter gourd cultivation through precision technologies and the adoption level was ranked based on the adoption status. From this study high extent of adoption of precision technologies viz., field preparation specified farm implements, recommended spacing, neem cake application at last ploughing, stakes to reach the pandal, growth regulators (ethrel 100 ppm) spray to increase fruit setting and marketing through integrated approach (Rank I) in bitter gourd cultivation was observed among the Krishi Vigyan Kendra adopted farmers compared to the non adopted farmers. It was concluded that the technology transformation tools like farmers field school, demonstration, training and exposure visit had increasing effect to enhance the production and productivity of crops. Farmer’s knowledge and attitudes towards the technology adoption can be increased more effectively through extension activities. Agricultural extension programmes and farming education are the main instruments of the government policy to improve the agricultural productivity by adopting advanced production technologies. By adopting advanced production technologies.

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Relationship between Service Quality, Customer Satisfaction and Customer Loyalty in Retail Outlets; A SEM PLS Approach

In this era of competitiveness, organizations compete in service quality to satisfy their customers. Primary data for the study was collected by direct interview method using retail service quality scale from eighty customers who visited the retail outlets that sold chilled chicken and meat products exclusively under its own brand name in Coimbatore city of Tamil Nadu state. This study was undertaken to assess the interrelationships between three constructs namely service quality attributes, customer satisfaction and customer loyalty by developing a model and analyzed using SEM PLS method. The retail service quality model consisted of five dimensions like physical appearance, reliability, personal interaction, problem solving and policy that were framed as structural model. This model measured the strength of the five dimensions in estimating the retail service quality constructs and the results indicated the policy improvements needed by the case firm for enhancing their retail service quality. The results of the study indicated that customer satisfaction and customer loyalty were dependent on retail service quality whereas customer loyalty to a particular store was not completely depended on satisfaction alone.

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