New Platelet Concentrates Useful in Tissue Repair. Platelet-rich Fibrin with Leukocytes (L-PRF), Advanced Platelet-Rich Fibrin (A-PRF) and Injectable Platelet-rich Fibrin (i-PRF)

Tissue engineering is a growing multidisciplinary area that tries to regenerate, enhance, or replace predicted damaged or missing tissues for a variety of disorders caused by trauma, disease, and ageing. To ensure that tissue engineering procedures are extensively used in clinical practise, they must be modified so that they are readily available and reasonably simple to utilise in regular clinical practise. To make realistic implementation, the steps between preparation and application must be minimised and optimised. The overall goal is to develop natural platelet concentrates that can be manufactured near to the patient and speed up the implantation procedure while remaining financially feasible for both the patient and the health system. For soft tissue regeneration, fibrin rich in platelets and leukocytes (PRF) and its derivatives (L-PRF, A-PRF, i-PRF) have been employed in a range of medical sectors. In groups evaluated following PRF membrane extraction, almost all platelets (> 97%) are missing from test tubes.

Other cell types involved in tissue repair, such as smooth cell muscles (SMCs) and mesenchymal stem cells, are induced and controlled by growth factors released by platelets found in derivatives of L-PRF (MSCs).

Finally, the findings of this study show that PRF has a good influence on wound healing following surgery.

Author(s) Details

Alessandro Crisci
Department of Medicine, Surgery and Dentistry “Salernitan Medical School”, University of Salerno, Fisciano (SA), Italy and United of Derma Surgery, Skin Transplants and Difficult Wounds, “Villa Fiorita” Nursing Home, Aversa (CE), Italy.

View Book:- https://stm.bookpi.org/NPCUTR/article/view/2100

Insight into Drugs Induce Liver Toxicity

In the human body, the liver is a vital organ. It has a variety of activities, including metabolism, immunity, digestion, detoxification, and vitamin storage, among others.

Non-reactive chemicals are thought to be biotransformed in two phases: functionalization, which involves the use of oxygen to create a reactive site, and conjugation, which involves the addition of a water-soluble group to the reactive site. Phase I and phase II detoxification refer to the two phases of functionalization and conjugation, respectively. As a result, a lipophilic chemical that cannot be expelled in urine is biotransformed into a water-soluble compound that can be eliminated in urine. The liver is the primary organ engaged in drug and xenobiotic metabolism and detoxification.

There are three stages of drug metabolism. The superfamily of CYP monooxygenases is involved in phase I drug oxidation. Phase I reactions can convert prodrugs to active forms and xenobiotics to benign molecules, but they can also increase the toxicity of the metabolites in some cases. Phase II processes include sulfation, methylation, and glucuronidation to improve the solubility of oxidised metabolites, which are released by phase III drug transporters found in the membranes of hepatocytes, intestinal cells, kidneys, and other organs for excretion.

A drug-induced liver injury (DILI) is a liver injury caused by exposure to a medication or a non-infectious toxic substance that causes organ dysfunction in varying degrees.

From a pharmacological standpoint, two types of DILI can be distinguished: dose-dependent and dose-independent or idiosyncratic. Direct toxicity, also known as dose-dependent DILI, is predictable, repeatable, and develops quickly after consuming a dose that exceeds a recognised hazardous threshold. The damage entity is proportional to the dose given. DILI that is idiosyncratic, on the other hand, is unpredictable and frequently occurs at therapeutic levels. The quantity of damage is not necessarily proportionate to the injected dose, and the time it takes for harm to appear varies greatly.

DILI can cause mitochondrial impairment, biliary efflux inhibition, lysosomal impairment, endoplasmic reticulum stress, production of reactive metabolites leading to chemical stress, oxidative stress, and protein modification, as well as triggering innate and adaptive immune responses and causing cytokine activation. All of these manifestations have the potential to harm the liver.

Acute hepatic necrosis, elevated enzymes, acute hepatitis, cholestatic hepatitis, mixed hepatitis, chronic hepatitis, bland cholestasis, acute fatty liver disease, lactic acidosis, hepatic failure, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, sinusoidal obstruction syndrome, and nodular regenerative hyperplasia are all phenotypes of DILI.

