Latest News on Environmental Microbiology: March 2021

Oligonucleotide microchips as genosensors for determinative and environmental studies in microbiology.

The utility of parallel hybridization of environmental nucleic acids to many oligonucleotides immobilized in a matrix of polyacrylamide gel pads on a glass slide (oligonucleotide microchip) was evaluated. Oligonucleotides complementary to small-subunit rRNA sequences of selected microbial groups, encompassing key genera of nitrifying bacteria, were shown to selectively retain labeled target nucleic acid derived from either DNA or RNA forms of the target sequences. The utility of varying the probe concentration to normalize hybridization signals and the use of multicolor detection for simultaneous quantitation of multiple probe-target populations were demonstrated. [1]

Nosocomial aspergillosis: Environmental microbiology, hospital epidemiology, diagnosis and treatment

Epidemiology, diagnosis and treatment of nosocomial aspergillosis. Appropriate environmental control measures are important in preventing or arresting an outbreak of nosocomial aspergillosis. These include selective environmental microbiological surveillance and floor to ceiling barriers during construction or renovation. These is particularly important for the bone marrow transplant units and units with persistently granulocytopenic patients. We have summarized the point source and cited or formulated the environmental correction measures relating to 25 outbreaks of nosocomial aspergillosis involving a total of more than 100 patients. The most frequent settings of nosocomial invasive aspergillosis occurred in granulocytopenic patients following respiratory infection from an airborne source, associated with hospital construction or contaminated ventilation systems. [2]

Life, Death, and In-Between: Meanings and Methods in Microbiology

Determination of microbial viability by the plate count method is routine in microbiology laboratories worldwide. However, limitations of the technique, particularly with respect to environmental microorganisms, are widely recognized. Many alternatives based upon viability staining have been proposed, and these are often combined with techniques such as image analysis and flow cytometry. The plethora of choices, however, adds to confusion when selecting a method. Commercial staining kits aim to simplify the performance of microbial viability determination but often still need adaptation to the specific organism of interest and/or the instruments available to the researcher. This review explores the meaning of microbial viability and offers guidance in the selection and interpretation of viability testing methods. [3]

Microbiological Analysis of Ready-To-Eat-Foods Obtained from Bukaterian within the Ekiti State University and Environment, Ado-Ekiti, Nigeria

Food-borne diseases are the global public health problem. At random 75 food samples comprising of fifteen each of the five commonly eaten ready-to-eat foods (rice, beans, yam, fufu and meat) were collected from different vendors of the university. Aerobic bacterial count and fungal count were determined by counting the colonies on nutrient agar plates and saboraud dextrose agar plates respectively. The identification of the organisms was determined by their morphology, culture characteristics and biochemical profile. The result obtained revealed that Mean aerobic plate counts ranged from 1.0 x 10cfu/g (rice) to 6.0 x 10cfu/g (meat) and mean fungal count ranged from 1.3 x 10cfu/g (rice) to 5.2 x 10cfu/g (meat). A total of eleven species (spp) of microorganisms including Escherichia coli, Bacillus cereus, Salmonella spp., Clostridium perfringens, Shigella spp., Klebsiella spp., Proteus spp., Staphylococcus aureus, Campylobacter spp., Aspergillus spp. and Mucor spp. were isolated from the food samples. Bacillus cereus had the highest percentage frequency with (18.12%) while Campylobacter spp. had the lowest percentage frequency with (1.45%). Fufu had the highest percentage of contamination of 35.51% with lowest in yam and meat which both had 5.8%. Based on the specifications by International Commission for Microbiological Specification for Foods (ICMSF), the level of contaminations was within acceptable microbiological limits except for Meat and Fufu; this could be attributed to inadequate processing, poor handling practices and post-cross contamination which can pose danger to the health of the consumers. It is recommended that regular microbiological quality control programs and good hygiene practices should be encourage. [4]

Microbiological Impact Assessment of Air Environment of the Hides and Skin Processing Unit of NILEST Tannery, Zaria

Introduction: Microbial analysis of air is one of the most vital investigations of determining the microbial air pollution. The information on the microbial concentration of bacteria and fungi is necessary both to estimate the health hazard and to create standard for air quality control.

Aim: This study was carried out to investigate the microbiological quality of the air environment in the hides and skin processing unit of NILEST Tannery, Zaria.

Methodology: The analysis was carried out using the settle-plate method. The plates were exposed during passive and active sessions for 30 to 60 minutes.

