Aminoff Suffering Syndrome: A Challenge for Medical and Nursing Staff during End-of-Life Care: Open Letter and Proposals

The diagnosis of Aminoff Suffering Syndrome in advanced dementia determined by measuring the suffering level of patients according to the Mini Suffering State Examination (MSSE) scale—facilitates acceleration and intensity of care by the nursing staff in order to prevent and relieve suffering. Relief of Suffering Units for patients with Aminoff Suffering Syndrome should be an integral part of any medical department or nursing home that specializes in caring for elderly people. Aminoff Suffering Syndrome at the end of life could, and should be diagnosed, prevented and diminished. The treatment of patients with Aminoff Suffering Syndrome at the end of life is a genuine challenge for medical and nursing personnel. Our proposals for further experimental studies at the end of life are the diagnosis of Aminoff Suffering Syndrome in dying patients with cancer, AIDS, cardiac, pulmonary, kidney, liver and other terminal diseases. We recommend that such studies should be performed at the St Christopher’s Hospice and all other settings.

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News Update on Tomato Genotypes Research: July – 2019

Variation in resistance to the root‐knot nematode Meloidogyne incognita in tomato genotypes bearing the Mi gene

Root‐knot nematodes (Meloidogyne spp.) ar among the most pathogens of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) worldwide. Plant resistance is presently the tactic of selection for dominant these pests and every one the commercially obtainable resistant cultivars carry the dominant Mi factor, that confers resistance to the 3 main species Meloidogyne arenaria, M. incognita and M. javanica. but the emergence of virulent biotypes able to overcome the tomato resistance factor could represent a severe limitation to such a sway strategy. To date, very little was noted of the attainable influence of the homozygous vs heterozygous allelomorphic state of the Mi locus, or the tomato genetic background, on the expression of the resistance. so as to check each these factors, the resistance was evaluated of an oversized panel of L. esculentum genotypes (selected from the Vilmorin germplasm stock collection) to seven M. incognita lines avirulent or virulent against the Mi factor. Plant resistance was calculable by reckoning the egg plenty on the foundation systems once immunization with second‐stage juveniles (J2). copy of the nematodes was similar or, more often, considerably higher on heterozygous tomato genotypes than on homozygous ones, suggesting a attainable dose result of the Mi factor. information additionally indicated that the tomato genetic background had a significant result on the variations determined in roundworm copy, particularly once tomato genotypes were heterozygous for the Mi factor. These results have vital consequences in terms of breeding ways and sturdiness of the resistance presented by the Mi factor. [1]

In Vitro screening of tomato genotypes for drought resistance using polyethylene glycol

Drought may be a major abiotic issue that limits plant growth and productivity. Tomato is a crucial vegetable crop and space below production is restricted by irrigation water deficiency. Effort was created to

screen tomato germplasm below in vitro condition exploitation polythene glycol (PEG) at four concentrations (0, 20, forty and sixty g/l) with 2 replications in factorial CRD. necessary seed plant characters like root length and weight; shoot length and weight were recorded. Drought resistant mutant by-products and hybrid created exploitation mutant derivative as mother performed considerably superior for root characters. Decrease in seed plant growth was value notice with increasing concentration of PEG indicating precise nature of the in vitro screening. Mutant hybrid and its derivatives were ascertained with outstanding ability to continue root growth below in vitro stress

conditions indicating there ability to fight with sever water stress state of affairs. These results were additional confirmed for early indication traits in raised bed seedlings and fully-grown mature plants below field

conditions. in any respect 3 experimental conditions, mutant derivatives and hybrids performed higher than cultivated genotypes below all levels of water stress. supported results, Hy-3 and MTG 1-4 were found

to be drought resistant because of there outstanding performance in any respect levels of water stress. This in vitro screening technique is potential and price effective method to screen giant set of germplasm at intervals terribly

less period and accurately. [2]

Effects of Priming and Endosperm Integrity on Seed Germination Rates of Tomato Genotypes: II. GERMINATION AT REDUCED WATER POTENTIAL

Seed germination rates (GR =inverse of your time to germination) ar sensitive to genetic, environmental, and physiological factors. we’ve got compared the GR of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) seeds of tracheophyte T5 to those of apace germinating L. esculentum genotypes PI 341988 and PI 120256 over a variety of water potential (ψ). The influence of seed priming treatments and removal of the endosperm/testa cap envelopment the body structure tip on germination at reduced ψ were conjointly assessed. Germination time-courses at completely different ψ’s were analysed consistent with a model that known a base, or minimum, ψ permitting germination of a selected share (g) of the seed population (ψb(g)), and a ‘hydrotime constant’ (θH) indicating the speed of progress toward germination per MPa.h. The distribution of ψb(g) determined by probit analysis was characterised by a mean base ψ (b) and therefore the variance in ψb among seeds (σψb). The 3 derived parameters, b, σψb) and θH, were adequate to predict the time-courses of germination of intact seeds at any ψ. A normalized time-scale for examination germination responses to reduced ψ is introduced. The time to germination at any ψ(tg(ψ)) is normalized to be similar to that ascertained in water (tg(0)) consistent with the equation tg(0)=[l−(ψ/ψb(g))]tg(ψ). PI 341988 seeds were a lot of tolerant of reduced ψ and had a a lot of fast GR than T5 seeds thanks to each a lower b and a smaller θH. The fast germination of PI 120256, on the opposite hand, may be attributed entirely to a smaller θH. Seed priming (6 d in −1.2 MPa synthetic resin glycol 8000 resolution at two0 °C followed by drying) enlarged GR the least bit ψ>ψb(g), however failed to lower the minimum ψ permitting germination; i.e. priming reduced θH while not lowering ψb. Removing the endosperm/testa cap (cut seeds) markedly enlarged GR and lowered  the mean ψ needed to inhibit germination by zero.7 to 0.9 MPa. However, this resulted primarily from downward adjustment in b throughout the incubation of cut seeds at low ψ within the take a look at solutions. The distinction in b between intact and cut seeds incubated at high ψ was abundant less (0.l MPa), indicating that at the time of body structure protrusion, the reproductive structure had weakened to the purpose wherever it recognized solely alittle mechanical barrier. within the intact seed, reproductive structure weakening and therefore the downward adjustment in embryo b ceased at ψ < −0.6 MPa, whereas the reduction in θH related to priming proceeded all the way down to a minimum of −1.2 MPa. supported these information and on the pressure needed to push the embryos from the seeds at varied times when imbibition, it seems that the first result of priming was to shorten the time needed for final reproductive structure weakening to occur. However, as priming enlarged GR even in cut seeds, priming effects on the embryo could management the speed of reproductive structure weakening. [3]

Differential response of tomato genotypes to Xanthomonas-specific pathogen-associated molecular patterns and correlation with bacterial spot (Xanthomonas perforans) resistance

Plants rely upon innate immune responses to retard the initial unfold of pathogens coming into through stomata, hydathodes or injuries. These responses are triggered by preserved patterns in pathogen-encoded molecules referred to as pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs). Production of reactive chemical element species (ROS) is one in all the primary responses, and also the ensuing ‘oxidative burst’ is taken into account to be a primary line of defense. during this study, we tend to conducted association analyses between ROS production and microorganism spot (BS; genus Xanthomonas spp.) resistance in sixty three genotypes of tomato (Solanum genus Lycopersicon L.). A luminol-based assay was performed on leaf tissues that had been treated with a flagellin twenty two (flg22), flagellin twenty eight and a Xanthomonas-specific flg22 (flg22-Xac) amide, to live PAMP-induced ROS production in every genotype. These genotypes were conjointly assessed for bachelor’s degree malady response by immunisation with genus Xanthomonas perforans, race T4. though there was no consistent relationship between peptides used and host response to the bachelor’s degree, there was a big correlational statistics… [4]

Botany and Breeding of Tomato to Obtain Genotypes Resistant to Bacterial Wilt

Bacterial wilt may be a unwellness that’s of world importance as a result of it’s tough to regulate and infrequently compromises the entire crop. the utilization of resistant varieties is that the main type of management of this unwellness. the target of this work was to hold out a literature review with the most factors associated with the phytology and breeding of tomato to get genotypes immune to microorganism wilt. it had been found completely different data associated with the genetic management of tomato resistance in respect to the amount of genes and their interaction because of the high genetic diversity at intervals the Ralstonia solanacearum species advanced, that is that the reason behind microorganism wilt. The high host-pathogen interaction reflects on completely different breeding methods reckoning on the surroundings and also the supply of resistance used. [5]


[1] Jacquet, M., Bongiovanni, M., Martinez, M., Verschave, P., Wajnberg, E. and Castagnone‐Sereno, P., 2005. Variation in resistance to the root‐knot nematode Meloidogyne incognita in tomato genotypes bearing the Mi gene. Plant Pathology, 54(2), pp.93-99. (Web Link)

[2] Manoj, K. and Uday, D., 2007. In vitro screening of tomato genotypes for drought resistance using polyethylene glycol. African Journal of Biotechnology, 6(6). (Web Link)

[3] DAHAL, P. and BRADFORD, K.J., 1990. Effects of priming and endosperm integrity on seed germination rates of tomato genotypes: II. Germination at reduced water potential. Journal of Experimental Botany, 41(11), pp.1441-1453. (Web Link)

[4] Differential response of tomato genotypes to Xanthomonas-specific pathogen-associated molecular patterns and correlation with bacterial spot (Xanthomonas perforans) resistance