Author(s) Details

Dheaa Shamikh Zageer
Forensic DNA Center For Research and Training/ Al-Nahrain University, Baghdad, Iraq.

Sundus Fadhil Hantoosh
Forensic DNA Center For Research and Training/ Al-Nahrain University, Baghdad, Iraq.

View Book:- https://stm.bookpi.org/IDILT/article/view/2098

Cerebral Ischemia Reperfusion Injury

Ischemic stroke is characterised by ischemia-reperfusion damage, which happens when blood flow is restored after a period of ischemia. Thrombolysis with thrombolytic reagents such tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) or mechanical removal can be used to restore blood flow. Ischemia causes inflammation by causing the production of Nf-kb, adhesion molecules, and the upregulation of toll-like receptors, whereas reperfusion causes the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), the opening of the mitochondrial pore, inflammation, and apoptosis. Nrf2 has anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective effects through boosting gene expression of anti-oxidant components. Furthermore, Nrf2 activators were discovered to suppress HMGB1-induced inflammation and ROS-induced brain injury, as well as to minimise p38 MAPK overexpression, which can lower NF-kB expression.

Author(s) Detalis

Najah R. Hadi
Faculty of Medicine University of Kufa, Iraq.

Saif M. Hassan
Pharmacology and therapeutics, Al Zahrawi University College, Iraq.

Mahmood J. Jawad
Pharmacology and therapeutics, Al Zahrawi University College, Iraq.

Wajdy Alawaida
Department of Biology and Biotechnology, American University of Madaba, Madaba, Jordan, P. O. Box: 2882 Amman 11821 Jordan.

View Book:- https://stm.bookpi.org/CIRI/article/view/2096

Anticancer and Antiinflammatory Effects of Bamboo Salt

Salt, as an inorganic molecule, plays a critical function in controlling muscle metabolism and permeability. It is stated that in ancient days, food was consumed raw without any added salt, but that during the cooking process, salt was obtained. Natural salt and refined salt are the two types of salt defined by the KS specification. Mechanical salt and processed salt are two types of refined salt. Ion exchange is used to mass create mechanical salt, and processed salt, such as roasted salt and bamboo salt, is heated. Bamboo salt is not the same as regular salt. It is high in inorganic compounds that the human body requires. It has an impact on a variety of disorders. It has therapeutic effects on gastritis, gastric ulcers, digestive system illnesses, trauma treatment, and detoxification, among other things. In addition, we published the findings of an experiment using toothpaste containing bamboo salt to lower the amount of Streptococcus in the mouth and alleviate gingivitis symptoms. The physicochemical characteristics, antioxidant, and anticancer effects of bamboo salt were investigated in this work. Bamboo salt particles are uneven and lack evident morphology, whereas natural salt is found in a variety of forms on a regular basis. Bamboo salt has a grain size that is about ten times smaller than sea salt. Furthermore, while the crystal lattice of bamboo salt is damaged, the crystal lattice distortion in the solar salt structure cannot be generated. As a result, bamboo salt crystallisation and lattice distortion indicate that the stable state energy of the bamboo salt structure is larger. Bamboo salt is a novel material having a greater energy state than sea salt and refined salt, and it is thought to be quite distinct from regular salt. Bamboo salt had a better DPPH antioxidant impact than sea salt and refined salt, and Rubus coreanus bamboo salt had a better antioxidant effect than 9 times bamboo salt. The results of anti mutation of Rubus coreanu bamboo salt and the 9 times bamboo salt appeared, and other salt had mutation impact, based on self salt directly generating mutation causes and MNNG Ames test. HCT-116 human colorectal cancer cells, HT-29 human colon cancer cells, and AGS human gastric cancer cells were used in an in vitro anticancer investigation with bamboo salt using the MTT method. The anticancer impact of bamboo salt is 15% higher than that of sea and sun salt at 1% concentration, according to the findings. Raspberry bamboo salt has a better anticancer impact in vitro than 9 times bamboo salt. Bamboo salt had the best influence on the expression of Bax, Bcl-2, iNOS, COX-2 mRNA and protein expression. In vivo metastasis tests revealed that raspberry bamboo salt and bamboo salt were anti-cancer, whereas sea salt and solar salt were cancer-causing. The defence effect on AST, ALT, and LDH reduction was also implicated in the liver protective action of CCl4 injection on Rubus coreanus bamboo salt in soy sauce. iNOS, COX-2, TNF-, IL-1, and other anti-inflammatory actions were also seen. On raspberries bamboo salt, 9 times bamboo salt, and 3 times bamboo salt, the stomach protective effects of HCl ethanol were greater than those of sea salt and sun salt. Omeprazole and Rubus coreanu bamboo salt produced similar effects. The antioxidant, anticancer, and anti-inflammatory properties of bamboo salt and Rubus coreanu bamboo salt, on the other hand, are superior to those of sea salt and sun salt, which must be validated on a regular basis.

