Solid-state Fermentation in the Bioavailability of Nutrients in Rice Bran

Rice bran, a by-product of grain processing, is nutrient-dense and high in bioactive compounds. Rice bran, on the other hand, has some disadvantages in terms of application, such as hydrolytic and oxidative enzyme activity, median digestibility, and antinutritional factors. Fermentative processes, on the other hand, seem to have the potential to effectively reduce these impacts. The aim of this chapter is to assess the benefits of rice bran for human consumption, as well as the benefits of fermentation on nutrient composition. The benefits of fermentation are evident in recent studies in the literature in increasing nutrient bioavailability, mitigating antinutritional factors, and increasing digestibility, rendering biomass a promising alternative in human nutrition.

Author (s) Details

Anelise Christ Ribeiro
School of Chemistry and Food, Federal University of Rio Grande, Brazil.

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Impact of Alcohol Exposure on the Composition of HeLa-Derived Extracellular Vesicles

Extracellular vesicles are nanosized vesicles whose function in intercellular communication is being studied extensively. Extracellular vesicles are being studied for their potential as disease biomarkers and/or vaccine agents, as well as their function in disease defence. Since cervical cancer has such a high mortality rate, more research about how to diagnose and treat the disease is required. Several researchers have begun to look into extracellular vesicles and their function in disease defence in this regard. The aim of this study was to see how alcohol affected the biogenesis and composition of extracellular vesicles derived from the HeLa cervical cancer cell line. HeLa cells were cultured in exosome-free media and either mock-treated (control) or treated with 50 mM or 100 mM alcohol for 24 and 48 hours, respectively. Alcohol has an important effect on HeLa cell viability and exosome biogenesis/composition, according to our findings. Our findings show that alcohol has a significant impact on HeLa cells, as well as the biogenesis and composition of HeLa-derived extracellular vesicles. These findings show that alcohol affects the packaging of heat shock proteins and apoptotic proteins in extracellular vesicles. Extracellular vesicles are both communicators for HeLa cells and biomarkers for the disease’s onset and progression. The research results may have significant effects on diagnostics and therapy for a variety of cell types and organ systems, as HeLa cells were used as the primary model in this study. To elucidate the mechanism(s) involved in these processes, further research is needed.

Author (s) Details

Leandra B. Jones
Microbiology Program, Department of Biological Sciences, College of Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics, Alabama State University, Montgomery, AL 36104, USA.

Sanjay Kumar
Department of Pediatrics and Cell, Developmental and Integrative Biology, Division of Neonatology, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL 35294, USA.

Aliyah J. Curry
Department of Biological Sciences, College of Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics, Alabama State University, Montgomery, AL 36104, USA and Center for Nanobiotechnology Research (CNBR), Alabama State University, Montgomery, AL 36104, USA.

Jayde S. Price
Department of Biological Sciences, College of Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics, Alabama State University, Montgomery, AL 36104, USA and Center for Nanobiotechnology Research (CNBR), Alabama State University, Montgomery, AL 36104, USA.

Alexandre Krendelchtchikov
Department of Pediatrics and Cell, Developmental and Integrative Biology, Division of Neonatology, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL 35294, USA.

Brennetta J. Crenshaw
Microbiology Program, Department of Biological Sciences, College of Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics, Alabama State University, Montgomery, AL 36104, USA.

Courtnee’ R. Bell
Microbiology Program, Department of Biological Sciences, College of Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics, Alabama State University, Montgomery, AL 36104, USA.

Sparkle D. Williams
Department of Pediatrics and Cell, Developmental and Integrative Biology, Division of Neonatology, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL 35294, USA.

Tambre A. Tolliver
Department of Biological Sciences, College of Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics, Alabama State University, Montgomery, AL 36104, USA.

Sabita N. Saldanha
Department of Biological Sciences, College of Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics, Alabama State University, Montgomery, AL 36104, USA.

Brian Sims
Department of Pediatrics and Cell, Developmental and Integrative Biology, Division of Neonatology, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL 35294, USA.

Qiana L. Matthews
Microbiology Program, Department of Biological Sciences, College of Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics, Alabama State University, Montgomery, AL 36104, USA and Department of Biological Sciences, College of Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics, Alabama State University, Montgomery, AL 36104, USA.