Krishna Bhattarai, Frank J Louws, John D Williamson & Dilip R Panthee

Horticulture Research volume 3, Article number: 16035 (2016) (Web Link)

[5] Silva Costa, K. D., Silva, J., Santos, A. M., Filho, J. L., Santos, P. R. and Oliveira Silva, M. (2017) “Botany and Breeding of Tomato to Obtain Genotypes Resistant to Bacterial Wilt”, Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, 19(2), pp. 1-11. doi: 10.9734/JEAI/2017/38489. (Web Link)

News Update on Genetic Mutation Research: July – 2019

Sequence of exons and the flanking regions of human bilirubin‐UDP‐glucuronosyltransferase gene complex and identification of a genetic mutation in a patient with Crigler‐Najjar syndrome, type I

Crigler‐Najjar syndrome, kind I could be a heterogeneous disorder which will result from mutations of varied regions of the bilirubin‐UDP‐glucuronosyltransferase sequence advanced that encodes 2 bilirubin‐UDP‐glucuronosyltransferase isoforms and a phenol‐UDP‐glucuronosyltransferase isoform within the human liver. the 2 bilirubin‐UDP‐glucuronosyltransferase RNA|mRNA|template RNA|informational RNA|ribonucleic acid|RNA}s and therefore the phenol‐UDP‐glucuronosyltransferase courier RNA have identical 3′ regions derived from four consecutive exons. The 5′ region of every RNA is exclusive and comes from distinct single exons. By screening a personality’s genomic library with probes comparable to varied regions of the courier RNAs, we’ve isolated 5 cosmid clones containing overlapping segments of this huge sequence advanced that spans a minimum of eighty four kilobyte of the human ordering. To facilitate the amplification of every desoxyribonucleic acid by enzyme chain reaction and their adjacent splice junctions, we’ve depicted the intron‐exon boundaries of the four common region desoxyribonucleic acids and therefore the 2 single exons that inscribe the distinctive regions of the 2 bilirubin‐UDP‐glucuronosyltransferase isoforms and have represented sequences of the regions flanking every exon. All exons encryption {the 2|the 2} bilirubin‐UDP‐glucuronosyltransferase isoforms and their splice junctions were amplified from the deoxyribonucleic acid of two management subjects and a Crigler‐Najjar syndrome, kind I patient. The deoxyribonucleic acid from the Crigler‐Najjar syndrome, kind I patient disclosed some extent mutation in desoxyribonucleic acid three (a common region exon) leading to a stop sequence. RNA blot showed that the 2 bilirubin‐UDP‐glucuronosyltransferase courier RNAs within the liver of the Crigler‐Najjar syndrome, kind I patient were of traditional length however were reduced in concentration. obviously, the mutation was found within the common region of each bilirubin‐UDP‐glucuronosyltransferase courier RNAs within the liver of the patient. The premature stop sequence is foretold to inscribe truncated and inactive bilirubin‐UDP‐glucuronosyltransferase forms. Bilirubin‐UDP‐glucuronosyltransferase proteins weren’t detectable by immunotransblot within the liver of the Crigler‐Najjar syndrome, kind I patient. the only mutation during a common region desoxyribonucleic acid explains the coincidental loss of activity of each bilirubin‐UDP‐glucuronosyltransferase isoforms and marked reduction of UDP‐glucuronosyltransferase activity toward phenol. (HEPATOLOGY 1992;15:941–947). [1]

Prevalence, Clinicopathologic Features, and Somatic Genetic Mutation Profile in Familial Versus Sporadic Nonmedullary Thyroid Cancer

Background: though hereditary nonmedullary thyroid cancer is recognized as a definite and isolated familial syndrome, the precise prevalence and genetic basis are poorly understood. Moreover, whether or not familial nonmedullary thyroid cancer (FNMTC) encompasses a a lot of aggressive clinical behavior is controversial . The objectives of this study were to work out the prevalence of FNMTC, and compare the extent of malady and tumour bodily genetic alteration in patients with familial and spasmodic appendage thyroid cancer.

Methods: the most study entry criterion was patients UN agency had a thyroid nodule that needed a clinical analysis with fine-needle aspiration diagnostic assay and or cutting out. A case history form was wont to confirm the presence of familial and spasmodic thyroid cancer. Thyroid nodule fine-needle aspiration diagnostic assay samples and tumour tissue at the time of cutting out were wont to test for bodily genetic mutations (BRAF V600E, NRAS, KRAS, NTRK1, RET/PTC1, and RET/PTC3).

Results: there have been 402 patients with 509 thyroid nodules registered within the study. The prevalence of FNMTC was eight.8% altogether patients with thyroid cancer and nine.4% in patients with solely appendage thyroid cancer. None of the patients with FNMTC had another familial cancer syndrome. There was no vital distinction in gender, tumor size, lymph gland metastasis, and overall stage between spasmodic and familial cases of thyroid cancer. Patients with FNMTC were younger at designation than patients with spasmodic appendage thyroid cancer… [2]

Genetic mutation of recombination activating gene 1 in Dahl salt-sensitive rats attenuates hypertension and renal damage

Hypertension and urinary organ harm in Dahl SS rats ar related to magnified infiltrating immune cells within the excretory organ. to look at the role of infiltrating immune cells during this malady method, a metal finger enzyme targeting bases 672–706 of recombination-activating factor one (Rag1) was injected into the nucleus of Dahl SS (SS/JrHsdMcwi) strain embryos and deep-rooted in pseudopregnant females. This strategy yielded a rat strain with a 13-base frame-shift mutation within the target region of Rag1 and a deletion of immunoreactive Rag1 supermolecule within the thymus. Flow cytometry incontestible that the Rag1-null mutant rats have a major reduction in T and B lymphocytes within the circulation and spleen. Studies were performed on SS and Rag1-null rats fed a four.0% NaCl diet for three wk. The infiltration of T cells into the excretory organ following high-salt intake was considerably dulled within the Rag1-null rats (1.7 ± 0.6 × one zero five cells/kidney) compared with the Dahl SS (5.6 ± 0.9 × one zero five cells/kidney). concomitant the reduction in infiltration of immune cells within the excretory organ, mean blood pressure and urinary simple protein excretion rate were considerably lower in Rag1-null mutants (158 ± three mmHg and sixty ± sixteen mg/day, respectively) than in SS rats (180 ± eleven mmHg and 251 ± thirty seven mg/day). Finally, a histologic analysis unconcealed that the capillary vessel and cannular harm within the kidneys of the SS rats fed a high-salt diet was additionally attenuated within the Rag1 mutants. These studies demonstrate the importance of urinary organ infiltration of immune cells within the pathological process of high blood pressure and urinary organ harm in Dahl SS rats.

infiltration of immune cells into the excretory organ has been documented in several animal models of high blood pressure (15, 21, 24, 25, 28). Human knowledge ar per these observations (13, 27). Moreover, immunological disorder medical care attenuates high blood pressure and urinary organ harm in several animal models of high blood pressure (7, 17, 21, 22, 23), and immune modulation additionally affects pressure in patients (12, 26), suggesting a causal relationship between the system and therefore the malady.

Studies examining the role of the system in {hypertension|high blood pressure|cardiovascular malady} and urinary organ disease have mostly been dependent upon the employment of medical specialty agents (7, 17, 21, 22, 23), though recent studies have utilised mice during which the system has been genetically manipulated to check experimental high blood pressure (11). Experiments in our laboratory have examined the influence of 2 mechanistically dissimilar immunological disorder agents on the event of salt-induced high blood pressure and excretory organ harm within the Dahl salt-sensitive rat (3, 4), a genetic model of {hypertension|high blood pressure|cardiovascular malady} and urinary organ disease that exhibits several makeup characteristics in common with human high blood pressure (1, 2, 6, 10, 14). a serious concern associated with the studies that have used medical specialty agents to suppress the system, ar the potential nonspecific effects of those agents.

Recently, metal finger enzyme technology (ZFN) was represented as Associate in Nursing economical suggests that to come up with targeted mutations in rats (8, 9, 19). To eliminate the potential aspect effects of medical specialty agents and to handle the role of the system in {hypertension|high blood pressure|cardiovascular malady} and urinary organ malady during a genetic model of disease, a ZFN was designed to focus on recombination-activating factor one (Rag1) within the Dahl SS genetic background. Rag1 could be a factor product necessary for bodily recombination in lymphocytes; genetic deletion of Rag1 in mice ends up in a depletion of mature T and B lymphocytes (18). this studies were performed to develop and validate a ZFN-mediated null mutation of Rag1 within the Dahl SS rat genetic background and to demonstrate the influence of genetic depletion of immune cells within the development of Dahl SS high blood pressure and nephrosis. [3]

Heterozygous mutations cause genetic instability in a yeast model of cancer evolution

