A Review of Surgical Management Options of Megameatus Intact Prepuce

First and foremost, Megameatus intact prepuce (MIP) is a rare form of glandular hypospadias that affects about 3-6 percent of hypospadias patients. Surgical options in the management of megameatus intact prepuce depend on multiple scenarios and are multifactorial, resulting in a variety of surgical options with varying outcomes. The purpose of this article is to go over the surgical options for this rare type of hypospadias known as megameatus intact prepuce.

Materials and Methods: We look for information on the platforms listed below. Google Scholar, PubMed Central (PMC), PubMed, AJOL, and EMBASE for articles on Megameatus intact prepuce, and the last search was on 14th May, 2021, using the keywords surgical management options of megameatus intact prepuce, and the relevant articles were reviewed to extract surgical management options of megameatus intact prepuce variant of hypospadias from experts.

Results: Several surgical techniques, including the glanular approximation procedure (GAP), the pyramid procedure, the cutaneous advancement procedure, the tubularised incised plate (TIP), the tubularised Urethral Plate Urethroplasty (TUPU), the Mathieu technique, and the subcutaneous frenulum flap with many modifications, are used to restore function and cosmesis in MIP.

Discussion: MIP is a rare condition that was first described by Juskiewenski and colleagues in 1983. Several researchers have reported on various surgical treatment options with varying results. In 2011, Elbatarny et al observed GAP in seventeen patients with MIP over a five-year period, with an excellent outcome in 14 patients and a subjective score of 1 in two patients, with one patient expressing disappointment with the outcome. M. Sanal et al. discovered an excellent outcome in seven GAP cases.

Conclusion: The surgical management options for megameatus intact prepuce are numerous, with varying modifications and outcomes, necessitating a urologist’s knowledge of as many procedures as possible to achieve a desired goal in treating this group of patients with an unusual anomaly.

Author (s) Details

Dr. Muhammad Ujudud Musa
Department of Surgery, Federal Medical Center Katsina, Katsina State, Nigeria.

Abdulkadir Abubakar
Department of Surgery, Aminu Kano Teaching Hospital Kano, Kano State, Nigeria.

Dr. Bashir Yunusa
Department of Surgery, Aminu Kano Teaching Hospital Kano, Kano State, Nigeria.

Sadiq Abubakar
Department of Surgery, Usman Danfodio University Teaching Hospital Sokoto, Sokoto State, Nigeria

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A Rare Case of Intraoral Palatal Lipoma

Lipomas are the most common benign neoplasms that develop in the human body from adipose cells. Intraoral lipomas are extremely rare, accounting for less than 5% of all head and neck cancers. Nonetheless, lipoma should be considered as a differential diagnosis for swellings of the oral cavity. The mainstay of treatment for intraoral lipoma is surgical excision. Due to the abundance of fat, the buccal mucosa is the most common site of an intraoral lipoma, followed by the tongue, lips, floor of the mouth, and gingiva, with the palate being the rarest due to a lack of adipose tissue. In this case study, the lipoma was found to have originated from the soft palate. To determine a definitive diagnosis, it was surgically excised in its entirety and histopathological examinations were performed. This case is being documented because an intraoral lipoma is unusual, and even more so when it occurs in the palate.

Author(s) Details

Dr. Anuya Satyaprakash Gupta
Department of E.N.T., Symbiosis Medical College for Women & Symbiosis University Hospital and Research Centre, Symbiosis International University (SIU), Lavale, Pune, India.

Dr. Girija Amit Ghate
Department of E.N.T., Dr. D. Y. Patil Medical College, Hospital & Research Centre, Pimpri, Pune, India.

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Correlation of Canal Dimension with Neurological Status and Surgical Outcome in Lumbar PIVD: A Recent Study

Introduction: Symptomatic lumbar PIVD is a leading cause of disability and absence from work. A disc herniation’s symptom is determined by a number of factors, including the disc’s level, point, and the percentage canal compromise caused by the disc, among others. The results of a prospective study on the relationship between spinal canal dimension, neurological status, and surgical outcome in lumbar PIVD are presented. Whereas lumbar disc herniation in adults is primarily caused by degenerative disc disease, as evidenced by operative findings and routine pathological examination of specimens removed, often with large sequestrated fragments, disc herniation in adolescents is typically caused by severe injury.