Results: The bacteria isolated and identified include Proteus mirablis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella enterica, Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniawhereas the fungi isolated include Sclerotium sp., Fusarium sp., Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus fumigatus, Corticium sp., and Aspergillus ficheri. The mean total bacteria load recorded during passive and active sessions were 180 cfu/m3 and 254 cfu/m3 respectively. Those of fungi were 115 cfu/m3 and 284 cfu/m3respectively.

Conclusions: The isolation of these microorganisms from the study area is indicative of workers being exposed to potential bio-hazards and therefore there is the need for adequate measures to reduce the risk of exposure to pathogenic strains. [5]

Reference

[1] Guschin, D.Y., Mobarry, B.K., Proudnikov, D., Stahl, D.A., Rittmann, B.E. and Mirzabekov, A.D., 1997. Oligonucleotide microchips as genosensors for determinative and environmental studies in microbiology. Applied and environmental microbiology63(6), pp.2397-2402.

[2] Walsh, T.J. and Dixon, D.M., 1989. Nosocomial aspergillosis: environmental microbiology, hospital epidemiology, diagnosis and treatment. European journal of epidemiology5(2), pp.131-142.

[3] Davey, H.M., 2011. Life, death, and in-between: meanings and methods in microbiology. Applied and environmental microbiology77(16), pp.5571-5576.

[4] Akindele, P.O. and Ibrahim, K.A., 2016. Microbiological Analysis of Ready-To-Eat-Foods Obtained from Bukaterian within the Ekiti State University and Environment, Ado-Ekiti, Nigeria. Journal of Advances in Microbiology, pp.1-8.

[5] Oko, J.O. and Abua, R., 2016. Microbiological Impact Assessment of Air Environment of the Hides and Skin Processing Unit of NILEST Tannery, Zaria. Archives of Current Research International, pp.1-6.

An Overview of Optimization, Characterization, Recovery and Application of Polyhydroxyalkanoates Synthesized by Microorganisms

If we work for a more sustainable future, the most significant roadblock is the quality and cost-effectiveness of plastics in most industries. As a result, bacterial polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) tend to be a promising candidate for replacing non-biodegradable plastics and combating the contamination caused by their accumulation over time. PHA are energy stores created by microbial cells that can be used in nutrient-deficient environments, and they have properties that are similar to non-degradable plastics that have been widely used by the general public for decades. They are also biodegradable and biocompatible. As a result, researchers and environmentalists are becoming increasingly interested in PHA-accumulating microorganisms as a potential replacement for existing plastics. PHA properties are influenced by a variety of physicochemical parameters as well as factors such as microbial strain, development, and nutritional conditions. Thus, even if formed by the same species isolated from different environments, studying different optimization parameters for PHA accumulation in bacterial cells and its characterization is extremely significant. Due to its biodegradable nature, PHAs have a wide range of applications, not just in marketing but also in medicine, using biotechnology and interdisciplinary approaches. This monograph provides an overview of the techniques used to screen PHA accumulators, optimise their aggregation, and characterise these polymers using analytical instruments that have been published in the literature. In addition, the various applications of PHAs in various fields are discussed.

Author(s) Detailts

Joyline Mascarenhas
Department of Microbiology, Wilson College, Mumbai 400007, Maharashtra, India.

K. Aruna
Department of Microbiology, Wilson College, Mumbai 400007, Maharashtra, India.

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Effect of Sumac on DNA: An Advanced Study

For a long period of time, R. By grinding dried fruits with salt, coriaria has been used as a spice and has also been commonly used in herbal medicine as a medicinal herb because of its athero-protective role and its ability to treat eye diseases, wounds, intestinal disorders, ringworms and skin disorders. Furthermore, R. Coriaria has recently been shown to have hepatoprotective, anti-ischemic, antimicrobial, anti-tumor, hypoglycemic, and hyperlipidemic impact. This plant has recorded volatile compounds, flavonoids, tannins, and xanthones. Because of its basic set and impressive biological operations, R. Coriaria has been used in some parts of the world, particularly in Iran, both as food and medicine. There is potent antimigratory activity in tannin derived from Sumac. Sumac contains tannin, a material used in the tanning of vegetables. The effect of TANNIN (plant polyphenolic compound) on spinach DNA extract has been investigated. Tannin is extracted using acetone extraction, where ethanol precipitation extracts DNA. By using different concentrations (10 to 30 percent) of tannin, the effect of tannin on DNA was studied. Over incubation time, the optical density (O.D.) values of DNA decreased, suggesting a decrease in density following the addition of tannin that can be protective by restoring DNA or preventing damage to DNA.