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Role of Cytochrome P450s in Insecticide Resistance in Anopheles gambiae (Diptera: Culicidae): The African Perspective

In all living species, including Anopheles gambiae, cytochrome P450s are known to be essential for the detoxification and/or activation of xenobiotics such as insecticides. P450s have been implicated in insecticide resistance in An. gambiae in numerous studies. In the African subcontinent, however, little is known about the influence of distribution. The P450 clans, the CYP6 family, the localization and function of An. gambiae CYPs, their insecticide substrates, regional distribution on the African continent, and their role in insecticide resistance are all examined in this paper. CYP6Z3, CYP6Z1, CYP12F2, CYP6P4, CYP6GA1, CYP6Z3 (Yaoundé, Cameroon) have bendiocarb, DDT, and pyrethroids as substrates; CYP314A1 and CYP12F1 (Tanzania and Zanzibar) have DDT as a substrate; CYP32A3, CYP6Z1. Additionally, bendiocarb, DDT plus pyrethroids, and only pyrethroids are substrates for CYP6M2, CYP6P3, and CYP6Z3 (Côte d’Ivoire), CYP6P3, CYP6Z2, and CYP9J5 (Burkina Faso). CYP6P3 has been found to metabolise all available insecticides (DDT, pyrethroid, trans- and cis-permethrin, deltamethrin, and bendiocarb), implying insecticide cross resistance in all three African areas. For successful resistance management, a better understanding of the substrate specificities of various P450s as well as the geographical distribution of insecticide resistance in Africa is needed.

Author (s) Details

B. R. Mohammed
School of Science, Engineering and Technology, Abertay University, Dundee, DD1 1HG, UK.

S. K. Malang
Department of Parasitology and Entomology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Abuja, Nigeria.

S. Mailafia
Department of Veterinary Microbiology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Abuja, Nigeria.

R. I. S. Agbede
Department of Parasitology and Entomology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Abuja, Nigeria.

R. D. Finn
Department of Biochemistry & Genetics, St George’s International School of Medicine, Faculty of Health & Life Sciences, Northumbria University, Newcastle Upon Tyne NE1 8ST, UK.

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Enzyme and Lectin Relationships in Cell Biology (Not Only Microbiology But Also Mammals and Plants)

Inter- and intramolecular relationships and directions in co-functioning lectins and enzymes are identified and ordered. The regularities of these relationships are highlighted and used as additional parameters for lectins and lectinic enzymes that are “true.” The findings point to the significance and potential of lectin-enzyme/ enzyme-lectin relationships in molecular and clinical cell biology, microbiology, medical biotechnology, and industry (enzyme-biotics as lectins, lectin-biotics as enzymes, lectin-enzyme complexes and assemblies with controlled specificities). Relationships between lectins and enzymes provide a larger platform/base for further research and development of advanced multi-functional agents that influence an organism’s interactome and support medical and biotech developments.

Author (s) Details

Vladimir Lakhtin
Department of Medical Biotechnology, G.N. Gabrichevsky Institute for Epidemiology and Microbiology, Moscow, Russia.

Mikhail Lakhtin
Department of Medical Biotechnology, G.N. Gabrichevsky Institute for Epidemiology and Microbiology, Moscow, Russia.

Valeriy Davydkin
Department of Medical Biotechnology, G.N. Gabrichevsky Institute for Epidemiology and Microbiology, Moscow, Russia.

Vladimir Alyoshkin
Department of Medical Biotechnology, G.N. Gabrichevsky Institute for Epidemiology and Microbiology, Moscow, Russia.

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Research on Semiquantification of Lethal Toxin at the Bottom of Reactors for Clostridium sordellii Culture

The veterinary vaccine for Clostridium sordelli is created by cultivating the microorganism in large industrial bioreactors and purifying the toxin from the culture supernatants. The harvesting time is currently determined by bacterial growth, but this time is not always correlated with the highest concentration of toxin in the supernatant. As a consequence, determining the total amount of toxin released from batch to batch is easy. Furthermore, the toxin concentration is currently determined using in vivo LD50 methods, with findings available only 72 hours after the bioreactor has been turned off. Furthermore, the procedure is time-consuming and requires the use of a large number of test animals. The development and use of a latex agglutination reagent for semi-quantification of Clostridium sordelli lethal toxin (TcsL) in industrial bioreactors is identified. The reagent was developed and tested in our lab, with a detection limit of 8ng of toxin per ml of culture supernatant, before being validated in real-world conditions. The use of such a fast (i.e., in minutes) and easy reagent would allow for real-time monitoring of the culture, standardising the best end-point for toxin quantity harvesting. As a result, TcsL industrial output quality could be increased right away.

Author (s) Details

Diana Pérez-Etcheverry
Laboratorio de Biotecnología, Instituto Polo Tecnológico de Pando-Facultad de Química, Universidad de la República, Uruguay.

Alberto Nieto-Cadenazzi
Laboratorio de Biotecnología, Instituto Polo Tecnológico de Pando-Facultad de Química, Universidad de la República, Uruguay.