Genetic instability, a genetic increase within the rate of change, accelerates organic process adaptation1 and is widespread in cancer2,3. In mammals, instability will arise from injury to each copies of cistrons concerned in deoxyribonucleic acid metabolism and cell cycle regulation4 or from inactivation of 1 copy of a gene whose product is gift in limiting amounts (haploinsufficiency5); but, it’s proven troublesome to see the relative importance of those 2 mechanisms. In enterics coli6, the applying of continual, sturdy choice enriches for genetic instability. Here we’ve used this approach to evolve genetic instability in diploid cells of the budding yeast brewer’s yeast, and have isolated clones with enhanced rates of mutation, mitotic recombination, and body loss. we tend to known candidate, heterozygous, instability-causing mutations; engineering these mutations, as heterozygotes, into the ancestral diploid strain caused genetic instability. Mutations that inactivated one copy of haploinsufficient cistrons were additional common than those who dominantly altered the perform of the mutated gene copy. The mutated genes were enriched for genes functioning in transport, supermolecule internal control, and deoxyribonucleic acid metabolism, and have unconcealed new targets for genetic instability7,8,9,10,11, as well as essential genes. though solely a minority (10 out of fifty seven genes with orthologues or shut homologues) of the targets we tend to known have homologous human genes that are involved in cancer2, the rest are candidates to contribute to human genetic instability. to check this hypothesis, we tend to inactivated six examples in a very near-haploid human cell line; 5 of those mutations enhanced instability. we tend to conclude that single genetic events cause genetic instability in diploid yeast cells, and propose that similar, heterozygous mutations in class homologues initiate genetic instability in cancer. [4]

Assessment of Kirsten Sarcoma Viral Gene Mutations in Non-neoplastic and Neoplastic Nodular Lesions of Thyroid in Pakistan

Objectives: To assess KRAS mutations in non-neoplastic and growth nodular lesions of thyroid because the incidence of KRAS mutations in thyroid lesions in Asian nation has not been evaluated.

Methods: The cross sectional study was conducted at Basic Medical Sciences Institute, statesman Postgraduate heart, city from 2011 to 2014. seventy cases as well as vi multinodular goiters, ten hyperplastic nodules, ten cyst adenomas, 7 WDT-UMP, four cyst carcinomas, twenty two classical process carcinomas, eleven cyst variant of process carcinomas were subjected to straightforward PCR to notice KRAS mutations situated at sequence twelve DNA one.

Results: KRAS mutations situated at sequence twelve DNA one were found in 02(2.87%) cases of multinodular struma, 05(7.14%) hyperplastic nodules, 02 (2.87%) cyst benign tumour, 03(4.2%) WDT-UMP. Among malignant lesions cyst cancer showed KRAS quality 03(4.2%), classical process cancer 08(11.42%) and cyst variant of process cancer 07(10%).

Conclusion: Our information suggests sturdy presence of KRAS mutations in malignant tumors supporting the presence of KRAS mutations in our population notably cyst variant of process cancer. cyst variant may be a distinct variant of process cancer having sturdy association with KRAS mutations. [5]


[1] Bosma, P.J., Chowdhury, N.R., Goldhoorn, B.G., Hofker, M.H., Elferink, R.P.O., Jansen, P.L. and Chowdhury, J.R., 1992. Sequence of exons and the flanking regions of human bilirubin‐UDP‐glucuronosyltransferase gene complex and identification of a genetic mutation in a patient with Crigler‐Najjar syndrome, type I. Hepatology, 15(5), pp.941-947. (Web Link)

[2] Moses, W., Weng, J. and Kebebew, E., 2011. Prevalence, clinicopathologic features, and somatic genetic mutation profile in familial versus sporadic nonmedullary thyroid cancer. Thyroid, 21(4), pp.367-371. (Web Link)

[3] Mattson, D.L., Lund, H., Guo, C., Rudemiller, N., Geurts, A.M. and Jacob, H., 2013. Genetic mutation of recombination activating gene 1 in Dahl salt-sensitive rats attenuates hypertension and renal damage. American Journal of Physiology-Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology, 304(6), pp.R407-R414. (Web Link)

[4] Heterozygous mutations cause genetic instability in a yeast model of cancer evolution

Miguel C. Coelho, Ricardo M. Pinto & Andrew W. Murray

Naturevolume 566, pages275–278 (2019) (Web Link)

[5] Jafri, F., Imdad Kehar, S. and Zehra Abbas, K. (2017) “Assessment of Kirsten Sarcoma Viral Gene Mutations in Non-neoplastic and Neoplastic Nodular Lesions of Thyroid in Pakistan”, Journal of Cancer and Tumor International, 5(2), pp. 1-6. doi: 10.9734/JCTI/2017/32499. (Web Link)

News Update on Biochemical Alterations Research: July – 2019

Deltamethrin-induced oxidative damage and biochemical alterations in rat and its attenuation by Vitamin E

Deltamethrin may be a artificial pyrethroid pesticide used worldwide in agriculture, home cuss management, protection of foodstuff and illness vector management. the target of this study was to analyze the propensity of deltamethrin to induce aerophilous stress and changes in organic chemistry parameters and catalyst activities in male rats following a short (30 days) oral exposure and its attainable attenuation by E (Vit. E). Rats were allotted to one of four treatment groups: zero mg Vit. E and zero mg deltamethrin/kg weight (BW) (control); one hundred mg Vit. E/kg BW; 1.28 mg deltamethrin/kg war; one hundred mg Vit. E plus 1.28 mg deltamethrin/kg BW. Results obtained showed that deltamethrin considerably (P < zero.05) induced  thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS; the marker of supermolecule peroxidation) in plasma. The activities of glutathione S-transferase (GST) and SOD (SOD) were considerably attenuated thanks to deltamethrin administration. On the opposite hand, treatment with E alone magnified the activities of GST and SOD, and attenuated the degree of TBARS. Also, E mitigated the harmful result of deltamethrin within the combination cluster. protein activities of aminotransferases (AST and ALT), phosphatases (AcP and AlP) and nurse dehydrogenase (LDH) in plasma were considerably magnified, whereas acetylcholinesterase (AChE) was inhibited . Deltamethrin considerably (P < zero.05) magnified the degree of plasma total supermolecule (TL), steroid alcohol, lipoid (TG), density compound protein (LDL) and extremely density compound protein (VLDL), whereas the amount of high density compound protein (HDL) attenuated. E alone attenuated the degree of lipids and lipoproteins, and mitigated the harmful effects of deltamethrin. Concentrations of aldohexose, urea, creatinine and total animal pigment were magnified. While, plasma total supermolecule (TP), albumen (A) and simple protein (G) were considerably (P < zero.05) attenuated. the current study discovered that the presence of E may diminish the adverse effects of deltamethrin on most of organic chemistry parameters, supermolecule peroxidation and catalyst activities in rats. [1]

Influence of Biochemical Alterations on Arterial Stiffness in Patients With End-stage Renal Disease

The progressive coefficient of elasticity of the arteria carotis and radial arteries is enhanced in patients with end-stage nephritic unwellness (ESRD), severally of pressure level, wall stress, and also the presence of induration of the arteries alterations. whether or not organic chemistry factors could also be concerned within the blood vessel changes and associated with nephritic disfunction stay mostly unheeded. To assess this question, we have a tendency to measured artery (carotid-femoral), upper-limb (carotid-radial), and lower-limb (femoral-tibial) pulse wave speed (PWV) in seventy four ESRD patients undergoing dialysis as compared with fifty seven management subjects similar in age, sex ratio, and mean pressure level. we have a tendency to evaluated blood presure by sphygmomanometry, artery calcifications and viscus mass by echography, and routine organic chemistry parameters, total plasma homocysteine, and plasma endothelin levels by customary techniques. within the population of patients with ESRD, on the idea of multiple stepwise multivariate analysis, artery PWV was completely and severally related  with pulsation pressure level… [2]

Biochemical Alterations in Thiamine Deficiency—Their Interpretation

In evaluating thiamin nutritionary states, it’d seem even to see, whenever possible, not solely thiamin excretion within the piss, however conjointly red blood cell transketolase activity. Determination of AN acceptable thiamine-dependent accelerator system reflects the metabolism of the nutrition at the cellular and molecular level. Urinary thiamin levels will offer data on the adequacy of the dietary intakes, however don’t essentially assess accurately a marginal deficiency. Determinatons for acid and alternative metabolites in blood or piss will offer proof of a thiamin insufficiency, significantly once clinical signs ar evident. Determinations of free thiamin in plasma don’t essentially mirror an instantaneous relationship to the amount within the blood and tissues. red blood cell or free phagocyte thiamin values apparently show a a lot of direct relationship to tissue content. it’s for this reason that red blood cell transketolase activity seems to supply data on tissue reserves of thiamin and reflects an instantaneous purposeful analysis at the cellular level. Consequently, the transketolase activity assay makes it doable to differentiate with affordable accuracy between avitaminosis and a spare thiamin intake, similarly as between avitaminosis and malnutrition thiamin.

Biochemical changes might precede clinical manifestations of a unwellness state of affairs. Such changes might have prognostic worth. alternative organic chemistry changes, like lowered  piss or plasma levels of thiamin might indicate solely low nutrient intakes and not mirror any metabolic abnormalities. However, plasma or piss thiamin levels of a definite vital level, if continuing while not inflated dietary intakes and concomitant plasma or urinary will increase, would result in metabolic abnormalities detected by alternative organic chemistry suggests that. Clinical manifestations should still not occur at this state of the deficiency. In alternative instances, organic chemistry changes occur at the same time with clinical manifestations. Such tests maybe may well be improved in sensitivity so as to discover earlier existence of deficiency alterations. However, even so, such tests will corroborate a tentative clinical diagnosing.