Methods and Materials: From May 2011 to December 2015, 41 patients were followed for an average of one year. Patients with cauda equina syndrome, back or leg pain that persisted for more than 6 weeks despite conservative treatment, and patients with progressive motor weakness and leg symptoms were included in the study. Patients over the age of 60, as well as those with traumatic disc prolapse and spondylolethesis with disc prolapse, were excluded from the study. An MRI scan was used to determine the dimensions of the spinal canal after a prolapsed disc in the AP and transverse dimensions. Symptoms were assessed using the JOA SCORE and the ODI SCORE at the preoperative, 1, 3, 6, and 12 month follow-up visits. To create the correlation, the Pearson correlation coefficient was used. The average age of the patients was 37.62 years. The mean anteroposterior canal dimension was 6.72mm in AP and 14.20mm in transverse. The mean preoperative JOA score was (7.463.45) and (10.754.26) in group 1 and 2 respectively with a p-value of 0.068, but the postoperative JOA score was almost identical (27.093.4) and (27.375.09) in both groups with a p-value of 0.855. The mean preoperative JOA score in the transverse group was (6.454.05) and (11.22.14) in groups 1 and 2, respectively, with a p-value of 0.004, and the postoperative JOA score was (6.454.05). The p-value for (27.094.78) and (28.13.1) in two groups was -5.78. The only group with a significant p-value of 0.004 was the preoperative transverse group. The mean preoperative ODI score in the AP group was higher (377.11) in group 1 than in group 2 (30.629.13), with a p-value of 0.39, but the final postoperative ODI score (9.310.8) and (8.879.9) was nearly the same in both groups, with a p-value of 0.926. The mean preoperative ODI score in the transverse group was (37.277.55) and (31.668.52) in the longitudinal group. group 1 and group 2 with p-values of 0.122, respectively, but the final postoperative ODI score (11.3612.85) and (6.74.76) was nearly identical in both groups with p-values of 0.294. Because the pvalues in both groups are insignificant, it is safe to conclude that the decrease in canal dimension has no bearing on the patients’ symptoms.

Conclusion: Based on the findings presented above, it is safe to conclude that the canal compromise caused by the prolapsed disc is unrelated to the patient’s symptoms. Other factors, such as the position of the prolapsed disc in relation to the nerve root, the stage of disc herniation, and so on, are important in the overall symptomatology of a prolapsed disc.

Author (s) Details

Shafiq Hackla

Department of Orthopaedics, GMC Jammu, India.

Farid Hussain Malik
Department of Orthopaedics, GMC Jammu, India.

Saumyjit Basu
Department of Orthopaedics, GMC Jammu, India.

Anil Kumar Gupta
Department of Orthopaedics, GMC Jammu, India.

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Gut Microbiota Profile – Autism Spectrum Disorder Relationship: Relative Lower Microbiota Diversity and Imbalance in Probiotics

Because of the existing gut microbiota profile-mental health relationships, probiotic-based diet supplementation is one of the potential treatments for Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASDs). To develop personalized probiotic supplements for an autistic adult living in a family with a neurotypical father, mother, and sister, fecal sample analyses were used to profile and compare gut microbiota. The most recent 16S rRNA technology has been used to determine microbial species at the species level (Mymicrozoo analysis, The Netherlands). When compared to his relatives, the autistic adult has less microbiota diversity and an unusually high Streptococci/Lactobacilli abundance ratio.

Author (s) Details

Holy Rabetafika
E-Lab of Multidisciplinary Science and Technology Abreast, Belgium.

Hary Razafindralambo
E-Lab of Multidisciplinary Science and Technology Abreast, Belgium and Gembloux Agro-Bio Tech, University of Liege, Belgium.