Iris Miraballes-Martínez
Laboratorio de Biotecnología, Instituto Polo Tecnológico de Pando-Facultad de Química, Universidad de la República, Uruguay.

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On the Effective Antiviral Treatment of Enterovirus Infections

Enteroviruses (EVs) play an important role in human pathology as causative agents of diseases with a wide range of clinical manifestations. The high heterogeneity of these approximately 200 viruses is the cause of their rapid development of drug resistance and, as a result, the lack of appropriate antivirals for clinical use. Antiviral monotherapies have been shown to be ineffective as anti-enteroviral chemotherapy. To overcome the drug resistance barrier, we investigated EV replication inhibitors in cell culture experiments, looking at the impact of combinations of viral inhibitors. Anti-EV combinations were then tested in vivo in laboratory animals. The creation of the consecutive alternating administration (CAA) treatment course of triple combinations of antivirals with different modes of action was the most promising achievement in this research. In suckling albino mice, the CAA treatment scheme was used to treat Coxsackievirus B1 and B3 infections caused by large virus inocula (20 MLD50). The CAA treatment scheme included three triple combinations of five unique EV replication inhibitors: disoxaril, pleconaril, and guanidine. MDL-860, HCl, and oxoglaucine. Those tests revealed that the CAA strategy has a high efficacy, as shown by a significant protective effect: lower mortality and a longer mean survival time. In virus samples isolated from target organs (brain, heart) of Coxsackievirus B infected mice treated with a triple combination of antivirals through the CAA scheme, IC50 values (a phenotypic marker) of the virus progeny showed (a) a marked suppression in the development of drug resistance, and (b) an unusual phenomenon of an increase in susceptibility to the partner compounds in the combi. The changes assessing the virus’s increased resistance to the respective EV inhibitors were revealed by sequencing the genome (RNA) in samples of target isolates. The results of these studies indicate that the CAA treatment scheme, which includes triple antiviral combinations, is an effective chemotherapy for EV infections.

Author (s) Details

Angel S. Galabov
The Stephan Angeloff Institute of Microbiology, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Sofia, Bulgaria.

Adelina Stoyanova
The Stephan Angeloff Institute of Microbiology, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Sofia, Bulgaria.

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Chemo-Nutritional Analysis and Organoleptic Quality Characteristics of Smoked African Catfish (Clarias gariepinus) Treated with Scent Leaf (Ocimum gratissimum) Juice

During five (5) weeks of storage at ambient temperature, the nutrient composition, biochemical, and organoleptic consistency characteristics of smoked Clarias gariepinus treated with scent leaf (Ocimum gratissimum) juice were evaluated. Table-sized catfish were given a 0.2 percent solution of O. gratissimum juice. For 5 minutes before smoking, use 0.4 percent, 0.6 percent, 0.8 percent, and 1.0 percent v/v. The treatment control was 1.0 percent v/v brine. Weeks 0 and 5 were used to determine the approximate composition of fresh and smoked fish. Weekly biochemical analysis and organoleptic quality evaluations were performed. The crude protein values obtained from the proximate composition ranged from 64.42 percent to 66.80 percent. The values of free fatty acids, peroxide content, and total volatile nitrogen increased with storage time, but stayed within limits (0.09 percent – 0.65 percent, 1.22 meq/kg – 1.77 meq/kg, and 1.495 mg/100 g – 11.750 mg/100 g, respectively). As compared to the other samples and the monitor, the sample handled with 0.2 percent juice received higher scores from the taste panel for taste (7.43), scent (7.46), texture (7.33), appearance (7.77), and general acceptability (7.57). This may be due to the influence of the fragrance leaf’s spicy properties. The organoleptic properties of the smoked fish were strongest at low concentrations. The research also discovered that Ocimum gratissimum juice can be used to enhance the biochemical and organoleptic consistency of smoked meats that have been stored for a long time. Clarias gariepinus is a species of Clarias.

Author (s) Details

Adeosun Olubunmi
Department of Fisheries Technology, Oyo State College of Agriculture and Technology, Igboora, Nigeria.

Adegbola, Sunday Abiola
Department of Fisheries Technology, Oyo State College of Agriculture and Technology, Igboora, Nigeria.

Bankole, Adebukola Folake
Department of Fisheries Technology, Oyo State College of Agriculture and Technology, Igboora, Nigeria.

Olateju, Gbolahan Basit
Department of Fisheries Technology, Oyo State College of Agriculture and Technology, Igboora, Nigeria.