Author(s) Details

Dr. Xin Zhao
Chongqing University of Education, China.

View Book:- https://stm.bookpi.org/AAEBS/article/view/1896

Uncover Ginseng

Ginseng is an adaptogen that is found in seventeen different species and belongs to the Araliaceae family. Ginseng’s active ingredients are known as ginsenosides. The human body benefits from ginsenosides in a variety of ways. Immunomodulatory, anti-proliferative, anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidative, and anti-aging are some of the dynamic and multifunctional capabilities of ginsenosides. The mechanisms of ginsenosides’ positive effects in the human body are discussed in this book in a straightforward and accurate manner.

Author(s) Detalis

Kartikeya Tiwari
Department of Microbiology, International Medical School, Management and Science University, Shah Alam, Selangor, Malaysia.

View Book:- https://stm.bookpi.org/UG/article/view/1889

Epigenetic Sensitisation of Chemotherapeutic Compounds in Non- Small Cell Lung Cancer

Lung cancer is now the leading cause of cancer-related death worldwide, with 1.7 million fatalities in 2018. The most common kind of lung cancer is non-small cell carcinoma (NSCLC), which accounts for about 80% of all occurrences. In most countries, chemotherapy is still the first-line treatment for NSCLC patients. Chemotherapy is expected to be utilised for at least another two decades, despite the development of novel medicines (targeted chemicals, immunotherapy). Chemotherapy resistance is one of the key variables contributing to lung cancer mortality, and it has been well established in preclinical investigations and clinical trials to date. Currently, there are only a few biomarkers for predicting chemotherapy efficacy, most of which are clinical. Furthermore, clinically, sensitization of cancer cells to such chemicals is largely useless. This research looks into new ways for lung cancer cells to become sensitive to four standard chemotherapeutics (cisplatin, carboplatin, gemcitabine, and vinorelbine), with a focus on epigenetics and the involvement of extracellular vesicles. Cloning, inducible transgene expression, shRNA-based silencing, proliferation and apoptosis assays, the neutral comet assay, RT-qPCR, pyrosequencing-based DNA methylation analysis, and other molecular and cell biology methods (cloning, inducible transgene expression, shRNA-based silencing, proliferation and apoptosis assays, the neutral comet assay, RT-qPCR I examined a wide range of factors in connection to drug resistance in NSCLC cell lines (e.g., western blots, EV isolation and characterization). Resistant cell lines were chosen for sensitization with epigenetic medicines (VPA and DAC), aminomethylphosphonic acid (AMPA), and fendiline after the IC50 of each of the four medications was determined in eight NSCLC cell lines.

VPA showed strong chemotherapeutic sensitization potential for all four chemotherapeutics, which is a first for lung cancer cells. In cells treated with cisplatin or carboplatin, both VPA and DAC caused a considerable increase in apoptotic activity. Gemcitabine produced double strand DNA breaks in the NSCLC cell lines A549, CALU-6, and COR-L23, and pre-treatment with VPA amplified this impact, which was also a novel discovery in this investigation.