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Risk of Acoustic Trauma Associated With Artillery Weapon Gunners

The military is a high-risk occupational deafness environment. Acoustic trauma is a sensorineural hearing disorder caused by impulsive loud noise in the 2-6 kHz range. The purpose of this research is to determine the occurrence of acoustic trauma in a Howitzer 105 gunner. The Indonesian military does not currently have a hearing conservation program. The work environment of the armed forces puts military personnel at risk of occupational hearing loss caused by the use of primary defense equipment as one of the skill requirements. From July 7 to July 10, 2014, the research used a prospective period method, with the focus on new recruit soldiers in the Indonesian Army’s Artillery Academy. The subjects were divided into two groups: those who had been exposed (17 gunners) and those who had not been exposed (17 gunners) (stae the number of subjects). A questionnaire was used to collect information about the subjects’ identities, medical histories, and symptoms after firing. The Integrating Sound Level Meter and Real Time Analyzer were used to determine the intensity and frequency of the sound. To evaluate hearing function, pure tone audiometry was used. The Fisher Exact test was used to determine the data value (p0.05). The sound pressure level of a Howitzer 105 artillery weapon was 148.6 dBA with a frequency that decayed to 60 dBA for 2 seconds, while the impulsive sound intensity received at a distance of one metre exceeded the 1998th National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) criteria. Acoustic trauma to the gunner without ear protection is significant at 23.5 percent (p0.05), while symptoms of tinnitus and temporary hearing disorders (1 day) are only 6% and not significant (p>0.05).

Author(s) Details

Sigit Sasongko
Medical Faculty, General Achmad Yani University, Gatot Soebroto Army Central Hospital, Jakarta, Indonesia.

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Anti-Phospholipid Antibody Syndrome Presenting with Seizure and Atrial Mass: A Case Report

Antiphospholipid antibody syndrome (APS) has a broad spectrum of thrombotic and non-thrombotic clinical manifestations. Diagnosis requires a set of clinical criteria of thrombosis along with persistently positive anti-phospholipid antibody tests. In this report, we are presenting a case of APS, who is a 38 years old male, presented with complains of seizures and found to have stroke, which on further investigation revealed to have been caused possibly from a left atrial mass. High index of suspicion is required for the diagnosis of APS in young patients who present with a variety of neurological and cardiovascular symptoms, most of which are secondary to thrombosis APS is typically classified as primary or secondary based on the absence or presence of an underlying disease, as well as the presence or absence of other autoimmune, malignancy, or drug-induced disorders.

Author(s) Details

Rajish Sanjit Kumar Shil
Department of Internal Medicine, Al Ain Hospital, Al Ain, UAE.

Amal Abdallah Al Dhuhoori
Department of Internal Medicine, Al Ain Hospital, Al Ain, UAE.

Vipin Mughilassery Thomachan
Department of Cardiology, Al Ain Hospital, Al Ain, UAE.

Jamal Ali Teir
Department of Rheumatology, Al Ain Hospital, Al Ain, UAE.

Renganathan Radhakrishnan
Department of Neurology, Al Ain Hospital, Al Ain, UAE.

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Influences of Gravity Constraints on the Epidemiological and Clinical Impact of Cervicarthrosis

Background: Cervicarthrosis affects more than half of people over the age of 40, making it a public health issue. The WHO designated the decade 2001-2010 as the “decade of the bones and joints.”

Objective: To determine the epidemiological and clinical profile of Congolese patients suffering from cervical arthrosis, as well as to study the evolution of cervical lordosis modification in order to improve physical treatment.

Methods: From 2011 to 2016, this case study was carried out at Kinshasa University clinics. 35 patients, both male and female, with cervical arthrosis were included in the study. The various angulations of the cervical lordosis were measured using appropriate software. The average height of the cervical spine measured with a caliper was 14 cm. The load exerted by the head on the cervical spine was calculated as a function of lordosis and vertebral height.

