Study on Recurrent Anterior Shoulder Dislocation: An Approach to Boytchev Treatment

The Boytchev procedure, which has been used to treat anterior glenohumeral instability since 1951, is an open anterior repair that involves rerouting the muscles that connect the coracoid process to the subscapularis muscle between this and the capsule. The tip of the coracoid is reattached to its base by its muscles in the anatomical position.

Methods: We studied twenty patients who had repeated shoulder dislocations and were treated with the Boytchev technique in a prospective trial. With an average age of 29.2 years, they are all men (age range from 17 to 42 years). The right shoulder was impacted in 14 cases, while the left shoulder was affected in 6. Every single one of them has a history of recurring dislocation. We also conducted a literature search (16),17 studies, including ours, with the goal of estimating, via statistical analysis, the post-operative results of recurrent anterior dislocations of the shoulder, in order to determine the reliability of this technique and possible specific risk factors that may lead to recurrence.

Results: In our series, 19 patients had outstanding and good results using the Rowe score; one patient, who had a recurrence, had a bad result in terms of stability. Another patient was diagnosed with osteoarthritis. The total number of patients in the 17 studies is 477, including 485 dislocated shoulders. The recurrence rate is 7.33 percent. The rate is 2% in 12 trials against 21.05 percent in 5 studies, with a significant difference (1-p=99.89%). In terms of result grading, we have 441 excellent and good results and 44 fair and poor outcomes (91 percent versus 9% with p=>99.9%, which is also highly significant).

Conclusion: Based on accumulated data, the Boytchev treatment has a low recurrence rate and so may be deemed a viable surgical approach.

Author (S) Details

Otman Benabdallah
Centres Hospitaliers de Tanger, Morocco.

Ahmed Khamlichi
Centres Hospitaliers de Tanger, Morocco.

View Book :- https://stm.bookpi.org/NFMMR-V16/article/view/3805

Neovascular Glaucoma: Etiology and Staging

The goal of this study was to determine the most prevalent aetiology of neovascular glaucoma and the most common stage of the patient’s presentation.

The current study employs an observational prospective design. A total of 136 eyeballs from 109 patients with neovascular glaucoma in one or both eyes were included in the study. All patients had visual acuity testing, slit lamp biomicroscopy, intraocular pressure (IOP) measurement with Goldmann applanation tonometry, gonioscopy with a Posner 4 mirror indirect gonioscope, and a dilated fundus examination. NVI was defined as a tuft of new vessels on the iris, mostly near the pupillary margin in an undilated state, the presence of any ectropion uveae, hyphema, anterior chamber reaction, pseudoexfoliative material, keratic precipitates, and other uveitis symptoms. The angle’s number of neovascularized quadrants was counted.

The average age was 58.1813 years, with 80.73 percent of men and 19.26% of women participating. IOP was 27.14 11.3 mm Hg on average. The rubeosis iridis stage was represented by 74 (54.4%), the angle closure stage by 38 (27.9%), and the open angle stage was represented by 24. (17.6 percent ). 89 (65.4%) of the subjects had diabetic retinopathy of various degrees of severity, whereas 16 (11.7%) had uveitis and 14 (10.2%) had retinal vein occlusion. The average IOP angle closure stage was 36.5316.259 mm Hg, which was significantly higher than the other two (P = 0.000).

According to the findings of this study, proliferative diabetic retinopathy is the most common cause of NVG, and rubeosis iridis is the most common stage of presentation.

Author (S) Details

Totli Kuruba Mayuri
Minto Eye Hospital, Banglore, Karnataka, India.

View Book :- https://stm.bookpi.org/NFMMR-V16/article/view/3804

Determining the Seroprevalence of HIV Infection among Tuberculosis Patients in a Tertiary Care Hospital

Introduction: The most potent risk factor for tuberculosis advancement is the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) (TB). The need of HIV surveillance among TB patients has been acknowledged, as the HIV epidemic continues to feed the TB epidemic. The connection is bidirectional and synergistic in people who have both HIV and TB. The goal of this study was to find out how common HIV infection was among tuberculosis patients in a tertiary care hospital.

Method: HIV antibodies were tested according to National AIDS Control Organization (NACO) recommendations in a one-year study of 4500 confirmed tuberculosis patients. The results revealed that 244 (5.42%) of the 4500 patients tested positive for HIV. Co-infection was most common among persons aged 35 to 50 years, with a male to female ratio of 2.34 (171/73).