I also looked at the role of LANCL1-AS1, a long-noncoding RNA that was shown to be reduced in NSCLC tissues by our research team. Following the establishment of an inducible expression model in the SK-MES-1 cell line, it was discovered that LANCL1-AS1 induced an increase in proliferation rate, migration invasion, sensitivity to gemcitabine and vinorelbine, increased resistance to platin compounds, and, most notably, expression of its coding counterpart gene, LANCL1. The LANCL1 shRNA-based silencing resulted in a reduction in proliferation, migration, and oxidative stress sensitivity. However, sensitivity to all four medications followed the same pattern as overexpression of LANCL1-AS1, raising doubts about whether these two activities are connected or separate, with no way to rule out the possibility of off-target effects from the shRNA method at this time.

The function of extracellular vesicles (EVs) in cancer development and medication resistance has just lately been studied. As a result, I decided to see if the LANCL1-AS1-dependent gemcitabine sensitivity could be transferred to EVs. Increased LANCL1-AS1 expression resulted in a dose-dependent increase in EV release. Unfortunately, due to a variety of technical concerns with the EV isolation reagent’s toxicity, knowledge of how LANCL1-AS1 produced EVs affect gemcitabine resistance when transmitted to a recipient cell line was not possible. Finally, this research has revealed some new insights towards sensitising NSCLC cells in a preclinical setting. More research is needed to determine whether these findings are clinically useful and how they might alter lung cancer treatment.

Author(s) Details

Ghaliah Obaid F. Alnefaie
Medical Genetic Department, Taif University, Taif, Saudi Arabia.

View Book:- https://stm.bookpi.org/ESCCNSCLC/article/view/1837

A Ten-year Review of Reproductive Outcome Following Abdominal Myomectomy at the University of Port Harcourt Teaching Hospital

Fertility preservation is an essential consideration following an abdominal myomectomy, particularly for patients who are infertile. According to studies, 57 percent of women who have had a myomectomy are able to conceive. The connection between uterine fibroids and infertility is still a mystery.

The aim of this study was to see how women fared after having an abdominal myomectomy.

Methodologies: Between January 1, 2003, and December 31, 2012, all cases of uterine fibroid admitted to the gynaecological ward of the University of Port Harcourt Teaching Hospital were studied retrospectively. SPSS version 20 was used to code and analyse the data.

Results: Uterine fibroid was responsible for 523 (12.2%) of the 4287 gynaecological admissions during the study era. The median age was 33 years and 2 months. Nulliparous women had the highest rate of pregnancy at 43.4 percent. Infertile women in the sample population had a pregnancy rate of 24.4 percent after abdominal myomectomy. Within two years of their abdominal myomectomy, twenty women became pregnant. This accounted for 32.78 percent of the 61 infertile patients who had no other reason for their infertility. Four patients (20%) had unintended abortions, seven (35%) had spontaneous vaginal deliveries, and nine (45%) had elective abortions. Four patients (20%) had spontaneous abortions, seven (35%) had spontaneous vaginal deliveries, and nine (45%) had elective caesarean deliveries.

Infertility is one of the most common reasons why women choose myomectomy. This research, on the other hand, shows that the association between abdominal myomectomy and pregnancy outcome is rational.

Author (s) Details

S. Eli
Mother and Baby Care Global Foundation, Nigeria and Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, University of Port Harcourt Teaching Hospital, Nigeria

D. S. Abam
Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, University of Port Harcourt Teaching Hospital, Nigeria

D. G. B. Kalio
Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Braithwaite Memorial Specialist Hospital, Nigeria

D. K. O. Pepple
Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Braithwaite Memorial Specialist Hospital, Nigeria

 Nwosu
Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, University of Port Harcourt Teaching Hospital, Nigeria

K. Green
Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, University of Port Harcourt Teaching Hospital, Nigeria

J. Ikimalo
Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, University of Port Harcourt Teaching Hospital, Nigeria

View Book :- https://stm.bookpi.org/RTCMS-V10/article/view/719

Anatomic Neck Triangles, Revisited

Anatomical Neck Triangles are fictitious in several ways. Their importance in a variety of surgical specialties is immeasurable.

Anatomy is the topic of basic medical sciences that is most likely to be overlooked. None of the other topics compare in terms of the number of mnemonics mentioned or invented.

Medical students in their junior years are required to memorise anatomy with little or limited knowledge of its clinical significance. When it comes to anatomy knowledge, that can be very difficult for them compared to those who are already enrolled in a surgical residency training programme.

