Cervical Dysplasias and Cervical Cancers

Cervical cancer is the second most frequent gynaecological malignancy in Cameroon, and it is the major cause of cancer mortality among women. Gender and educational level have a big impact on cervical cancer screening knowledge and attitudes. The goal of this study was to find out how well male and female university students knew about cervical cancer and how they felt about Pap smear screening. This was a 416-student cross-sectional research conducted from February to May 2017 among students at the University of Buea in Cameroon. A pretested questionnaire was used to collect data, and Epi-Info version 7 was used to analyse it. Pvalue 0.05 was used to determine statistical significance. The participants’ average age was 22.08 (4.03) years. Cervical cancer was mentioned by up to 82.2 percent of the participants. Only 25.2 percent of the participants said they knew “a lot” about cervical cancer. There was no statistically significant difference in general knowledge across genders (P=0.81), however there was a statistically significant link between having “good” knowledge and being a health science student (P0.001). More than half of the students were unaware that having several sexual partners was a risk factor for cervical cancer, and more than half were unaware that early sexual intercourse, smoking, family history, and multiple deliveries were all risk factors. A Pap smear was performed on only 4.8 percent of female pupils. The low uptake was linked to a number of factors, including the cost of screening, a lack of knowledge about screening programmes, fear, and the idea that pap smear screening is uncomfortable. To summarise, university students’ understanding of cervical cancer was low regardless of gender. The use of Pap smear screening was extremely low, indicating a need for increased health education and preventative initiatives aimed at both men and women.

Author(s) Details

Gregory Edie Halle-Ekane
Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Buea, Buea, Cameroon.

Dr Derick Nembulefack
Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Limbe District Hospital, Limbe, Cameroon.

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Essentials for Refractive Laser Surgeries

Laser refractive corneal surgery is considered one of the world’s most commonly performed procedures. It requires different types of procedures for laser vision correction. Thus, it is important for every refractive surgeon to understand the basis of these surgeries and to know their indications and limitations. This book also aims to explain, with brief clinical notes, the essentials of laser refractive procedures, their indications and limitations. Conclusion: Various forms, steps, signs and limitations are used in laser refractive surgeries that should be well established to obtain the best results for these types of surgeries.

Author (s) Details

Amr Mounir
Ophthalmology Department, Sohag University, Egypt.

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Flupirtine: An Exigency Call for Medication Vigilant

The purpose of this monograph is to provide an extensive review of the drug Flupirtine clinical
applications and its safety-related issues. While existing Non- Steroidal Anti-inflammatory Drugs
(NSAIDs) and Opioids which are used in the treatment of pain had some common adverse effects this
drug is devoid of adverse effects exhibited by NSAIDs and Opioids and is routinely used in clinics as
an analgesic particularly in India. Apart from its routine clinical use recently there are growing
concerns related to this drug for its hepatotoxicity hence it is withdrawn from the market of European
unions. Therefore, this monograph helps you to analyze its chemical nature, applications, recent
issues related to hepatotoxicity events that are reported with evidences in both the literature and also
databases. So that readers can gain awareness concerning this drug and also this can pose a
challenge to the regulatory bodies in India whether this drug can be safer to continue in the market or
any still further data can be required to prove its safety and efficacy because of increasing concerns
related to hepatotoxic events in recent days.

Author(s) Details

Lakshmi Narasimha Gunturu
Department of Pharmacy Practice, Annamacharya College of Pharmacy, Rajampet, Andhra Pradesh, India.

Dr. Girirajasekhar Dornadula
Department of Pharmacy Practice, Annamacharya College of Pharmacy, Rajampet, Andhra Pradesh, India.

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miR-221/222 in Tumor and Their Underlying Mechanism


MicroRNA-221/222 (miRNA-221/222, miR-221/222) is non-coding microRNA which widely distributed
in eukaryotic organisms, and deeply involved in the post-transcriptional regulation of gene
expressions. According to recent studies, abnormal expressions of miR-221/222 are closely related to
the occurrence and development of various kinds of malignant tumors. The role of miR-221/222 in
tumor development and their potential molecular mechanism in various cancers, including liver
cancer, colorectal cancer, cervical cancer, ovarian cancer, and endometrial carcinoma etc, are
summarized and reviewed in this paper. Moreover, the potential translational biomarker role of
abnormal miR-221/222 level in tumor or blood circulation for tumor diagnosis is also discussed.

