Practical Manual for Herbal Drug Technology

The purpose of this book, named “Practical Manual for Herbal Drug Technology,” is to provide information on herbal medications, herbal formulations, herbal excipients, herbal cosmetics, and nutraceuticals. The book covers the fundamentals of determining the alcohol level of ayurvedic formulations such as Arista and Asava, as well as the determination of aldehyde, phenol, and total alkaloid in herbs. It focuses on phytochemical screening of crude pharmaceuticals, as well as the preparation and evaluation of herbal formulations such as creams, lotions, shampoos, syrups, pills, and mixes in accordance with pharmacopeial standards. The monograph analysis of several herbal medications according to the Indian pharmacopoeia is also covered in the book. As herbal pharmaceuticals become more popular around the world, this book will be extremely useful in explaining several basic ideas to students and consumers.

Author(S) Details

S. Lakshmi Devi
Department of Pharmacognosy, College of Pharmacy, Sri Ramakrishna Institute of Paramedical Sciences, Coimbatore – 44, India.

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Differential Diagnosis of Amyloid Deposits by Light, Polarization and Electron Microscopy

The differential diagnosis of amyloid deposits detected by light, polarisation, and electron microscopy is the subject of this book.

The histologic, histochemical, immunohistochemical, and electron microscopic characteristics of the major forms of systemic and isolated amyloidosis are described.

Systemic amyloidosis is linked to the circulatory system, and the precursor spreads through the bloodstream; vessel walls are always involved, whether or not there is extravascular amyloid deposition.

Isolated amyloidosis is an extravascular phenomena that affects just one organ or tissue; its predecessors are not connected to the systemic circulation, and the vessel walls are spared; the process is isolated and does not involve blood vessels.

The most common kinds of systemic and localised amyloid deposits can be distinguished using basic immunohistochemical procedures.

Immunohistochemical examination of diverse amyloid deposits can be challenging, especially when the deposits are small and have a lot of background staining.

This book explains and illustrates histochemical methods for distinguishing between the most common systemic and isolated forms of amyloidosis.

In laboratories where electronmicroscopy, genomic DNA sequence analysis, or amino acid sequence identification techniques are not available, the histochemical procedures are recommended for widespread usage.

The current study and documentation are based on biopsy and autopsy material from the National Institute of Rheumatology’s Department of Pathology, as well as material sent in consultation throughout a thirty-year period.

The Appendix summarises the most important applicable methods. The methods used are simple to use and can be found in basic diagnostic facilities all around the world.

The findings are well-documented, including numbers and microphotographs to back them up.

All physicians and pathologists who work with or are interested in amyloidosis should read this book. The text is written in a way that both rheumatologists and general practitioners may understand.

Author(S) Details

Miklós Bély
Department of Pathology, Hospital of the Order of the Brothers of Saint John of God in Budapest, Hungary.

Ágnes Apáthy
Department of Rheumatology, St. Margaret Clinic Budapest, Hungary.

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Role of Ambulatory Blood Pressure Monitoring in Management of Hypertension in Patients with Chronic Kidney Disease on Hemodialysis

Background: Chronic kidney disease (CKD) and hypertension (HTN) are closely linked, and either can cause or aggravate the other. When compared to office blood pressure, ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM) has successfully detected hypertensive CKD patients at elevated risk. ABPM provides data on circadian and short-term blood pressure fluctuation, both of which are linked to cardiovascular and renal outcomes. The role of ambulatory blood pressure monitoring in the management of hypertension in patients with chronic renal disease who are on hemodialysis on a regular basis is examined in this review.

The purpose of this study is to look into the role of ambulatory blood pressure monitoring in the management of hypertension in patients with chronic kidney disease who are on hemodialysis on a regular basis, as well as the correlation between intradialytic blood pressure and ambulatory blood pressure monitoring.

Methods: This was an observational study of CKD patients who underwent ABPM in a tertiary care centre and were on hemodialysis for more than a month. Data was gathered from clinical and ABPM records.

The study looked at a total of 100 hypertensive CKD patients. Intradialytic blood pressure was found to have a statistically significant relationship with ambulatory blood pressure. The 24 hour mean SBP, active period SBP, and passive period SBP were all linked with pre-HD SBP.

Conclusion: Intradialytic blood pressure and ambulatory blood pressure had a statistically significant relationship. Interdialytic weight gain and cholesterol are risk factors that can be changed. SBP before HD and 24 hour mean SBP were both found to be independent risk factors for IDH. Patients with greater blood pressure have a higher burden of blood pressure (intradialytic and interdialytic) and may require more severe blood pressure treatment.