Not all organic chemistry tests that will be developed for the clinical laboratory may be used for nutritionary survey work, for various reasons, together with technical, physical, and economical. all the same, a trial ought to be created to plan ways that will receive as broad AN application and use as doable. without doubt, the transketolase activity assay procedure may well be developed into a a lot of routine take a look at with additional study. In sure instances, significantly wherever endemic B deficiency happens, physical performance and mental performance evaluations have to be compelled to be incorporated into the organic chemistry tests in a trial to boost the sensitivity and specificity of the ways. Early detection by organic chemistry suggests that seems essential in infantile hypovitaminosis so as to use corrective measures before death ensues. [3]

Value of genetic analysis for confirming inborn errors of metabolism detected through the Spanish neonatal screening program

The present work describes the worth of genetic analysis as a validatory live following the detection of suspected inborn errors of metabolism within the Spanish newborn mass chemical analysis screening program. 100 and cardinal consecutive desoxyribonucleic acid samples were analyzed by next-generation sequencing employing a customised exome sequencing panel. once needed, the Illumina extended clinical exome panel was used, as was Sanger sequencing or transcriptional identification. organic chemistry tests were wont to ensure the results of the genetic analysis. victimization the customised panel, the metabolic illness suspected in eighty three newborns (59%) was confirmed. In 3 more cases, two monoallelic variants were detected for 2 genes concerned within the same organic chemistry pathway. within the remainder, either one variant or no variant was known. Given the persistent absence of organic chemistry alterations, carrier standing was appointed in thirty-nine cases. False positives were recorded for eleven. In 5 cases during which the organic chemistry pattern was persistently altered, more genetic analysis allowed the detection of 2 variants touching the perform of BCAT2, ACSF3, and DNAJC12, additionally as a second, deep intronic variant in ETFDH or PTS. this results counsel that genetic analysis victimization extended next-generation sequencing panels are often used as a validatory check for suspected inborn errors of metabolism detected in newborn screening programs. organic chemistry tests are often terribly useful once a identification is unclear. In summary, coincident genomic and metabolomic analyses can increase the amount of inborn errors of metabolism which will be confirmed following suggestive newborn screening results. [4]

A Comparative Study on the Haematology, Biochemical Alterations in Serum Composition and Pathologic Changes in the Kidneys of Cachectic and Non-cachectic Cattle in Zaria, Nigeria

Aim: The aim of this study was to check the medical specialty, organic chemistry and excretory organ pathological changes in feebleness and non cachectic Brahmin bovine in Nigeria.

Study Design: a complete of seventy nine bovine were sampled throughout the study. the quantity of feebleness and non-cachectic animals varied betting on the parameters analyzed. it had been strictly Associate in Nursing abattoir-based study.

Place and length of the Experiment: Samples were collected at the Zaria butchery in Nigeria for a period of half dozen months and analyzed within the Department of Veterinary Pathology, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, Nigeria.

Methodology: weight and generalized body condition of the animals were determined. Also, the impact aged and sex on cachexiation was investigated. blood was collected via jugular puncture for determination of packed cell volume (PCV), Hb, and total and differential blood cell counts. blood serum was processed from the entire blood to see solution profiles, aminoalkanoic acid and aspartate amino transferases (ALT &amp; AST). piddle composition and pathologic changes within the kidneys of feebleness and non cachectic animals were additionally determined.

Results: The non-cachectic bovine had higher PCV values compared to the feebleness animals, though the distinction wasn’t statistically vital (P&gt;0.05). The mean PCVs of the two teams were inside traditional vary. The non-cachectic bovine had slightly lower values of neutrophils compared to the feebleness cluster, though the distinction wasn’t statistically vital (P&gt;0.05). The feebleness cluster showed slightly higher (P&gt;0.05) concentrations of creatinine and better concentrations of carbamide (P&gt;0.05) than the non-cachectic cluster and diagnosis unconcealed no aciduria, acetonuria or leucocyturia in each feebleness and non cachectic bovine. Similarly, feebleness bovine had raised basic enzyme activity, ALT and AST compared to the non feebleness animals whose values of those enzymes failed to vary considerably. PM of the carcasses unconcealed swish spherical greyish-brown colored uroliths (stones) within the kidneys of eleven (15%) of the feebleness bovine. The uroliths weighed between 200-700 mg, with a diameter of 5-10 cm. Chemical examination of the uroliths indicated that they contained substances like ammonia (+), carbonate (++), acid (+ and + +), phosphorus (++) and metallic element (+ and ++). Histopathologically, there was intra capillary vessel cellular infiltration (predominantly lymphocytes and macrophages) for each feebleness and non-cachectic bovine. The feebleness bovine additionally showed destroyed Bowman’s house and moderate congestion. Bright’s disease was additionally discovered within the feebleness bovine.

Conclusion: This study is that the 1st to report thoroughly the haematologic, organic chemistry and pathologic changes within the kidneys of feebleness Brahmin bovine conferred to the butchery for slaughter. The study failed to investigate the role of season on cachexiation and it’s all over that future studies ought to target the role of seasonal variation on cachexiation. [5]


[1] Yousef, M.I., Awad, T.I. and Mohamed, E.H., 2006. Deltamethrin-induced oxidative damage and biochemical alterations in rat and its attenuation by Vitamin E. Toxicology, 227(3), pp.240-247. (Web Link)

[2] Blacher, J., Demuth, K., Guerin, A.P., Safar, M.E., Moatti, N. and London, G.M., 1998. Influence of biochemical alterations on arterial stiffness in patients with end-stage renal disease. Arteriosclerosis, thrombosis, and vascular biology, 18(4), pp.535-541. (Web Link)

[3] Sauberlich, H.E., 1967. Biochemical alterations in thiamine deficiency—their interpretation. The American journal of clinical nutrition, 20(6), pp.528-542. (Web Link)

[4] Value of genetic analysis for confirming inborn errors of metabolism detected through the Spanish neonatal screening program

Rosa Navarrete, Fátima Leal, […]Belén Pérez

European Journal of Human Geneticsvolume 27, pages556–562 (2019) (Web Link)

[5] Aliyu, A., Natala, A. J., Adamu, S., Igbokwe, I. O., Esievo, K. A. N. and Useh, N. M. (2017) “A Comparative Study on the Haematology, Biochemical Alterations in Serum Composition and Pathologic Changes in the Kidneys of Cachectic and Non-cachectic Cattle in Zaria, Nigeria”, International Journal of Biochemistry Research & Review, 19(4), pp. 1-11. doi: 10.9734/IJBCRR/2017/22020. (Web Link)

News Update on Organic Fertilizer Research: July – 2019

Effect of different application rates of organic fertilizer on soil enzyme activity and microbial population

After cultivating twenty four crops of vegetables for 3 consecutive years during a greenhouse, the consequences of various application rates of compost (Rate one, two70 kilo N ha−1 y−1; Rate 2, 540 kilo N ha−1 y−1; Rate three, 810 kilo N ha−1 y−1; Rate four, 1,080 kilo N ha−1 y−1) were compared with the consequences of chemical plant food (CF) and no application of plant food treatments (CK) for a few designated soil chemical properties, microorganism populations and soil accelerator activities (dehydrogenase, cellulase, β-glucosidase, protease, urease, arysulphatase, and acid and alkalescent phosphatases). The results show that the pH scale, electrical conduction, concentrations of total element (N) and also the organic matter received from compost treatment were typically over those received through CF treatment. The soil microorganism biomass, populations of microorganism, fungi and actinomycetes, still as soil accelerator activities accrued considerably within the compost-treated soils compared with the CF-treated soil. In most instances, no important increase was ascertained within the catalyst activities studied for compost applications over a Rate two treatment. However, all catalyst activities examined showed important linear correlations with the organic matter contents of the soils. The vegetable yield reached its highest level at the speed two treatment and declined or leveled off within the higher treatments, implying that a high application rate of compost cannot additional increase the crop yield when the soil fertility has been established. High organic matter content within the soil was found to alleviate the adverse impact of soluble salts on vegetable growth. finally, AN application rate of compost at Rate two, 540 kilo N ha−1 y−1, is adequate on the idea of vegetable yields and soil chemical, organic chemistry and catalyst properties in greenhouse cultivation underneath semitropic atmospheric condition. [1]

Vermicomposting: Recycling Wastes into Valuable Organic Fertilizer. Global Theme on Agroecosystems Report no. 8

The large amount of organic waste, nearly 700 million t yr-1, generated in Asian country is either burned or land crammed move a retardant of safe disposal. To mitigate this drawback all the waste may be born-again into extremely valuable nutrient-rich compost in Associate in Nursing atmosphere friendly manner. Vermicomposting is one among the  best strategies of composting any quite organic matter, that may offer a ‘win-win’ resolution to tackle the matter of safe disposal of waste and additionally provide most required plant nutrients for property  productivity.Vermicompost improves growth, quality and yield of various field crops, flower and fruit crops.  Vermicomposting contributes to exercise of element and augments soil physico-chemical moreover as  biological properties. microorganism variety was checked and better diversity was recorded within the part rotten organic material for the vermicompost than in the vermicompost. every kind of organic material may be used for vermicomposting but, Gliricidia, tobacco leaves and chicken faeces aren’t appropriate  for angleworm multiplication however may be composted with earthworms. The optimum temperature for  vermicomposting is concerning 20–30°C and wet content ranges from thirty two to hr solely. it’s a really straightforward method and straightforward to follow moreover as cost-efficient pollution abatement technologyThe coaching programs for girls assist teams (SHGs) lined technical aspects of creating  vermicompost and its application to numerous crops. These programs are conducted by ICRISAT with  support from the Asian Development Bank (ADB), Sir Dorabji Tata Trust and District Water Management  Agency (DWMA) in Adarsha watershed (Kothapally) in Andhra Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh and jap  Rajasthan. A deadly weed, weed (locally referred as vayyari bhama or congress  weed) was found profusely on field bunds in Kothapally and different regions of Andhra Pradesh, that pent-up the crop growth and caused environmental pollution. Some case studies of ladies UN agency have step up to utilize this weed as material for vermicomposting, a secure weed disposal mechanism, are bestowed during this report. [2]