The results showed that 34.3 percent of the 35 patients were men and 65.7 percent were women. The age ranged from 30 to 80 years, with the highest incidence of cervicarthrosis occurring between the ages of 61 and 65. (20 percent ). The clinic was dominated by cervical pain (80% ) and irradiated pain (37% ). Other symptoms (such as blurred vision, headaches, and dizziness) were poorly represented. In terms of radiographic signs, cervical lordosis was eliminated or reduced in 91% of cases, followed by inter-somatic pinching (68%), ductal stenosis (62%), and osteophytosis (20%). Osteoarthritic myelopathy, on the other hand, is extremely uncommon (2 percent ). Variation in head load (in kg) on each cervical spine vertebra from C1 to C7 and from 0 to 45° depending on vertebra level and degree of cervical lordosis. The force increases in an arithmetic progression from C1 to C7 and from 45° to 0°.

Conclusion: This chapter has just highlighted the significance of the cervical lordosis spine in the diagnosis of cervical arthrosis, as well as the role of cervical lordosis in the variation of head load on each vertebra. Cervical arthritis is a serious degenerative disease that affects the neck.

Author (s) Details

K.G. Meya

Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Articular Osteo unit, University Clinics of Kinshasa, Congo.

M. B. Nsitwayizatadi
Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Articular Osteo Unit, University Clinics of Kinshasa, Congo.

B. K. H. Nkakudulu
Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Articular Osteo Unit, University Clinics of Kinshasa, Congo.

B. Miangindula
Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Articular Osteo Unit, University Clinics of Kinshasa, Congo.

M. Mabanza
Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Articular Osteo Unit, University Clinics of Kinshasa, Congo.

M. Nkoy
Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Articular Osteo Unit, University Clinics of Kinshasa, Congo.

W. Okito
Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Articular Osteo Unit, University Clinics of Kinshasa, Congo.

D. V. Sali
Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Articular Osteo Unit, University Clinics of Kinshasa, Congo.

J. M. Mbuyi Muamba
Department of Internal Medicine, Service of Rheumatology, University Clinics of Kinshasa, Congo.

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Latest Research News on Optical Engineering : May 21

[1] Plasmonic Forward Scattering Effect in Organic Solar Cells: A Powerful Optical Engineering Method

In this report, plasmonic effects in organic photovoltaic cells (OPVs) are systematically analyzed using size-controlled silver nanoparticles (AgNPs, diameter: 10 ~ 100 nm), which were incorporated into the anodic buffer layer, poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS). The optical properties of AgNPs tuned by size considerably influence the performance levels of devices. The power conversion efficiency (PCE) was increased from 6.4% to 7.6% in poly[N-9-hepta-decanyl-2,7-carbazole-alt-5,5-(4,7-di-2-thienyl-2,1,3-benzothiadiazole)] (PCDTBT):[6,6]-phenyl C71-butyric acid methyl ester (PC70BM) based-OPVs and from 7.9% to 8.6% in polythieno[3,4-b]thiophene/benzodithiophene (PTB7):PC70BM based-OPVs upon embedding the AgNPs. The external quantum efficiency (EQE) was significantly enhanced by the absorption enhancement due to the plasmonic scattering effect. Finally, we verified the origin of the size-dependent plasmonic forwarding scattering effect of the AgNPs by visualizing the scattering field with near-field optical microscopy (NSOM) and through analytic optical simulations.


[2] Optical engineering with Fibonacci dielectric multilayers

We study the resonant transmission of light through Fibonacci dielectric multilayers (FDM). Making use of a transfer matrix renormalization technique [E. Maciá and F. Domı́nguez-Adame, Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 2957 (1996)] we obtain closed analytical expressions for the transmission coefficient under arbitrary incidence angle conditions. We analyze the relationship between the resonant wavelengths and the quasiperiodic structure of the substrate, suggesting the potential use of arrays containing FDMs of different sizes in the design of optical microcavities.


[3] Optical pattern recognition for validation and security verification

We propose an idea for security verification of credit cards, passports, and other forms of identification so that they cannot easily be reproduced. A new scheme of complex phase/amplitude patterns that cannot be seen and cannot be copied by an intensity-sensitive detector such as a CCD camera is used. The basic idea is to permanently and irretrievably bond a phase mask to a primary identification amplitude pattern such as a fingerprint, a picture of a face, or a signature. Computer simulation results and tests of the proposed system are provided to verify that both the phase mask and the primary pattern are separately readable and identifiable in an optical processor or correlator.