Conclusion: HIV seroprevalence was determined to be 5.42 percent in tuberculosis patients in the current study. Patients with tuberculosis who are diagnosed with HIV early will have easier access to care and treatment, including antiretroviral therapy (ART). The number of deaths and illnesses among HIV-TB co-infected people will be reduced as a result of this.

Author (S) Details

Dipa M. Kinariwala
B. J. Medical College, C-33, Bhadreshwar flats, Near Ankur Bus stop, Naranpura, Ahmedabad, Gujarat – 380013, India.

View Book :- https://stm.bookpi.org/NFMMR-V16/article/view/3803

A Descriptive Cross-sectional Study on Diet and Women Fertility

The purpose of this study was to see how diet and eating habits affect women’s fertility.

Materials and Procedures: This research was carried out in Baghdad’s seven distinct institutes and hospitals between January and September 2014. The participants were divided into two groups of 400 adult women ranging in age from 17 to 47 years. In group I, there were 300 fertile women and 100 infertile women. For data collection, a special questionnaire was created and employed.

The infertile and control groups were found to have a substantial difference in weight and body mass index (BMI). The average weights of the infertile and control groups were 73.07 kg and 69.06 kg, respectively, with a mean BMI of 28.83 kg and 26.70 kg for the infertile and control groups, respectively. Infertile women also drank more carbonated beverages, tea, chicken, and fish than the control group, while eating less milk and red meat. In addition, the infertile group consumed less corn oil and olive oil than the control group (5 and 0% vs. 21 and 2%, respectively), but consumed more solid fat and mixed fat (2 and 6 percent vs 0 and 2.7 percent , respectively).

Conclusion: While there are treatments for infertility, their high cost and high frequency of side effects have led researchers to investigate dietary factors that may contribute to infertility. The link between weight, BMI, and infertility was verified in this investigation. Diet was identified as one of the modifiable risk factors that may affect fertility in the current study’s selected groups; as a result, it is critical to place a greater emphasis on the role of diet in women’s fertility and raise women’s awareness of it, as well as suggesting more educational programmes at the primary health care level.

Author (S) Details

Hayder G. Oufi
Department of Pharmacy, National University of Science and Technology, Dhi Qar, Iraq.

Ruaa E. Alabd
Department of Family Medicine, Al-Zawiya Primary Health Care Center, Al-Rusafa Health Directorate, Baghdad, Iraq.

View Book :- https://stm.bookpi.org/NFMMR-V16/article/view/3802

A Review and Update on Clinical Management on Burning Mouth Syndrome

Burning Mouth Syndrome (BMS) is a chronic illness that typically affects middle-aged women after menopause. This sickness is identified by the absence of clinical signs and burning sensations in the oral mucosa. The aetiology of BMS is complex, involving a variety of factors. Stress, worry, and depression are just a few of the local, systemic, and psychological disorders that can induce BMS. Types I, II, and III of the BMS are plausible categories. Despite the fact that there are no visible organic changes or health risks linked with this illness, it can have a significant impact on the patient’s quality of life. The goal of this paper is to evaluate the available literature on BMS, with a focus on therapeutic management. Important diagnostic criteria, etiological variables, and clinical characteristics will also be discussed in the sections that follow. The major goal of care is to provide support to the patient and work toward symptom reduction rather than complete symptom removal. The most commonly utilised therapy options include tricyclic antidepressants, benzodiazepines, and antipsychotic medications, which have varying effectiveness; however, other therapies will be provided that can also be used. Professionals should handle this group of patients, explaining and reaffirming the nature of the disease and discussing the benefits of proposed medicines or the likelihood of pain relief. Patients should be informed about the importance of working with a multidisciplinary team and the possibility of needing many therapy adjustments before achieving effective treatment. Dental professionals should provide standardised symptoms and diagnostic criteria so that multidisciplinary research can more easily identify the most effective and reliable BMS treatment options.

Author (S) Details

Juliana Cassol Spanemberg
University Fernando Pessoa-Canarias, Spain.

Eugenia Rodríguez de Rivera Campillo
Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences (Dentistry). Oral Health and Masticatory System Group IDIBELL (Bellvitge Biomedical Research Institute). University of Barcelona, Spain.