Soil micronutrient availability to crops as affected by long-term inorganic and organic fertilizer applications

Micronutrient standing in soils and crops are often plagued by completely different fertilization practices throughout a semipermanent field experiment. This paper investigated the consequences of various fertilization treatments on total and DTPA-extractable micronutrients in soils and micronutrients in crops once sixteen year fertilization experiments in Fengqiu County, Henan Province, China. The treatments of the semipermanent experiment enclosed combos of varied rates of N, P and K additionally to 2 rates of organic (OF) treatments. Winter wheat and summer maize were planted annually. Soil macro- and micronutrients along side pH scale and organic matter (OM) were analyzed. Grains and on top of ground components of each crops within the final year were harvested and analyzed for copper, Zn, Fe and Mn. The results showed that soil copper, Zn, atomic number 26 and Mn concentrations didn’t modification among the various treatments to a big level, apart from a small decrease of soil Zn within the CK (no chemical application) compared to the OF treatment. The DTPA-extractable soil Zn, atomic number 26 and Mn concentrations hyperbolic from zero.41 to 1.08 mg kg−1, from 10.3 to 17.7 mg kg−1, and from 9.7 to 11.8 mg kg−1, severally, with increasing soil OM content, so showing the importance of soil OM in matter accessibility for crops. The NPK treatment additionally had higher DTPA-extractable matter concentrations in soil. Deficiency of N or P resulted in an exceedingly low yield however high matter concentrations in crops except cubic content unit maize stalks. Higher out there soil P considerably shriveled crop micronutrients, probably due to their precipitation as metal phosphates. Maize stalks contained higher concentrations of micronutrients than those of wheat straw, whereas wheat grain had higher micronutrients than those of corn grain. The transfer coefficients (TCs) of micronutrients from straw to grain were considerably completely different between winter wheat (1.63–2.52 for Cu; a pair of.31–3.82 for Zn; no modification for Fe; zero.55–0.84 for Mn) and summer maize (0.24–0.50 for Cu; zero.50–1.21 for Zn; zero.02–0.04 for Fe; zero.07–0.10 for Mn). lastly, application of organic matter considerably hyperbolic the DTPA-extractable concentrations of Zn, atomic number 26 and Mn compared to the CK, grain and vegetative tissue within the CK and NK had higher matter concentrations than those in alternative treatments. [3]

Effect of different organic fertilizers application on growth and environmental risk of nitrate under a vegetable field

The impact of manure once totally different disposal strategies (water-logged composting, GOF; anaerobic digestion, BR; thermophilic composting, ROF) on vegetable growth and environmental risk was investigated beneath the tomato-celery-tomato field. Results showed that organic fertilizers considerably exaggerated vegetable yield and quality, however with inappropriate application could cause serious environmental risk like nitrate pollution. most vegetable yield of eighty.9, 68.3, 112.7 t•ha−1 (first, second and third rotation crop, respectively) with best vegetable quality was obtained in ROF treatment. the best N use potency with the smallest amount nitrate enrichment in soil was additionally found in ROF treatment. Moreover, beneath this fertilization method, nitrate concentration in soil leachate born to six.4 mg•L−1, that glad the brink… [4]

Effects of Neem-Based Organic Fertilizer, NPK and Their Combinations on Soil Properties and Growth of Okra (Abelmoschus esculentus) in a Degraded Ultisol of Calabar, Nigeria

A field experiment was conducted at the University of Calabar Teaching and analysis Farm to guage the results of neem-based organic, NPK and their combos on soil chemical properties and growth of okra (Abelmoschus esculentus) on a degraded Ultisol Calabar. The experiment was ordered get into a randomised complete block style with 3 replications comprising of six treatments. The treatments were management (no amendment), sole NPK 20:10:10 chemical and neem–based organic applied at one hundred twenty kilo N/ha, combos of sixty kilo N/ha NPK+ sixty kilo N/ha Azadirachta indica, ninety kilo N/ha NPK + thirty kilo N/ha Azadirachta indica and thirty kilo N/ha NPK + ninety kilo N/ha Azadirachta indica. Results showed that the soil chemical properties were influenced considerably… [5]


[1] Chang, E.H., Chung, R.S. and Tsai, Y.H., 2007. Effect of different application rates of organic fertilizer on soil enzyme activity and microbial population. Soil Science and Plant Nutrition, 53(2), pp.132-140. (Web Link)

[2] Nagavallemma, K.P., Wani, S.P., Lacroix, S., Padmaja, V.V., Vineela, C., Rao, M.B. and Sahrawat, K.L., 2004. Vermicomposting: Recycling wastes into valuable organic fertilizer. Global Theme on Agroecosystems Report no. 8. (Web Link)

[3] Li, B.Y., Zhou, D.M., Cang, L., Zhang, H.L., Fan, X.H. and Qin, S.W., 2007. Soil micronutrient availability to crops as affected by long-term inorganic and organic fertilizer applications. Soil and Tillage Research, 96(1-2), pp.166-173. (Web Link)

[4] Effect of different organic fertilizers application on growth and environmental risk of nitrate under a vegetable field

Shuyan Li, Jijin Li, Bangxi Zhang, Danyang Li, Guoxue Li & Yangyang Li

Scientific Reportsvolume 7, Article number: 17020 (2017) (Web Link)

[5] Ayito, E. O., Iren, O. B. and John, K. (2018) “Effects of Neem-Based Organic Fertilizer, NPK and Their Combinations on Soil Properties and Growth of Okra (Abelmoschus esculentus) in a Degraded Ultisol of Calabar, Nigeria”, International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, 24(5), pp. 1-10. doi: 10.9734/IJPSS/2018/43027. (Web Link)

News Update on Pepper Production Research: July – 2019

Effects of plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria on bell pepper production and green peach aphid infestations in New York

Plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) area unit legendary in numerous cropping systems to extend plant growth and vigor, yet as induce resistance to pathogens and pests. a poster soil modification containing a mix of 2 species of B PGPR (Bacillus subtilis and B amyloliquefaciens) was evaluated for impact on germination and initial growth of bell pepper plants, efficaciousness against the inexperienced peach plant louse, Myzus persicae Sulzer, and yield sweetening. Studies within the greenhouse disclosed that pepper germination rate and dry weight of seedlings mature with or while not B spp. didn’t disagree considerably. within the field, the PGPR didn’t considerably cut back plant louse populations compared to regulate plants, whereas imidacloprid was extremely effective. a rise in yield compared with management plants was discovered within the 2003 season, however not the subsequent 2 seasons. plant louse pressure was high in 2003, and plants mature within the presence of B spp. exhibited substantial tolerance to aphids. That is, there have been considerably higher populations of the inexperienced peach plant louse on each management and PGPR-treated plants compared with imidacloprid-treated plants. However, fruit yield within the B spp. treatment was considerably bigger than yield within the management treatment and almost like yield in insecticide-treated plots. B PGPR can be helpful in an exceedingly M. persicae management program for pepper plants mature in locations with systematically high plant louse pressure. [1]

Pythium spp. Associated with Bell Pepper Production in Florida

Ten species of fungus and a gaggle of isolates that made threadlike sporangia however didn’t form sexual structures (Pythium ‘group F’) were recovered from the basis systems of recent market bell pepper plants big on polyethylene-mulched production systems in FL. Pathogenicity tests exploitation pasteurised field soil inoculated with plagued wheat seed incontestible that P. aphanidermatum, P. myriotylum, P. helicoides, and P. splendens will cause vital plant disease and reductions in root growth of pepper. P. aphanidermatum and P. myriotylum caused the foremost severe plant disease, the best reductions in plant weight, and forty two and sixty two plant mortality, severally. In pathogenicity tests with tomato plants, these four species made similar plant weight losses and malady ratings to those discovered in pepper, however very little or no plant mortality. Low incidences of root tip mortification in pepper plants were discovered with P. arrhenomanes, P. catenulatum, P. graminicola, and P. irregulare, however none of those species caused losses in root weight and solely P. irregulare reduced shoot weight. P. periplocum, P. spinosum, and fungus sp. F settled root tissue of pepper however caused no vital plant disease and didn’t adversely have an effect on growth. Similar trends were discovered with tomato, except that P. arrhenomanes caused restricted root tip mortification while not moving plant growth and P. catenulatum, P. graminicola, P. irregulare, P. spinosum, and fungus sp. F settled a minimum of a number of the plants however didn’t cause root malady. a big interaction between temperature and P. aphanidermatum or P. myriotylum was discovered on pepper transplants. the best reductions in growth occurred at 28°C, whereas plant mortality solely occurred at 34°C. [2]