Author(s) Details

Umamah Iram
St.Ann’s College for Women, Santoshnagar Colony, Mehdipatnam, Hyderabad, Telangana, India.

Sumera Naaz
St.Ann’s College for Women, Santoshnagar Colony, Mehdipatnam, Hyderabad, Telangana, India.

Nousheen Fatima
St.Ann’s College for Women, Santoshnagar Colony, Mehdipatnam, Hyderabad, Telangana, India.

Dr.  Elizabeth Margaret
St.Ann’s College for Women, Santoshnagar Colony, Mehdipatnam, Hyderabad, Telangana, India.

Dr. V. Venugopal Rao
St.Ann’s College for Women, Santoshnagar Colony, Mehdipatnam, Hyderabad, Telangana, India.

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Recent Advancements on the Application of Biotechnology towards Diagnosis and Treatment in Veterinary Medicine in Africa: Potentials and Future Developments

In many fields of medicine, biotechnology is an already proven method, but its implementation in the field of veterinary medicine has only begun to emerge with the potential to revolutionise veterinary practise. Therefore, this paper reviews existing biotechnology applications in veterinary medicine for diagnosis and treatment in Africa, including: molecular gene cloning, development of vaccines derived from recombinant biotechnology, application of polymerase chain reaction (PCR), Real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), polymerase chain reaction polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) and bioinformatics for infectious and parasitic disease detection, gene therapy, disease diagnosis and delivery systems of care, and many more. These components exist in other parts of the world and are thus presumed to be consolidated in the near future as a private enterprise in the African distribution system. Although it is sensible to postulate that the application of biotechnology and its peculiar evolution will change veterinary medicine imminently, there is immense treatment, Among industry stakeholders, this latest scientific advance may be hampered by food health and safety and other civil and ethical issues. The ethical problems that include the Three Rs principle (Reduction of animal population, Refinement of enactments and farm management to minimise affliction and desperation, Substitution of animals with non-animal surrogate where possible. There is detailed consideration of restrictions on the application of veterinary practises. This research has implications for the potential revolutionization of veterinary practise and the rise in human consumption of protein sources. Finally, it is hoped that biotechnology will vigorously contribute to the progress of diagnosis in veterinary medicine in the immediate future. Therefore, this will include resources and biomarkers for an exceptional understanding of the processes involved in the propagation of epidemics in livestock.

Author(s) Details

B. R. Mohammed
School of Science, Engineering and Technology, Abertay University, UK.

Prof. S. K. Malang
Department of Parasitology and Entomology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Abuja, Nigeria.

Prof. S. Mailafia
Department of Microbiology, University of Abuja, Nigeria.

Prof. R. I. S. Agbede
Department of Parasitology and Entomology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Abuja, Nigeria.

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Mucosal Open Cavities: Organs Supported by Specific Microbiocenoses Increasing Human Resistance

New aspects of safety mechanisms for the human mucosal cavity are under consideration. It has been proposed that mucosal cavities act as mucosal organs on the basis of their own data. Progress in developing thoughts about the identification and binding of glycoconjugates by mucosal organs is reflected. New mucosal organ players were suggested and identified. Probiotic/symbiotic lectins and probiotic/symbiotic microorganisms were included in the system and glycoconjugates were synthetic polymeric multi-valence patterns. Lectins and glycoconjugates (mucin-like or imitating, antigens, polysaccharides and other metabolites of high molecular mass and postbiotics) were suggested to connect to other non-antibody-origin glycoconjugate-recognizing molecules and receptors of the higher hierarchical defence systems of humans. Proposed ideas, techniques, approaches, methods and algorithms endorse the definition and sub-concepts of working ordered mucosal organs identifying and reversibly binding glycoconjugates. The data is useful for the construction of unique pro/synbiotic microbiocenoses ordered by biotope for use in medical biotechnology.

Author(s) Details

Vladimir M. Lakhtin
Department of Medical Biotechnology, G.N. Gabrichevsky Institute for Epidemiology and Microbiology, Moscow, Russia.

Mikhail V. Lakhtin
Department of Medical Biotechnology, G.N. Gabrichevsky Institute for Epidemiology and Microbiology, Moscow, Russia.