Enric Jané Salas
Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences (Dentistry). Oral Health and Masticatory System Group IDIBELL (Bellvitge Biomedical Research Institute). University of Barcelona, Spain.

Albert Estrugo Devesa
Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences (Dentistry). Oral Health and Masticatory System Group IDIBELL (Bellvitge Biomedical Research Institute). University of Barcelona, Spain.

José López López
Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences (Dentistry). Oral Health and Masticatory System Group IDIBELL (Bellvitge Biomedical Research Institute). University of Barcelona, Spain.

View Book :- https://stm.bookpi.org/NFMMR-V16/article/view/3798

A Rare Uterine Cancer: Epithelioid Leiomyosarcoma

Uterine epithelioid leiomyosarcoma is a form of uterine mesenchymal tumour that develops from the smooth muscle that lines the uterus’s walls. The exact cause of leiomyosarcoma is unknown, however it is thought that uterine leiomyosarcoma accounts for 5 to 10% of occurrences. Leiomyosarcoma, the most common subtype of uterine sarcoma, accounts for 1-2 % of all uterine cancers. Molecular approaches have recently been used to identify a number of lesions with specific genetic abnormalities and clinicopathological characteristics. Malignancy should be suspected in menopausal women who are not taking hormonal replacement therapy and have developed a tumour. A 64-year-old woman has been experiencing postmenopausal haemorrhage for the last two months, with a palpable lump approximately 16 weeks in size. On ultrasonography, the whorled mass lesions, endometrium, and myometrium could not be distinguished. Both ovaries have been removed from the uterus. A 16-week-old uterine tumour with a dimension of 15×15 cm and a weight of 1kg, as well as an intramural fibroid, were discovered during the procedure. Necrotic and haemorrhagic areas with degenerative modifications on cut sections signify malignancy. Histopathology and immunohistochemistry were used to find epithelioid leiomyosarcoma.

Author (S) Details

Upadhya Rekha
Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Kasturba Medical College, MAHE, Karnataka, India.

Vidyashree G. Poojari
Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Kasturba Medical College, MAHE, Karnataka, India.

Muralidhar V. Pai
Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Kasturba Medical College, MAHE, Karnataka, India.

Jayaraman Nambiar
Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Kasturba Medical College, MAHE, Karnataka, India.

View Book :- https://stm.bookpi.org/NFMMR-V16/article/view/3792

Determination of Technological Advancement in the Era of COVID-19

Globally, regional and municipal governments are working feverishly to find appropriate solutions to the COVID-19 situation. During this time, the government has had to ensure that all technology resources are used to combat the pandemic and address a wide range of COVID-19-related issues. The purpose of this study is to analyse the application of technical means and technological improvement in many areas as a result of the COVID-19 issue. How the government and health groups have implemented new policies to try to stop the spread of the coronavirus will be discussed. Lockdowns and social distancing measures, for example, have resulted in technical innovation and new ways of interacting with the government, corporations, and individuals as a result of these new regulations. Increased online shopping, robotic delivery systems, the advent of digital and contactless payment systems, remote working, the importance of technology in distant learning, Telehealth, 3D printing, and online entertainment are just a few examples of these changes. These technology breakthroughs have been welcomed by a few countries around the world throughout this epidemic, with certain limitations in some impoverished and developing countries.

Author (S) Details

Nishant Renu
Westcliff University, Irvine, California, USA.

View Book :- https://stm.bookpi.org/NFMMR-V16/article/view/3789

The Study of Financial Impact of COVID-19 on Ophthalmic Practices

The exceptional threat posed by Covid-19 has necessitated a change in lifestyle. Social isolation, the wearing of face masks, and limiting contact to only necessary situations have become the new standard. Practice procedures in ophthalmology are currently limited to emergency treatments such as trauma and endophthalmitis. The current situation, as stated in this review, has resulted in a significant decrease in the number of patients seeking ophthalmology services. Patients are visiting less frequently as a result of the doctors’ and patients’ utmost caution. Many private practitioners, as expected, are feeling the strain financially, with as many as 90% of private practises requesting federal loans and other programmes to help them weather the storm. Despite these efforts, the outlook is bleak, with an estimated 6% of private practises closing, and those that survive are projected to be smaller in size and in bad financial shape.