[4] Performance Analysis of Free Space Optical Communication Link Using Different Modulation and Wavelength

In this paper different modulation formats NRZ and RZ and different wavelengths 1550 nm and 1310 nm and two photodiodes APD and PIN has been investigated on free space optical communication link. The value of Q has been observed in all the cases in different eye diagrams. It is clear from the observations that the Q value is highest when we use wavelength of 1550 nm, NRZ modulation format and APD photodiode. On the other hand it is lowest when the same wavelength is used with RZ modulation format along with PIN photodiodes.


[5] Determination of Optical Band Gap Energy of Wurtzite ZnO: Ce Nanocrystallites


Aim: Determination of optical band gap energy of ZnO:Ce nanocrystallite and effect of doping on the optical band gap energy also probed.

Materials and Methods: ZnO:Ce nanoparticles are synthesized by Chemical precipitation route using 1 molar solutions of  Zinc Acetate and Sodium Hydroxide at 60°C. Then I molar percentage (1.72 gm) of Cerium oxide is added with the above solution and stirrered well using magnetic stirrer. Four-five drops Tri Ethyl Amine (TEA) are added as capping agent to control agglomeration. The characterization of sample was studied by XRD, FESEM, FTIR.EDAX and TEM. The UV-Vis spectrometer was used to study the Optical properties of nanopowder

Results and Discussion: From the XRD techniques the crystallite size of ZnO nanopowder was determined as13.83 nm at 150˚C which increased to 16.13 nm at temperatures 180˚C. FESEM showed nanoparticle of average size 13-50nm and nano clusters have size of 1µm.  EDAX data is found as Zinc oxide with 99.4% and Cerium 0.6%.TEM confirm the formation ZnO:Ce nanoparticle and it has an average size about 25nm, Some nanorods with average diameter of 40 nm and length of about 290 nm were also observed. The UV absorption spectra for bulk ZnO, nanoparticles of ZnO displayed excitonic peaks at 375 nm and 369 nm respectively. The present study found absorption edge at 372 nm for ZnO:Ce nanoparticle.

Conclusion: The UV Absorption spectra showed red shift towards 372 nm due to doping with Cerium and blue shifted relative to Bulk ZnO. From the absorption spectra optical band gap is determined as 3.32 eV. It was found that energy band gap Eg decreases with doping of Ce. The analysis of optical properties shows that ZnO:Ce is promising dielectric material and has potential application in optoelectronic devices .



[1] Baek, S.W., Noh, J., Lee, C.H., Kim, B., Seo, M.K. and Lee, J.Y., 2013. Plasmonic forward scattering effect in organic solar cells: a powerful optical engineering method. Scientific reports3(1), pp.1-7.

[2] Maciá, E., 1998. Optical engineering with Fibonacci dielectric multilayers. Applied Physics Letters73(23), pp.3330-3332.

[3] Javidi, B. and Horner, J.L., 1994. Optical pattern recognition for validation and security verification. Optical engineering33(6), pp.1752-1756.

[4] Kaur, H. and Soni, G., 2015. Performance analysis of free space optical communication link using different modulation and wavelength. Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, pp.201-209.

[5] Varughese, G., Jithin, P.W. and Usha, K.T., 2015. Determination of optical band gap energy of wurtzite ZnO: Ce nanocrystallites. Physical Science International Journal, pp.146-154.

The Role of Erythroferrone Hormone as Erythroid and Iron Regulator in Several Hematological Disorders