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Performance Evaluation of Vegetative Growth, Yield and Quality of Bottle Gourds (Lagenaria siceraria L.) All India Co-ordinated Vegetable Improvement Project (AICVIP) Varietal Trials (AVT-I)

The All India Coordinated Vegetable Improvement Project (AICVIP) varietal trials (AVT-I) were conducted from 2013 to 2014 at the Department of Vegetable Crops, Horticultural College and Research Institute, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore, to study the vegetative growth and yield performance of Bottle Gourds. The experiment was set up in Randomized Block Design (RBD) with three replications, one of which included the seeds from the Bottle Gourds entries, namely The following genes were chosen for this study: 2012/BOGVAR-1, 2012/BOGVAR-2, 2012/BOGVAR-3, 2012/BOGVAR-4, 2012/BOGVAR-5, 2012/BOGVAR-6, 2012/BOGVAR-7, 2012/BOGVAR-8, NDBG-104 (C), and CO1 (LC). The bottle gourd, Lagenaria siceraria, belongs to the Cucurbitaceae family. The huge white flowers of the bottle gourd, which is extremely strong climbing, herbaceous, and monoecious, easily distinguish it from other Cucurbitaceous family members. During the years 2013 to 2014, the Bottle gourd genotypes were carefully sown in the field at a spacing of 300 X 75cm and a plot scale of 7.5 m X 3.0 m. Development and yield parameters showed significant variations between genotypes. The highest fruit yield (253.6 q/ha) was reported in 2012/BOGVAR-5, followed by 2012/BOGVAR-8 (240.3 q/ha) among the different bottle gourd genotypes tested (AVT-I). NDBG-104 (C) and CO1-(LC), on the other hand, yielded 225.5 and 226.4 q/ha, respectively.

Author (s) Details

R. Pandiyan
Department of Vegetable Crops, Horticultural College and Research Institute, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore, 641003, Tamil Nadu, India.

L. Pugalenthi
Department of Vegetable Crops, Horticultural College and Research Institute, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore, 641003, Tamil Nadu, India.

V. A. Sathyamurthy
Department of Vegetable Crops, Horticultural College and Research Institute, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore, 641003, Tamil Nadu, India.

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Improvement of Growth, Yield and Quality of Tomato Indeterminate Entries (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) All India Coordinated Vegetable Improvement Project (AICVIP) Varietal Trials (AVT-II)

From 2014 to 2015, a field experiment was conducted at the Department of Vegetable Crops, Horticultural College and Research Institute, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore, to evaluate the performance of the All India Co-Ordinated Vegetable Improvement Project (AICVIP) varietal trial (AVT-II) on growth, yield, and quality of Tomato Indeterminate entries. Six entries were selected for this study: tomato indeterminate (AVT-II) plants. Tomato cultivation can be done in the open field or in a greenhouse under controlled environmental conditions. The highest fruit yield (345.0 q/ha) was recorded in 2012/ TOINDVAR-4, followed by ARKA VIKAS (C) (335.0 q/ha), and the lowest fruit yield (291.0 q/ha) was recorded in 2012/ TOINDVAR-1, among the Six entries tested (AVT-II).

Author (s) Details

R. Pandiyan
Department of Vegetable Crops, Horticultural College and Research Institute, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore, 641003, Tamil Nadu, India.

L. Pugalenthi
Department of Vegetable Crops, Horticultural College and Research Institute, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore, 641003, Tamil Nadu, India.

V. A. Sathyamurthy
Department of Vegetable Crops, Horticultural College and Research Institute, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore, 641003, Tamil Nadu, India.

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Dipyridamole as an Antiviral Agent

Dipyridamole (DP), a pyrimido-pyrimidine derivative, was found to be an interferon (IFN) inducer in cultivated in vitro lymphoid cells, and when given orally to mice and humans, it produced high IFN titres in less than 24 hours. A duration of IFN antagonistic activity was observed. The inducer target was discovered to be gut-associated lymphoid tissue. A total of more than 6000 people took part in three double-blind placebo trials. The findings showed that DP can prevent influenza and viral acute respiratory infections. The ability of DP to inhibit cAMP phosphodiesterase is responsible for its IFN-inducing activity, according to experimental evidence. Furthermore, DP has a strong inhibitory effect on the replication of a wide range of viruses from different taxonomic classes. In humans, there have been conflicting findings about DP’s IFN synthesis. The lack of DP-induced IFN development in humans was explained convincingly by a pharmacokinetic model and study. In lupus erythematosus, the common cold, chronic pulmonary diseases, liver diseases, ophthalmology, dermatology (herpesvirus and papillomavirus infections), and AIDS, DP activities were observed and identified. The effect of DP on blood aggregation was given special attention.

Author (s) Details

Angel S. Galabov
The Stephan Angeloff Institute of Microbiology, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Sofia, Bulgaria.

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