Author (S) Details

Nishant Renu
Westcliff University, Irvine, California, USA

View Book :- https://stm.bookpi.org/NFMMR-V16/article/view/3786

ROS Flashes in Mitochondria Occur Concomitantly with Inner Mitochondrial Membrane Depolarization and Mitochondrial Calcium Sparks

Using fluorescent confocal imaging, investigate complex ROS dynamics and ROS mito-flashes in distinct live cells. Analysis of mitochondrial and extra-mitochondrial ROS dynamics at the same time. Depolarization and potential of the mitochondrial membrane Analysis of mitochondrial calcium and ROS dynamics at the same time.

It is widely known that mitochondria can produce significant amounts of reactive oxygen species (ROS), which have a role in a variety of physiological and pathological processes. The complicated interrelationships between ROS, mitochondrial inner membrane potential (m), and mitochondrial Ca2+, on the other hand, were not well explored. We show that biphasic ROS dynamics exist in this study, with initial and continuous ROS increase followed by mitochondrial ROS flashes. Furthermore, there is a lot of variation in the rates of mitochondrial ROS production and the start times of ROS flashes. We proved that the processes of ROS flashes may be triggered by particular quantities of external ROS by comparing mitochondrial and extra mitochondrial fluorescence signals. Mitochondrial permeability transition pore opening (collapse of mitochondrial membrane potential, m) and mitochondrial calcium spikes are two of the mechanisms involved. Furthermore, mitochondria-to-mitochondrial contacts can be viewed as a wave of mitochondrial ROS flashes and m collapses, comparable to the phenomena of ROS-induced ROS release first observed in cardiomyocytes. Our findings suggest that excess mitochondrial ROS produced by individual mitochondrion or neighbouring mitochondria can be involved in mechanisms of mitochondrial ROS flashes activation and concomitant depolarization. This could be a common pathway in ROS-ROS and mitochondria-mitochondrial signalling, with implications for cellular and mitochondrial function.

Author (S) Details

Andrey V. Kuznetsov
Cardiac Surgery Laboratory, Department of Heart Surgery, Medical University of Innsbruck, Innsbruck, A-6020, Austria. and Department of Pediatrics I, Medical University of Innsbruck, Innsbruck, Austria.

Judith Hagenbuchner
Department of Pediatrics II, Medical University of Innsbruck, Innsbruck, Austria.

Michael J. Ausserlechner
Department of Pediatrics I, Medical University of Innsbruck, Innsbruck, Austria.

View Book :- https://stm.bookpi.org/NFMMR-V16/article/view/3785

A Comparative Study of Attenuation of Hypertensive Response with Esmolol and Labetalol in Low doses in Orotracheal Intubation

In this prospective, randomised, double-blind, comparative clinical trial, Esmolol and Labetalol were assessed for attenuation of sympathomimetic reactivity to laryngoscopy and intubation at low doses.

Materials and Procedures: The participants in this study were 50 ASA 1 patients of either gender undergoing elective surgery under general anaesthetic. Patients were randomly assigned to one of two groups prior to induction: group E received intravenous Esmolol (0.5 mg/kg) or group L received intravenous Labetalol (0.25 mg/kg), and hemodynamic parameters were monitored according to the procedure to determine stress response to laryngoscopy and intubation.

The demographic profiles of both research groups were similar as a result of the findings. Instat version 3.10 was used for statistical calculations. The study’s data was analysed utilising statistical methods including mean and standard deviation. Esmolol (0.5 mg/kg) and Labetalol (0.25 mg/kg) significantly reduced the increase in heart rate, systolic blood pressure, and RPP during laryngoscopy and intubation. The difference in DBP and MAP values, however, was not statistically significant.

Conclusion: Our clinical trial found that intravenous Labetalol (0.25 mg/kg) is more effective than intravenous Esmolol (0.5 mg/kg) at reducing the sympathomimetic reaction to laryngoscopy and intubation at lower doses. Esmolol is commonly used to elicit an intubation response at doses of 2-4 mg/kg, whereas labetalol has been studied at doses of 0.25, 0.5, 0.75, and 1 mg/kg [1].

Author (S) Details

Suruchi Ambasta
Deptarment of Anaesthesia, Mayo Institute of Medical Sciences, Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh, India.

Swagat Mahapatra
Deptartment of Orthopaedics, Dr. Ram Manohar Lohia Institute of Medical Sciences, Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh, India.

View Book :- https://stm.bookpi.org/NFMMR-V16/article/view/3784