Erythroferrone (ERFE) is a hormone released in the bone marrow by erythroblasts in response to erythropoietin, which regulates the release of iron accumulation by its action on hepcidin, acting on hepatocytes to suppress hepcidin hormone expression. Erythroferrone is one of the possible therapeutic biomarkers for determining the activity of erythropoiesis in patients with blood disorders with respect to iron imbalance. Since Dr. Leon Kautz and colleagues were discovered in 2014 and until now there have been inadequate studies of Erythroferrone among humans, most studies are performed in animals. The role of Erythroferrone hormone as the erythroid hepcidin and iron metabolism regulator during thalassemia, inflammatory anaemia, and iron deficiency anaemia is briefly discussed in this chapter. Through a search using the following electronic databases, studies were found in this review: PubMed, Academia, Scopus, Google Scholar, and another open source database. Conclusion: Several studies have concluded that erythroferrone levels in the blood are higher in people with inflammatory thalassemia and iron deficiency anaemia than in people without thalassemia and iron deficiency anaemia. Awareness of the mechanisms of erythroferrone as an erythroid hepcidin and iron metabolism regulator during thalassemia and in iron deficiency anaemia is essential for both conditions in diagnosis and treatment. In cases of iron deficiency anaemia and thalassemia disease, erythroferrone hormone can act as a potential factor in the physiological suppression of hepcidin and play a key role in the treatment process among those patients with iron deficiency or iron overload status. However, there are few studies on the role of ERFE in humans so far since it has recently been discovered and continues to be studied, and most animal studies are carried out.

Author (s) Details

Asaad Ma. Babker
Department of Medical Laboratory Sciences, College of Health Sciences, Gulf Medical University, Ajman, United Arab Emirates.

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Availability and Affordability of Sanitation and Health Promoting Amenities: Driving the Impact of Knowledge of Childhood Diarrhea on Health-Seeking Practices of Under-five Children- Caregivers in Calabar-South, Calabar, Nigeria

Context: Diarrhea takes the lives of more children than the combination of malaria, HIV and measles. Corrective steps are suggested for the prompt detection of signs of diarrhoea by caregivers and the timely initiation of oral rehydration therapy using oral rehydration solution (ORS) or sufficient home-accessible fluids. Diarrhea is the world’s second largest cause of mortality for children under five. The goal of this study was to determine the fundamental awareness of childhood diarrhoea and health-seeking practises among caregivers of children under five in Calabar-South, Calabar, Nigeria within the limits of sanitation and public health facilities available. Materials and Methods: Of the 12 wards in the study area by casting lot, six wards were selected. From each of the 6 wards, ten streets were randomly chosen. To give a total of 660 compounds, eleven compounds were picked randomly per lane. A household with a child or children under five was randomly selected per compound, and 660 caregivers were therefore enrolled for consent. To gather data from respondents, semi-structured questionnaires were used. Results: In this sample, 638 (98.2%) of respondents in children under five had excellent basic knowledge of childhood diarrhoea, 12 (1.8%) had average basic knowledge, and no category was classified as having weak basic knowledge. The incidence of childhood diarrhoea among respondents with strong diarrhoea awareness (50.3 percent) was slightly higher than among respondents with reasonable basic knowledge (50 percent ). Some caregivers preferred to pursue health treatment from conventional healers in operation during the emergence of childhood diarrhoea 6.1 percent (19), churches 1.9 percent (6), pharmacies 16.9 percent (53), patent drug stores 18.8 percent (59), hospital, 14.3 percent (45), or self-medication at home 42 percent (132). Conclusion: While most caregivers had strong basic knowledge of childhood diarrhoea, due to insufficient involvement, there were restrictions on translating this knowledge through intervention activities. The research area’s social amenity system. Provision of social services such as hospitals, pipe carried water, waste treatment facilities, power supply, water drainage etc. should be given priority by government and non-governmental authorities. These results may be due to the insufficient availability of the social facilities network comprising primary health centres and community pharmacy, pipe-borne water system, water-closet toilet system, planned water drainage system for public waste disposal dumps, etc., thus restricting the translation of awareness to activities of diarrhoea intervention.

Author (s) Details

G. I. Ogban
Department of Medical Microbiology and Parasitology, University of Calabar, Calabar, Nigeria.

E. M. Ndueso
Department of Public Health, University of Calabar, Calabar, Nigeria.

A. A. Iwuafor
Department of Medical Microbiology and Parasitology, University of Calabar, Calabar, Nigeria.

U. E. Emanghe
Department of Medical Microbiology and Parasitology, University of Calabar, Calabar, Nigeria.

S. N. Ushie
Department of Medical Microbiology and Parasitology, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Awka, Nigeria.

R. I. Ejemot-Nwadiaro
Department of Public Health, University of Calabar, Calabar, Nigeria.

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