Stanislav S. Afanasiev
Department of Medical Biotechnology, G.N. Gabrichevsky Institute for Epidemiology and Microbiology, Moscow, Russia.

Valery Yu. Davydkin
Department of Medical Biotechnology, G.N. Gabrichevsky Institute for Epidemiology and Microbiology, Moscow, Russia.

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Molecular Diagnostic Techniques for the Characterisation of Escherichia coli

Escherichia coli isolated from Creek Road/Bonny Estuary using molecular techniques was described by this research. For the presence of E, one hundred and twenty (120) water samples were examined. Coli at Bonny Estuary/Creek Lane. For the isolation and detection of E, the Most Probable Number (MPN) process, the Eijkman test and molecular techniques were used. From coli. The research was performed on a daily basis (morning and evening) and seasonally (end of rainy season (November), beginning of rainy season (April) and mid rainy season (July) respectively). All of E. In the E pathotypes, coli isolates were screened for resistance genes. The Polymerase chain reaction technique uses coli (EHEC, EPEC, EAEC, ETEC and EIEC), including Sulfhydryl Variable (SHV), CTX-M, Temoniera (TEM) and MCR genes. The findings showed that 100% of the water samples were positive for coliforms and that E was harbouring all the water samples. From coli. In the morning of April (48 MPN/100 ml), the highest total count of coliforms recorded was The distribution of in the E of individual genes. SHV (5.0), CTX-M (5.8), TEM (4.2), MCR (0.0 percent), stx1 and stx2 (4.2), esV and bfA (1.7), aaiC (4.2), elt (3.3), and invE are coli isolates: (2.5). Of all the resistance genes, CTX-M was the most frequently detected. The presence of bacteria in the water body may have led to the location of waste dumps, the discharge of sewage and the construction of toilets, and the use of human and animal excreta as manure.

Author(s) Details

Dr. Constancy Prisca Aleru
Department of Medical Laboratory Science, Rivers State University, Nkpolu-Oroworukwo, P.M.B. 5080, Port Harcourt, Rivers State, Nigeria.

Prof. Kinikanwo Confidence Wachukwu
Department of Medical Laboratory Science, Rivers State University, Nkpolu-Oroworukwo, P.M.B. 5080, Port Harcourt, Rivers State, Nigeria.

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Antifungal, Antiradical and Insecticidal Activities of Some Grass Species

Poaceae is one of the economically important families of plants and includes grass-designated monocotyledonous flowering plants. Grasses are useful as fruit, fodder, essential oil sources, building materials, and medicine. The antifungal, antiradical and insecticidal activity of grass extracts, namely Paspalum conjugatum P.J.Bergius, Oplismenus compositus (L.) P.Beauv., Capillipedium huegelii (Hack.) A.Camus and Echinochloa colona (L.) Link, were evaluated in the present study. The extraction of shade-dried plant materials by maceration using methanol was carried out. Antifungal activity against two seed-borne fungi viz. was assessed by Poisoned food technique. A. and Aspergillus niger. Oh, Flavus. In addition to mycelial development, the extracts were successful in causing considerable sporulation suppression. The DPPH free radical scavenging assay calculated the anti-radical operation. The extracts were effective in dose-dependently scavenging radicals. Insecticidal activity against II instar larvae of the genus Aedes has been evaluated. The extracts resulted in 100 percent larval mortality at the tested concentration. For the production of formulations that can be used against phytopathogenic fungi, oxidative damage, and vectors that spread dreadful diseases, grasses appear to be promising tools. The purification of the active principles from crude extracts and the assessment of their bioactivity should be carried out.

Author(s) Details

Dr. T. R. Prashith Kekuda
Department of Microbiology, S.R.N.M.N. College of Applied Sciences, N.E.S. Campus, Balraj Urs Road, Shivamogga-577201, Karnataka, India.

Ms. Fathima Mohammadi
Department of Microbiology, S.R.N.M.N. College of Applied Sciences, N.E.S. Campus, Balraj Urs Road, Shivamogga-577201, Karnataka, India.

Ms. V. Nandini
Department of Microbiology, S.R.N.M.N. College of Applied Sciences, N.E.S. Campus, Balraj Urs Road, Shivamogga-577201, Karnataka, India.