Author(s) Details

Xin Cao
Institute of Clinical Science, Zhongshan Hospital, Shanghai Medical College, Fudan University, Shanghai 200032, China.

Qian Song
Institute of Clinical Science, Zhongshan Hospital, Shanghai Medical College, Fudan University, Shanghai 200032, China.

Xiaoling Lu,
Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, College of Basic Medical Sciences, Second Military Medical University, Shanghai 200433, China.

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Cancer and Attachment Theory

Cancer traditionally is viewed through the lens of the biomedical model. It has been suggested that a
broader theoretical framework with psychosocial components related to the development of cancer is
needed to provide a complementary perspective. The purpose here is to explore the utility of
attachment theory as a biopsychosocial model of both development and health. Attachment, a theory
of socio-emotional development, explains how social interactions between caregiver and child
establish lifelong psychosocial, physiological, affective, and cognitive patterns, as well as stress
response patterns to threat or illness. Despite attachment theory’s biopsychosocial foundation, the
application of attachment security as a factor in physical health and psychosomatic medicine is
relatively recent. This work reviews attachment theory and psychosocial literature on cancer and
follows a novel approach that conceptually integrates attachment theory and psychosocial related
cancer literature. A concluding integrative model of attachment theory and the type C behavior pattern
is provided to illustrate potential links and integrative processes that may lead to disease resilience or
vulnerability.

Author(s) Details

Dr. A. M. Tacón,.
Department of Health, Exercise and Sport Sciences, College of Arts and Sciences, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, Texas, USA.

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Obesity and Endometrial Cancer

In developed and westernized countries such as the United States, endometrial cancer (EC) is the
most common gynecological cancer with incidence rates being as much as 10 times higher than other
cultures. The majority of women present with postmenopausal and abnormal perimenopausal
bleeding, and almost 75% of these patients are in the early disease stage, yet the death rate has
risen. Also, an unprecedented increase in obesity prevalence rates has occurred. This article reviews
current research as to the relation between endometrial cancer and this disease’s major risk factor of
excess body weight.

Author(s) Details

Dr. A. M. Tacón,
Department of Health, Exercise and Sport Sciences, College of Arts and Sciences, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, Texas, USA.

View  Book :-  https://bp.bookpi.org/index.php/bpi/catalog/book/243

Detection, Characterization, and Clinical Application of Mesenchymal Stem Cells in Periodontal Ligament Tissue: Advanced Study

Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are a kind of somatic stem cells that exert a potential to differentiate
into multiple cell types and undergo robust clonal self-renewal, therefore they are considered as a
highly promising stem cell population for the tissue engineering. MSCs are identified in various adult
organs including dental tissues. Periodontal ligament (PDL) is a highly specialized connective tissue
that surrounds the tooth root. PDL also contains MSCs population and many researchers have
isolated them and performed their detailed characterization. Here, we review the current
understanding of the features and functions of MSCs population in PDL tissues and discuss their
possibility for the application of PDL regeneration.

Author(s) Details

Atsushi Tomokiyo
Division of Endodontics, Kyushu University Hospital, Fukuoka, Japan.

Shinichiro Yoshida
Division of Endodontics, Kyushu University Hospital, Fukuoka, Japan.

Sayuri Hamano

Department of Endodontology and Operative Dentistry, Faculty of Dental Science, Kyushu University, Fukuoka, Japan and OBT Research Center, Kyushu University, Fukuoka, Japan.

Daigaku Hasegawa
Division of Endodontics, Kyushu University Hospital, Fukuoka, Japan.

Hideki Sugii
Division of Endodontics, Kyushu University Hospital, Fukuoka, Japan.

Hidefumi Maeda
Division of Endodontics, Kyushu University Hospital, Fukuoka, Japan and Department of Endodontology and Operative Dentistry, Faculty of Dental Science, Kyushu University, Fukuoka, Japan.