Organic Pepper Production Systems Using Compost and Cover Crops

In a national survey and thru broad focus teams, organic farmers known gadfly management and soil fertility as their most important vegetable analysis desires. In response, a long- term experiment was established to match pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) growth, productivity, insect populations, harvest cullage and postharvest weight loss below typical and organic management. Treatments from the primary three years (1998 to 2000) consisted of combos of 2 artificial chemical and 3 compost-based certified organic soil amendments. additionally to the compost treatments, effects of a canopy crop of tare (Vicia villosa Roth) and rye (Secale cereale L.) were evaluated within the organic system from 1999 onward. Pepper growth, harvest weight and marketable fruit numbers were similar in typical and organic production systems from 1998 to 2000 once 112 kilo ha−1 N was applied through artificial chemical or compost. Zone-tillage or incorporation of canopy crops before planting resulted in pepper weights such as compost treatments in 1999, however in zone-tilled plots in 2000, pepper growth was considerably reduced. Corn borer [Ostrinia nubilalis (Hübner)] larval populations were similar in each systems, with helpful insect populations larger within the organic system in 1999 solely. the amount of culled peppers thanks to insect or sickness harm was similar in typical and organic systems in 1998 and 1999, however larger within the artificial chemical plots in 2000. Postharvest weight loss was similar within the compost (112 kilo ha−1 N) and artificial chemical treatments in 1999 and 2000 once 3 to 9 weeks in 10°C storage. [3]

Foliar application of the leaf-colonizing yeast Pseudozyma churashimaensis elicits systemic defense of pepper against bacterial and viral pathogens

Yeast associates with several plant elements together with the phyllosphere, wherever it’s subject to harsh environmental conditions. Few studies have according on biological management of foliar pathogens by yeast. Here, we tend to recently isolated leaf-colonizing yeasts from leaves of field-grown pepper plants in a very major pepper production space of Republic of Korea. The yeast was isolated mistreatment semi-selective medium supplemented with rifampicin to inhibit microorganism growth and its sickness management capability against Xanthomonas axonopodis infection of pepper plants within the greenhouse was evaluated. Of 838 isolated yeasts, foliar spray of Pseudozyma churashimaensis strain RGJ1 at 108 cfu/mL given vital protection against X. axonopodis and unexpectedly against Cucumber mosaic virus, Pepper mottle virus, Pepper gentle mottle virus, and Broad bean wilt virus beneath field conditions. Direct antagonism between strain RGJ1 and X. axonopodis wasn’t detected from co-culture assays, suggesting that sickness is suppressed via evoked resistance. further molecular analysis of the evoked resistance marker genes pepper annuum Pathogenesis-Related (CaPR) four and CaPR5 indicated that strain RGJ1 elicited plant defense priming. To our data, this study is that the initial report of plant protection against microorganism and infectious agent pathogens mediate by a leaf-colonizing yeast and has potential for effective sickness management within the field. [4]

Assessment of Pepper Production and Socio Economics of Pepper Farmers in Delta State, Nigeria

This study is targeted pepper production and socio-economics of pepper producers in Delta State, Nigeria. Purposive sampling technique was accustomed choose fifty farmers out of the population of pepper farmers. Structured form was accustomed collect the relevant info. information collected were analysed with facilitate of descriptive statistics and margin of profit analysis. The results of the study unconcealed that a quarter mile of the pepper farmers fall among the age of 40-49 years and fifty four had no formal education. The menage size ranged from 6-10 persons, whereas regarding seventy two of pepper farmers don’t belong to any cooperative society. The pepper producers were largely little scale farmers, and five hundredth of them have a farming expertise of 6-10 years. The result gotten from the margin of profit analysis unconcealed a complete price per acre of ₦61,300 and therefore the returns per acre was ₦95,000. a median sampled farmer had a margin of profit of ₦33,700. the speed of returns one.6 shows that for every1.00 Nigerian monetary unit investment by pepper farmer a profit of ₦1.60 was complete. The study known some constraints of pepper producers to includes, lack of access to credit, value instability, cuss and diseases, lack of irrigation facilities among others. supported the finding, the study recommends that farmers ought to be inspired to make cooperative societies. More so, Delta authorities ought to assist pepper farmers with farm inputs and credit with low rate and organise coaching for pepper farmers on fashionable practices. [5]


[1] Herman, M.A.B., Nault, B.A. and Smart, C.D., 2008. Effects of plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria on bell pepper production and green peach aphid infestations in New York. Crop Protection, 27(6), pp.996-1002. (Web Link)

[2] Chellemi, D.O., Mitchell, D.J., Kannwischer-Mitchell, M.E., Rayside, P.A. and Rosskopf, E.N., 2000. Pythium spp. associated with bell pepper production in Florida. Plant disease, 84(12), pp.1271-1274. (Web Link)

[3] Delate, K., Friedrich, H. and Lawson, V., 2003. Organic pepper production systems using compost and cover crops. Biological agriculture & horticulture, 21(2), pp.131-150. (Web Link)

[4] Foliar application of the leaf-colonizing yeast Pseudozyma churashimaensis elicits systemic defense of pepper against bacterial and viral pathogens

Gahyung Lee, Sang-Heon Lee, Kyung Mo Kim & Choong-Min Ryu

Scientific Reports volume 7, Article number: 39432 (2017) (Web Link)

[5] Dennis, A. and Kentus, T. (2018) “Assessment of Pepper Production and Socio Economics of Pepper Farmers in Delta State, Nigeria”, Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, 28(2), pp. 1-7. doi: 10.9734/AJAEES/2018/44598. (Web Link)

News Update on Phytochemical Screening Research: June – 2019

Phytochemical screening of Nigerian medicinal plants II.

A total of forty seven plant extracts representing 132 genera and 172 species of plants distributed over fifty nine families were collected from varied components of African country. The plant extracts were screened for the presence of alkaloids, saponins, tannins, phlobatannins and anthraquinones. the quantity of positive tests obtained was 176 (32.18%) for alkaloids, 242 (44.24%) for saponins, and 435 (79.52) for tannins. some were positive for phlobatannins and anthraquinones. [1]

Antiamoebic and phytochemical screening of some Congolese medicinal plants

Results from the in vitro antiamoebic activity of some Congolese plant extracts used as antidiarrhoeic in ancient drugs indicated that of forty five plant extracts tested, 35 (77.78%) exhibited associate degree antiamoebic activity and ten (22.22%) were inactive. the very best activity… [2]

Phytochemical Screening of Some Species of Iranian Plants

A phytochemical screening of fifty 5 Iranian plants happiness to twenty one families was distributed. A qualitative phytochemical analysis was performed for the presence of alkaloids, tannins, saponins and flavonoids. The healthful uses of those plants also are reported . [3]

Dracaena arborea extracts delay the pro-ejaculatory effect of dopamine and oxytocin in spinal male rats

Dracaena arborea may be a healthful plant with ethnopharmacological aphrodisiac name. within the gift study, the result of Associate in Nursing blood vessel administration of liquid and ethanolic extracts from the dried roots of this plant on the ejaculatory pattern of spinal cord-transected and urethane-anaesthetized rats was investigated. additionally, the consequences of those extracts were conjointly determined on Dopastat and oxytocin-induced ejaculation. general administration of liquid and ethanolic extracts (5, 20, 60, 100 mg kg−1) of D. arborea didn’t activate fictive ejaculation, whereas Dopastat (0.1 μM kg−1) and Pitocin (0.5 UI kg−1) angry ejaculation proven by the pulsing contractions of the bulbospongiosus muscles accompanied  with penial erection and generally with expulsion of the seminal plugs. Pretreatment of spinal rats with D. arborea extracts dose-dependently blocked the pro-ejaculatory activity of Dopastat and Pitocin. lastly, {the gift|this|the current} study shows that the bioactive substances present within the extracts of D. arborea inhibit the activity of the bulbospongiosus muscles through the blockade of dopaminergic and oxytocinergic receptors in rats. [4]

In-vitro Antibacterial Activity and Phytochemical Screening of Psidium guajava on Some Enteric Bacterial Isolates of Public Health Importance

Aim: The study was conducted to research the medicament activity of guava bush and its major medicament constituents (Phytochemicals).

Materials and Methods: The liquid and grain alcohol extracts from the leaves and stem bark of the plant was tested exploitation well diffusion methodology for his or her medicament activity against some members family Enterobacteriaceae family isolated from diarrhoetic stool sample (Escherichia coli, enteric bacteria spp, Salmonella typhi and Pseudomonas aeruginosa).