Ms. K. S. Shreya
Department of Microbiology, S.R.N.M.N. College of Applied Sciences, N.E.S. Campus, Balraj Urs Road, Shivamogga-577201, Karnataka, India.

Mr. H. U. Abhijith
P.G. Department of Studies and Research in Botany, Jnana Sahyadri, Kuvempu University, Shankaraghatta-577451, Karnataka, India.

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Acinetobacter: An Antimicrobial Zugzwang?

As a new hospital pathogen with resistance to several groups of antibiotics, Acinetobacter baumannii has emerged. Despite its clinical importance, scientific evidence on the microbiological and pharmacological aspects of this organism has been minimal until recently. The availability of complete genome sequences, bacterial genome manipulation molecular tools, and animal infection models allowed the identification of factors that play a role in A. The persistence and infection of baumannii. This analysis summarises the data currently available on A’s processes of epidemiology, molecular and drug resistance. Baumannii and its pharmacotherapeutic and clinical consequences for healthcare.

Author(s) Details

Dr. A. Rammohan
The Institute of Liver Disease & Transplantation, Dr. Rela Institute & Medical Centre, Bharat Institute of Higher Education & Research, Chennai, India.

Dr. S. D. Cherukuri
Somerset NHS Foundation Trust, Taunton, UK.

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Secretion of α-L-rhamnosidases by Few Aspergillus Fungal Strains Using Solid State Fermentation and Their Application in Debittering of Orange Fruit Juice

Alpha-L-rhamnosidase development from Aspergillus ochraceous MTCC -1810, A. MTCC Wentii-1901, A. MTCC Sydowii- 635, A. Using readily available agro-industrial residues such as corn cob, rice bran, sugarcane bagasse, wheat bran and citrus peel as substrate, foetidus MTCC-508 under solid-state fermentation. Among these, the best substrate was found to be sugarcane bagasse in combination with naringin and sucrose. The development of alpha-L-rhamnosidase was highest at 30 °C after the 4th day of incubation and the substrate to moisture ratio was 1:1 w/v. The maximal development of the enzyme was caused by supplementation of the medium with 10 percent naringin. The alpha-L-rhamnosidases temperature optima and pH optima were calculated in the range of 50-60 °C and 4.0-5.0 respectively. For the debittering of orange fruit juice, the alpha-L-rhamnosidases secreted from the above fungal strains are appropriate. In the achievement of the above goal, the studies mentioned in this communication will be helpful.

Author(s) Details

Dr. Sarita Yadav
Department of Chemistry, DDU Gorakhpur University, Gorakhpur-273009, Uttar Pradesh, India.

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Comparison of Widal Screening Test with Cultural Isolation Method for Diagnosis of Salmonella typhi/paratyphi Infections

The efficacy of Widal screening was tested in comparison with stool and blood cultures for the diagnosis of typhoid/paratyphoid fever in exposed subjects. A total of 1000 samples from 248 males and 252 females aged < 1 – 68 years (500 stools and 500 blood each) were examined. A broad screening test was performed on the blood using commercial antigen, following the instructions of the manufacturer. The isolation and detection of species from blood and stool samples has been carried out using standard methods. Using polyvalent sera, characterization was performed and verified using single factor sera. Levels of retrieval of S. In the different Widal antibody titres, paratyphi A, B, C and typhi D were assessed from stool and blood cultures of positive subjects. Positive for S. among the subjects The isolation rate from stool was 37.5 percent at 1:160 large titers of O and H variants, while 39.1 percent of each subject combined was isolated from both blood and stool at 1:80 titers. For those who were hopeful for S. The isolation rates from stool and blood sample cultures combined were 46.7 percent at 1:160 positive titres, paratyphi B. Paratyphi C’s 1:320 positive titers had peak isolation rates (41.7 percent) single from blood samples. In the instance of S. The peak isolation rate (47.4 percent) of typhoid D was 1:320 from the blood. Among the rates of S isolates, there was a substantial difference (P= .001). Typhi D, with Widal screening, from blood, stool and stool/blood cultures. There was no connection, however, between the data (r= .256, .309 and .235 respectively). Blood culture is an essential aid in the early stages of infection for the recovery and isolation of the organism. Stool culture can also be used as a diagnostic technique, although not very precise. Widal test, although it is also sensitive to only a screening process, but only results that produce high titles are accurate.

Author(s) Details

Dr. Clara Idara Eleazar
Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Biological Sciences, University of Nigeria, Nsukka, Nigeria.

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