Author(S) Detalis

Vajed Mogal
Department of Nephrology, M.G.M. Medical College & Hospital, Aurangabad, Maharashtra, India.

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I Have Scoliosis: A Guidebook for Patients, Family Members, and Therapists

A growing body of evidence supports the use of physiotherapy in the treatment of scoliosis patients. Bracing, which was long frowned upon, is now widely accepted as having a scientific basis. In contrast, evidence for surgical treatment of scoliosis is weak, and recent research on long-term outcomes raise severe doubts. As a result, the conservative, non-surgical treatment of scoliosis has a bright future. The good news is that recent advancements in specialised physiotherapy and bracing, focused at assisting individuals based on their unique curve patterns, now give better prospects of halting curvature progression and even reducing a large proportion of curvatures. Scoliosis therapy aims for results that are acceptable in normal life while minimising the impacts on the patient. Patients can develop a sense of postural awareness and self-help by learning to avoid curvature-stimulating activity in a short amount of time and without much theoretical training.

Autho(S) Details

Hans-Rudolf Weiss
Schroth Best Practice Academy, Neu-Bamberg, Germany.

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Morgellon’s Disease and Neurocutaneous Syndrome (NCS): Cases and Recovery

The corpus of knowledge on delusional parasitosis (also known as Morgellons illness) accuses “delusional patients” of imagining external and/or internal symptoms that resemble parasite movements, dismisses them as mental cases, and conflates cause and effect. We have established that the symptoms of crawling and pin-pricking are caused by toxicity from exposure to incompatible dental materials, among other toxicities, that alter the propagation of normal nerve impulses, based on our research on over 1000 “delusional” patients since 1996 at our Parasitology Center, Inc. (PCI). This isn’t a parasitic infection. External parasites/organisms, such as springtails (Collembola), other arthropods, bacteria, and fungi, are only opportunistic infections of skin locations impaired by a toxicity condition involving toxins excretion through the skin, according to our findings. We’ve found a novel pathological ailment called Neuro-cutaneous Syndrome (NCS), which is mostly linked to dental toxicity and could be linked to cases of “delusional parasitosis” and “Morgellons” disease. We’ve devised a method for resolving the symptoms of NCS patients. All symptoms of NCS, which are sometimes misdiagnosed as delusional parasitosis, are invariably and irreversibly resolved if the protocol is followed.

Author(S) Details

Omar M. Amin
Parasitology Center Inc. (PCI), 11445 E. Via Linda, # 2-419, Scottsdale, Arizona 85259, USA.

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Metrological Research of Methods and Means of EEG Analysis in Science and Medicine

This small monograph contains in-depth critical examinations on four EEG analysis methods: 1) the disadvantages and errors of coherent analysis; 2) errors in spectral estimates of EEG amplitude compared to direct amplitude measurements; 3) a new method for analysing EEG synchronicity using envelopes correlation and demonstrating its effectiveness in differentiating norm and schizophrenia; 4) the final solution to the problem of selecting the best reference electrode for EEG recording.

Author(S) Detalis

A. P. Kulaichev
Department of Biology, Moscow State University, Moscow, 119234, Russia.

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Nerve to Iliacus: Microanatomy and Its Clinical Significance

The iliacus/iliopsoas muscles are innervated by nerves to the iliacus and branches of the femoral nerve, including the cranial section of the femoral nerve. The iliacus/iliopsoas muscles are in charge of flexing the thigh and forward tilting the pelvis, as well as body posture, Olympic lifts, and daily activities such as walking and running. Injury to the iliacus/femoral nerve, resulting in lesions to nerve fibers/fascicles, impairs these functions, resulting in lower-limb problems. Because the functions of these muscles can be restored by repairing/regenerating and/or grafting the fascicles/nerve fibres, it is critical for diagnosis and neurosurgical treatment to identify and isolate injured fascicles with their pathways, as well as the location of the injury and its relationship to the affected area. There is no literature addressing the microanatomy of iliacus nerves. As a result, the research was carried out. The goal of this work is to use histological techniques to investigate the microanatomy of these neural processes in nerves to the iliacus. Neurosurgeons will need to know the microanatomy of the nerve to the iliacus in order to repair these nerves.

Author(S) Details

Rajani Singh
Department of Anatomy, Uttar Pradesh University of Medical Sciences, Saifai, Etawah, 206130, India.

Kavita Gupta
Department of Physiology, Sri Guru Ram Rai Institute of Medical and Health Sciences, Patel Nagar, Dehradun, India.