View  Book :- https://bp.bookpi.org/index.php/bpi/catalog/book/243

Exosomes and the Cargo microRNAs in Ischemic Heart Disease

Background: To cure ischemic diseases, angiogenesis needs to be improved by various strategies in
ischemic area. Considering that microRNA-132 (miR-132) regulates endothelial cell behavior during
angiogenesis and the safe and efficacious delivery of microRNAs in vivo is rarely achieved, an ideal
vehicle for miR-132 delivery could bring the promise for ischemic diseases. As a natural carrier of
biological molecules, exosomes are more and more developed as an ideal vehicle for miRNA transfer.
Meanwhile, mesenchymal stem cells could release large amounts of exosomes. Thus, this study
aimed to investigate whether MSC-derived exosomes can be used for miR-132 delivery in the
treatment of myocardial ischemia.
Methods: MSC-derived exosomes were electroporated with miR-132 mimics and inhibitors. After
electroporation, miR-132 exosomes were labelled with DiI and added to HUVECs. Internalization of
DiI-labelled exosomes was examined by fluorescent microscopy. Expression levels of miR-132 in
exosomes and HUVECs were quantified by real-time PCR. The mRNA levels of miR-132 target gene
RASA1 in HUVECs were quantified by real-time PCR. Luciferase reporter assay was performed to
examine the targeting relationship between miR-132 and RASA1. The effects of miR-132 exosomes
on the angiogenic ability of endothelial cells were evaluated by tube formation assay. Matrigel plug
assay and myocardial infarction model were used to determine whether miR-132 exosomes can
promote angiogenesis in vivo.
Results: miR-132 mimics were effectively electroporated and highly detected in MSC-derived
exosomes. The expression level of miR-132 was high in HUVECs preincubated with miR-132

mimicelectroporated exosomes and low in HUVECs preincubated with miR-132 inhibitor-electroporated
exosomes. The expression level of RASA1, miR-132 target gene, was reversely correlated with miR-
132 expression in HUVECs pretreated with exosomes. Luciferase reporter assay further confirmed
that RASA1 was a direct target of miR-132. Exosomes loaded with miR-132, as a vehicle for miRNA
transfer, significantly increased tube formation of endothelial cells. Moreover, subcutaneous injection
of HUVECs pretreated with miR-132 exosomes in nude mice significantly increased their
angiogenesis capacity in vivo. In addition, transplantation of miR-132 exosomes in the ischemic
hearts of mice markedly enhanced the neovascularization in the peri-infarct zone and preserved heart
functions.
Conclusions: The findings suggest that the export of miR-132 via MSC-derived exosomes
represents a novel strategy to enhance angiogenesis in ischemic diseases.

Author(s) Details

Junjie Yang
Department of Biomedical Engineering, School of Medicine and Engineering, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL 35294, USA.

Jiacheng Sun
Department of Biomedical Engineering, School of Medicine and Engineering, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL 35294, USA.

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Mindfulness and Cancer Pain

Pain is the most distressing and incapacitating symptom experienced by cancer patients. While
mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR) interventions have been conducted with cancer patients,
no study has explored psychological and pain-related factors in patients with cancer-related pain. The
effects of an eight-week MBSR intervention were investigated on pre-post scores for pain
catastrophizing, pain-related anxiety, pain intensity ratings, and mental adjustment to cancer in breast
cancer patients with pain. Forty-one women diagnosed withcancer-related pain participated in the
study. The MBSR was conducted over eight weeks; participants were trained in the body scan, sitting
meditation, and hatha yoga with formal guidance and direction as to daily homework practice. Results
showed significant reduction in scores for pain catastrophizing, pain anxiety, and pain ratings;
significant positive changes occurred for mental adjustment to cancer. This study is the first to
investigate MBSR effects for psychological factors in patients with cancer pain.

Author(s) Details

Dr. A. M. Tacón,
Department of Health, Exercise and Sport Sciences, College of Arts and Sciences, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, Texas, USA.

View Book :- https://bp.bookpi.org/index.php/bpi/catalog/book/243

Synlabia after Severe Monilia Infections: A Case Report and Literature Review

A 25-year-old woman presented with acute urine retention with overflow 6 months after an inadequate
treatment of severe monilia infections. Examination revealed complete adhesion between both labia
majora. Division of adhesion was done with reconstruction by labial flap. Complete recovery was
achieved with good cosmetic outcome.

Conclusion: Labial adhesions whatever their severity is can be surgically divided with complete
correction by locally designed flap to reconstruct the introuitus with rapid recovery, good healing, and
good cosmetic outcome.

Author(s) Details

Samia M. A. Saied
Department of Plastic Surgery, Sohag University, Sohag, Egypt.

View Book:- https://bp.bookpi.org/index.php/bpi/catalog/book/243