Results: The result shows that the extracts were active against the microorganisms. The ethanolic extract of stem bark showed the best zones of inhibition against tested organisms compared to liquid extract. applied mathematics analysis of the result shows that the extracts incontestable  higher medicament activity against the isolates tested with the common zone of inhibition of fifteen.44 mm, 14.78 mm, 12.92 millimetre and eleven.31 millimetre for E. coli, enteric bacteria spp S. typhi and P. aeruginosa, severally. The Minimum restrictive Concentration (MIC) and Minimum germicidal Concentration (MBC) of the extracts ranges between half dozen.25 – one hundred mg/ml. Preliminary phytochemical analyses showed that each stem bark and leaf extracts contain alkaloids, tannins, terpenoid, Anthraquinone, reducing sugar, amino acid, flavonoid,  saponins, glycosides and phenols. [5]


[1] Odebiyi, O.O. and Sofowora, E.A., 1978. Phytochemical screening of Nigerian medicinal plants II. Lloydia, 41(3), pp.234-246. (Web Link)

[2] Tona, L., Kambu, K., Ngimbi, N., Cimanga, K. and Vlietinck, A.J., 1998. Antiamoebic and phytochemical screening of some Congolese medicinal plants. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 61(1), pp.57-65. (Web Link)

[3] Mojab, F., Kamalinejad, M., Ghaderi, N. and Vahidipour, H.R., 2010. Phytochemical screening of some species of Iranian plants. Iranian Journal of Pharmaceutical Research, pp.77-82. (Web Link)

[4] Dracaena arborea extracts delay the pro-ejaculatory effect of dopamine and oxytocin in spinal male rats

P Watcho, W-N Modeste, K Albert & M Carro-Juarez

International Journal of Impotence Research volume 26, pages 213–217 (2014) (Web Link)

[5] Ali, M., Yahaya, A., Zage, A. U. and Yusuf, Z. M. (2017) “In-vitro Antibacterial Activity and Phytochemical Screening of Psidium guajava on Some Enteric Bacterial Isolates of Public Health Importance”, Journal of Advances in Medical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, 12(3), pp. 1-7. doi: 10.9734/JAMPS/2017/31126. (Web Link)

News Update on Salt Stress Research: June – 2019

Regulation of ion homeostasis under salt stress

When underneath salt stress, plants maintain a high concentration of K+ and an occasional concentration of Na+ within the cytoplasm. they are doing this by regulation the expression and activity of K+ and Na+ transporters and of H+ pumps that generate the propulsion for transport. though salt-stress sensors stay elusive, a number of the treater sign elements are known. proof suggests that a supermolecule enzyme complicated consisting of the myristoylated Ca-binding supermolecule SOS3 and also the serine/threonine supermolecule enzyme SOS2 is activated by a salt-stress-elicited calcium signal. The supermolecule enzyme complicated then phosphorylates and activates numerous particle transporters, like the cell membrane Na+/H+ antiporter SOS1. [1]

Photosynthesis under drought and salt stress: regulation mechanisms from whole plant to cell

Background: Plants are typically subjected to periods of soil and part water deficits throughout their life cycle moreover as, in several areas of the world, to high soil salinity. Understanding however plants answer drought, salt and co-occurring stresses will play a significant role in stabilising crop performance below drought and saline conditions and within the protection of natural vegetation. chemical action, in conjunction with cell growth, is among the first processes to be full of water or salt stress. [2]

A novel cis-acting element in an Arabidopsis gene is involved in responsiveness to drought, low-temperature, or high-salt stress.

Two genes, rd29A and rd29B, that square measure closely situated on the dilleniid dicot genus order, square measure differentially elicited below conditions of dehydration, cold, high salt, or treatment with exogenous abscisic acid (ABA). It seems that rd29A has a minimum of 2 cis-acting components, one concerned within the ABA-associated response to dehydration and therefore the different elicited by changes in diffusion potential, which rd29B contains a minimum of one cis-acting component that’s concerned in ABA-responsive, slow induction. we tend to analyzed the rd29A promoter in each transgenic dilleniid dicot genus and tobacco and known a unique cis-acting, dehydration-responsive component (DRE) containing nine bp, TACCGACAT, that’s concerned within the initial speedy response of rd29A to conditions of dehydration or high salt. DRE is additionally concerned within the induction by cold however doesn’t perform within the ABA-responsive, slow expression of rd29A. Nuclear proteins that specifically bind to DRE were detected in dilleniid dicot genus plants below either high-salt or traditional conditions. completely different cis-acting components appear to perform within the ballroom dance induction of rd29A and within the slow induction of rd29B below conditions of dehydration, high salt, or cold. [3]

Gene Expression analysis associated with salt stress in a reciprocally crossed rice population

The rice landrace Horkuch, endemic to the southern saline coast of Asian nation, is understood to possess salt tolerance traits and may thus contribute to a high yielding recipient for breeding functions. during this study, we have a tendency to reciprocally crossed Horkuch with high yielding however salt sensitive IR29 to notice the complement of genes that were chargeable for conferring salt tolerance versus sensitivity at the spermatophyte organic process stage. we have a tendency to checked out tolerant and sensitive F3 families from individual F2 segregating plants and analyzed them for differential factor expressions victimization RNAseq. In general, we have a tendency to ascertained higher numbers of genes differentially expressed in leaves compared to root tissues. This enclosed each upregulation and downregulation of organic phenomenon across our experimental factors. organic phenomenon shrivelled in sensitive leaf when stress exposure wherever tolerant plants showed the alternative trend. In root, tolerant plants expression shrivelled at higher time points of stress exposure. we have a tendency to conjointly ascertained a robust maternal cytoplasmatic impact on organic phenomenon and this was most evident in roots wherever there was upregulation in useful enrichments associated with phosphorylation, lepton carriers, transporter and ion transmembrane activities. Stress teams (tolerant and sensitive) response in F3 families were distinctive in each cytoplasmatic backgrounds and concerned unambiguously upregulated genes in tolerant progenies together with membrane detector proteins, enzymes involved sign pathways, like those manufacturing trehalose and G-protein coupled receptor proteins, photosynthesis-related enzymes and cyst usage additionally as prolamin precursor proteins concerned in refolding of proteins. On the opposite hand, sensitivity was found to be related to differential upregulation of solely range of|some|many} oxidoreduction proteins and better number of cell death connected genes compared to the tolerant response. Overall, our extremely replicated experimental style was powerful and allowed the detection of comparatively delicate differential expression. Our future goal is to correlate these expression variations with QTLs during this population, which might facilitate determine the relative importance of specific genetic loci and supply an instantaneous avenue for combining higher levels of salt tolerance with higher agronomical traits in rice. [4]

UV-B Radiation Impacts on Growth, Bulb Yield and Antioxidants in Onion under Salt Stress

Ultraviolet radiation thought of one amongst the environmental stresses that wide disturb most of the physio-biochemical processes within the plant. However, previous studies referred that irradiation of plant tissues with a coffee dose of UV-B radiation stimulates adjustive mechanisms and providing higher protection to alternative stresses. during this approach, a pot experiment was set get into the open field throughout the 2 growing seasons of 2014/2015 and 2015/2016. Transplants of purple onion (Giza 20), six weeks previous, were exposed to UV-B (280-320 nm) for fifteen min, then grownup plants were irrigated with 3 concentrations of NaCl (0, fifty and a hundred mM) as a challenge. The impact of low dose of UV-B was evaluated by determination of vegetative growth characteristics, bulb yield/plant and a few organic chemistry changes related to UV-B elicited tolerance. In general, plants irrigated with fifty and a hundred millimeter of NaCl remarkably expressed a discount in plant growth, yield and chlorophyl and b. Flavonoids were considerably reduced beneath the best level of salinity. Results showed that plants grownup from UV-B treated transplants were less laid low with salt stress that was obvious in increasing plant contemporary weight, shoot height, range of leaves/plant, leaf length, leaf diameter and neck thickness. Moreover, actinic radiation treatment eased onion bulb yield in term of contemporary bulb weight, bulb length, bulb diameter and harvest index. the improved tolerance was noticed  by increasing organic osmolytes (free amino acids, reducing sugars and total sugars) and elicited inhibitor system &#40;total soluble phenols, carotenoids, flavonoids, oxidase (POD&#41;, polyphenol enzyme (PPO) and ascorbate oxidase (APX) in onion leaves and anthocyanin in bulbs. concerning supermolecule activity, thirty third of polymorphism was produced; negative markers were detected by actinic radiation + fifty millimeter NaCl and actinic radiation + a hundred millimeter NaCl. whereas one positive marker was detected by actinic radiation +100 millimeter NaCl at eighty seven.545 kDa that indicated that the interaction between salinity stress and UV-B radiation resulted in plant salt tolerance. [5]


[1] Zhu, J.K., 2003. Regulation of ion homeostasis under salt stress. Current opinion in plant biology, 6(5), pp.441-445. (Web Link)

[2] Chaves, M.M., Flexas, J. and Pinheiro, C., 2009. Photosynthesis under drought and salt stress: regulation mechanisms from whole plant to cell. Annals of botany, 103(4), pp.551-560. (Web Link)

[3] Yamaguchi-Shinozaki, K. and Shinozaki, K., 1994. A novel cis-acting element in an Arabidopsis gene is involved in responsiveness to drought, low-temperature, or high-salt stress. The Plant Cell, 6(2), pp.251-264. (Web Link)

[4] Gene Expression analysis associated with salt stress in a reciprocally crossed rice population

Samsad Razzaque, Sabrina M. Elias, Taslima Haque, Sudip Biswas, G. M. Nurnabi Azad Jewel, Sazzadur Rahman, Xiaoyu Weng, Abdelbagi M. Ismail, Harkamal Walia, Thomas E. Juenger & Zeba I. Seraj

Scientific Reportsvolume 9, Article number: 8249 (2019) (Web Link)

[5] M. R. Abdellatif, Y. and K. Al-Senosy, N. (2018) “UV-B Radiation Impacts on Growth, Bulb Yield and Antioxidants in Onion under Salt Stress”, International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, 24(2), pp. 1-14. doi: 10.9734/IJPSS/2018/43479. (Web Link)

News Update on Dairy Farmers Research: June – 2019

Lymphocyte function of Michigan dairy farmers exposed to polybrominated biphenyls