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Immunity to SARS-COV-2 Virus Infections

This monograph was arranged in a logical, step-by-step manner to simulate the events leading to human virus infection immunity. It begins with the definition of infection, infection cycle, and post-recovery infection entities such as co-infection, re-infection, stealth infection, and reactivation infection, among others. Immunity and the length of time it lasts during infection and recovery, as well as herd immunity. Then it does immunological simulations on humans and animals. Serious Sars-cov-2 infection has the potential to cause immunological response symptoms such as; Immunological thrombi creation, hypercytokinemia, unrestrained complement activation, autoimmune B cell phenocopy, and an invariant mucosal T cell viral sensor are all examples of immune thrombi production. Chronicity’s immunological issues were discussed. Finally, vaccine immune augmentation and vaccination race were explored.

Author(S) Details

Ibrahim Mohamed Saeed Shnawa
Department of Biotechnology College of Biotechnology University of Qasim, Qasim, Babylon, Iraq and Hilla University College, Rarengia, Babylon, Iraq.

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A Therapeutic Application of Systematic Review with Meta-analysis: Epigenetic Analysis Tools and Cancer’s Therapy Assessment

Epigenetics will produce a plethora of novel biomarkers to aid in the refinement of cancer therapies and patient drug response; they can be utilised as markers to predict clinical outcome and the likelihood of relapse after chemotherapies.

According to a Prisma flow chart, a total of 1302 articles were retrieved, 151 full-text articles were assessed for eligibility, and 47 studies with low to moderate quality were found to be eligible and involved in systematic review as a qualitative phase, while only 19 studies with moderate quality met the meta-analysis criteria, with a total of 6,086 patients from more than 25 countries.

Only two epigenetic alterations, DNA methylation and histone modifications, were employed to assess the response outcomes of cancer therapy, according to a comprehensive study. DNA methylation was discovered to be the most well-known epigenetic change, which was linked to either better or worse outcomes based on the connected gene, which might be oncogenes or tumour suppressor genes.

The epigenetic DNA methylation has a tendency to predict outcomes (HR= 0.603, CI= 0.462-0.788) in distinct cancer types treated with chemotherapeutic drugs, surgery, and radiotherapy, according to both fixed and random meta-analysis models. However, there were reports of substantial heterogeneity and publication bias. The reasons for heterogeneity were investigated using sub-groups analysis, and they appear to be linked to clinical and methodological variations among the studies.

The first grouping, oncogene methylation or DNA repair gene methylation, exhibited improved cancer patient outcome prediction (HR= 0.5, CI= 0.45-0.55), with minimal publication bias and heterogeneity (Q= 25.24, and I2 = 40.58 percent) among the studies. The second subgroup found that methylation of tumour suppressor genes was linked to poorer outcomes (HR= 2.07, CI= 1.77-2.43), with no heterogeneity (Q= 1.73, and I2 = 0.00) between studies.

Our findings revealed that methylation of the MGMT gene promoter was a strong outcomes predictor (HR=0.528, CI= 0.493-0.566) of cancer patients, particularly when alkylating chemotherapeutic agents were used with or without radiotherapy. Furthermore, the correlation of MGMT with overall survival revealed that methylation of the MGMT promoter was a good predictive biomarker of cancer therapies. These results had minimal heterogeneity (Q= 28.35, and I2= 43.57), and there was no evidence of publication bias.

The three sensitivity analysis techniques for MGMT-promoter methylation as a good predictive biomarker; statistical models, one study removal, and study design revealed that the pooled effect did not differ when the statistical models (fixed or random) of meta-analysis, or one study removal analysis, or study design change were changed.

Regarding the use of epigenetic tools in cancer therapy assessment, large articles with varied designs were dispersed over 13% of the global countries, representing around 6000 patients of low to moderate quality.

Due to clinical and methodological variability among the research, meta-analysis corroborated the systematic review findings regarding DNA-methylation as the best epigenetic tool with substantial heterogeneity and publication bias. Finally, we conclude that MGMT gene methylation can be used as a predictive biomarker for cancer therapies and is associated with improved overall survival. These findings were not based on a single study and were not affected by changes in statistical models or study designs. Additionally, the unpublished or unretrieved studies in our review had no effect on the findings.

Author(S) Detalis

Hind Mohammed Osman Khalifa
Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, Omdurman Islamic University, P.O. Box 382, Omdurman, Sudan.

Aimun Abdelgaffar Elhassan Ahmed
Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Pharmacy, P.O. Box 382, Omdurman Islamic University, Omdurman, Sudan and Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Medicine, Al Baha University, P.O. Box 1988, KSA.

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