Surgeons who specialise or function exclusively in a specific anatomic area become specialists and popular in their profession and in that particular procedure, mostly because they become oriented to that region’s anatomy subconsciously.

Many who work on different anatomical regions, on the other hand, always need to brush up on their anatomy knowledge. As a result, mnemonics are beneficial to medical practitioners at all levels.

The Neck, like a three-way connector, represents a comparatively limited transfer zone or passage of various tissue structures besides great vessels and nerves between the Head, Chest, and Upper Extremities. It would have been extremely difficult to discuss or talk about neck-related interventional or surgical procedures without the idea of Neck triangles.

The author had long considered and applied the principle of simulating Neck triangles to a Bird-like creature. We’re going to describe an imaginary mnemonic to aid in the recall and drawing of those triangles. A flying Bat is used as an analogy.

Author (s) Details

Badr M. I. Abdulrauf
Section of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research Center, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia

View Book :- https://stm.bookpi.org/RTCMS-V10/article/view/718

AMSAN Type of Guillain Barre Syndrome- Case Report

Guillain-Barré syndrome is an autoimmune disorder characterised by acute idiopathic polyneuritis. In the peripheral nervous system, this is known as Monophasic Immune Mediated Disorder (MIMD) and acute inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy. In a 100,000-person population, about 1-3 people were affected. Guillain-Barre Syndrome has two subtypes: AMAN and AMSAN (GBS). This disease’s precise cause is unknown. GBS causes respiratory paralysis in 2-12 percent of those who contract it. Immunoglobulins and plasmapheresis are often used to treat this disease and are considered normal therapy. A case of an 18-year-old male patient with generalised weakness for 10 days and ascending paralysis followed by descending paralysis for one day is presented. It was determined that the patient had AMSAN type GBS based on family history and nerve conduction studies. Steroids, Nutrition Therapy, and Physiotherapy were used to treat the patient’s condition. In this patient, the combinational therapy was successful and aided in a faster recovery.

Author (s) Details

Ravi Chander Thatipelli
Vaagdevi Pharmacy College, Bollikunta, Warangal, India.

Pavani Thota
Vaagdevi Pharmacy College, Bollikunta, Warangal, India.

View Book :- https://stm.bookpi.org/RTCMS-V10/article/view/717

Congenital Insensitivity to Pain and Anhidrosis: A Case Report and Review

The first paragraph is an introduction. Hereditary sensory and autonomic neuropathy type IV, also known as congenital insensitivity to pain and anhidrosis (CIPA), is a very uncommon condition. The syndrome is described by three clinical findings: pain sensitivity, inability to sweat, and mental retardation. A genetic mutation in the NTRK1 gene, which encodes a tyrosine receptor (TrkA) for nerve growth factor, causes this disease (NGF).

Methods: A visit to our centre by a young female with CIPA and a tibia fracture in pseudoarthrosis prompted us to closely study the literature and consider the therapeutic options. CIPA and other related medical issues listed in the paper were subjected to a detailed review of literature published in Pubmed.

Conclusions: CIPA’s therapeutic approach is still unknown. The best way to cure CIPA is to prevent it from happening in the first place. We suggest two important new concepts in the care of these patients: (1) early surgical treatment for long bone fractures to prevent pseudoarthrosis and enable early weight bearing, reducing the risk of further osteopenia; and (2) bisphosphonates to prevent osteopenia progression and reduce the number of consecutive fractures. When evaluating a patient with insensitivity to pain, anhidrosis, and self-mutilation, CIPA must be the first diagnostic hypothesis considered.

Author (s) Details

L. M. Pérez-López
Pediatric Orthopaedic Surgery Department, Sant Joan de Deu´ Children’s Hospital, University of Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain

M. Cabrera-González
Pediatric Orthopaedic Surgery Department, Sant Joan de Deu´ Children’s Hospital, University of Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain

D. Gutiérrez-de la Iglesia
Pediatric Orthopaedic Surgery Department, Sant Joan de Deu´ Children’s Hospital, University of Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain

S. Ricart
Pediatric Rheumatology Department, Sant Joan de Deu´ Children’s Hospital, University of Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain

View Book :- https://stm.bookpi.org/RTCMS-V10/article/view/716