Michigan farm residents Ate farm product containing polybrominated biphenyls (PBB’s) when the accidential contamination of animal feed with the chemical therein state in 1973. The current blood lymphocytes of those residents show vital changes. Abnormalities embrace decreases within the numbers and percentages of peripheral blood lymphocytes that kind rosettes with either sheep erythrocytes alone or with sheep erythrocytes hypersensitive with protein and complement, will increase in lymphocytes with no detectable surface markers (“null” cells), and altered responses to tests designed to guage purposeful integrity of the cells. There seems to be no consistent correlation between the concentration of PBB’s within the plasma and also the altered lymphocytes. Studies showed that in Wisconsin farm residents and healthy people within the ny space WHO weren’t exposed to PBB’s there have been no such abnormalities. [1]

Entrepreneurial behaviour of dutch dairy farmers under a milk quota system: goals, objectives and attitudes

An empirical model, supported the speculation of Planned Behaviour, was developed to check the hypothesis that variations in farmers’ goals, objectives and attitudes are a determinant of strategic and entrepreneurial behaviour and can, therefore, end in variations in farm size. the speculation states that a person’s behaviour results from his/her goals and intentions, attitudes, perceived behavioral management and social norms. knowledge (n=257) were gathered from a form that was sent to a specific cluster of Dutch dairy farm farmers, members of study-groups within the northern a part of The Netherlands. Answers to statements regarding goals similarly as statements associated with attitudes, subjective norms and perceived behavioral management, explained thirty eighth of the variance in farm size as expressed by farmers’ milk quota. The goal of getting a “large and trendy farm” was absolutely correlate with farm size, whereas those associated with “having a breeding farm” and “extra supply of income” were considerably negatively correlate with farm size. a big relationship was found between behaviour (farm size as expressed by a farm’s milk quota) and goals and intentions of farmers. This relationship is even stronger once statements on attitudes, social norms and perceived behavioral management are enclosed. Farm size is principally explained by farmers’ instrumental goals. this implies that farm size isn’t relevant for fulfilling intrinsic, communicatory and social goals. This research shows a consistency with the speculation of Planned Behaviour and might be employed in inquiry by applying it to knowledge collected in an exceedingly form. Such psychological models on higher cognitive process will facilitate to yield insight into aspects associated with entrepreneurial behaviour of dairy farm farmers. [2]

Health effects of organic dust exposure in dairy farmers

Exposure to farm dirt could cause asthma attack, rhinitis, allergic alveolitis, organic dirt venomous syndrome, and bronchitis. feverish reactions to indrawn dusts square measure common associate degreed square measure sometimes of a venomous instead of an allergic sort. Some proof indicates that dairy farm farmers could have associate degree exaggerated prevalence of bronchitis, allergic asthma attack, rhinitis, and chronic flowing limitation, however this has not been once and for all shown. Storage mites and cow dander square measure vital allergens in dairying. Inflammation of airways could partly be caused by immediate or delayed hypersensitivity. alternative mechanisms, like activation of inflammatory cells from venomous agents or high exposure levels, could also be of goodly importance in inflicting airway and respiratory organ illness. [3]

Milk Testing, a Simple, Practical Handbook for Dairy Farmers, Estate Agents, Creamery Managers, Milk Distributors, and Consumers

THIS useful very little book has therefore counseled itself to those for whom it absolutely was meant that it’s currently for the econd time revised and enlarged. The new matter includes such recent developments of the farm trade because the testing of bitter milk and therefore the description of port ready appliances to be used by move inspectors. it’s a cheerful circumstance that mister. Walker-Tisdale, WHO is himself the manager and a director of an oversized milk company, ought to therefore place his expertise at the disposal of alternative farm managers, and it’s equally for tunate that British people farm manager and farmer, to this point from abusing the monopoly he possesses (for there’s much no importation of milk from abroad) ought to show himself therefore able to apply chemical tssts so as satisfactorily to ascertain the purity of his milk. [4]

Analysis of Milking Management Practices Followed by Dairy Farmers of R. S. Pura Block in Jammu District

The present study was conducted in R. S. Pura block of Jammu district to establish the milking management practices followed by dairy farm farmers. R. S. Pura block was purposively designated for the study. List of villages with most populations of alimentation animals was known from the chosen block. Out of the list of known villages, 2 villages were arbitrarily designated for the study. From every designated villages twenty dairy farm farmers were designated arbitrarily, creating a sample size of forty farmers. The results of the study discovered that every one 100% of dairy farm farmers experienced hand methodology of milking and none of the dairy farm farmers experienced machine milking. Majority fifty five per cent and seventy p.c of respondents’ experienced full hand milking and wet hand milking habits severally. Majority of respondents experienced suckling of a calf to induce milk disappointment. None of the respondents experienced concentrate feeding along side massage of bag, and use of Pitocin injection for milk ejection just in case of death of calf milk upset practices. Around 82.50% of farmers milking the animals at a similar place of tethering within the byre. Most (67.50%) of the respondents milking the animal at dirty milking surroundings. All respondents (100%) followed twofold milking, and a majority (67.5%) of them completed milking in 5-7 minutes. Majority of respondents failed to observe straining of milk. the bulk (77.5%) of respondents dried the animal by complete surcease of milking followed by intermittent milking. None of the respondents followed sex organ dipping once milking. [5]


[1] Bekesi, J.G., Holland, J.F., Anderson, H.A., Fischbein, A.S., Rom, W., Wolff, M.S. and Selikoff, I.J., 1978. Lymphocyte function of Michigan dairy farmers exposed to polybrominated biphenyls. Science, 199(4334), pp.1207-1209. (Web Link)

[2] Bergevoet, R.H., Ondersteijn, C.J.M., Saatkamp, H.W., Van Woerkum, C.M.J. and Huirne, R.B.M., 2004. Entrepreneurial behaviour of Dutch dairy farmers under a milk quota system: goals, objectives and attitudes. Agricultural systems, 80(1), pp.1-21. (Web Link)

[3] Malmberg, P., 1990. Health effects of organic dust exposure in dairy farmers. American Journal of Industrial Medicine, 17(1), pp.7-15. (Web Link)

[4] Milk Testing, a Simple, Practical Handbook for Dairy Farmers, Estate Agents, Creamery Managers, Milk Distributors, and Consumers

Naturevolume 87, page179 (1911) (Web Link)

[5] Ahmed Bafanda, R., Nanda, R., A. khandi, S., Umair Minhaj, S., Choudhary, F. and Thapa, L. (2018) “Analysis of Milking Management Practices Followed by Dairy Farmers of R. S. Pura Block in Jammu District”, Advances in Research, 15(6), pp. 1-7. doi: 10.9734/AIR/2018/40011. (Web Link)

News Update on Crop Insurance Research: June – 2019

Area-Yield Crop Insurance Reconsidered

One of the more brilliant proposals for reforming the federal crop insurance program requires each premium rates and indemnities to be primarily based not on the producer’s individual yield however rather on the combination yield of a encompassing space. Area-yield crop insurance will offer simpler yield-loss coverage than one by one tailored insurance, while not most of the adverse choice and financial loss issues that have traditionally undermined the computer performance of the federal crop insurance program. [1]

Systemic Risk, Reinsurance, and the Failure of Crop Insurance Markets

Without reasonable insurance, non-public crop insurance markets are doomed to fail as a result of general weather effects induce high correlation among farm-level yields, defeating nondepository financial institution efforts to pool risks across farms. exploitation associate empirical model of the U.S. crop insurance market, we discover that U.S. crop nondepository financial institution portfolios are twenty to fifty times riskier than they’d be otherwise if yields were stochastically freelance across farms. we have a tendency to additionally notice that space yield insurance contracts would modify crop insurers to hide most of their general crop loss risk, reducing their risk exposure to levels usually old by a lot of typical property liability insurers. [2]

Crop Insurance Reconsidered

During the late Nineteen Eighties and early Nineteen Nineties, there was a lot of dialogue over the way to fix what were perceived because the “failures” of the Federal crop insurance program. The Federal Crop Insurance Improvement Act of 1980 created crop insurance the first sort of disaster protection for agricultural producers, exchange a standing disaster help program with sponsored crop insurance. To encourage sales, non-public corporations were noncommissioned to deliver the merchandise and considerably share within the underwriting risks. virtually long, the crop insurance program was born-again from a pilot program giving restricted coverage to a restricted variety of crops nationwide, to a nationwide program covering most major field crops in most major growing regions.1

The perceived failures of crop insurance were several. At the time of passage of the 1980 Act, Congress visualised a participation rate approaching five hundredth of eligible acres by the…. [3]

Defining Optimal Soybean Sowing Dates across the US

Global crop demand is anticipated to extend by 60–110% by 2050. temperature change has already affected crop yields in some countries, and these effects are expected to continue. Identification of weather-related yield-limiting conditions and development of ways for agricultural adaptation to temperature change is crucial to mitigate food security considerations. Here we have a tendency to used machine learning on U.S. soybean yield information, collected from vascular plant trials conducted in twenty seven states from 2007 to 2016, to look at crop sensitivity to variable in-season weather. we have a tendency to known the month-specific negative result of drought via exaggerated water vapour pressure deficit. Excluding TX and Mississippi, wherever later sowing exaggerated yield, sowing twelve days prior to what was practiced throughout this decade across the U.S. would have resulted in 100 percent larger total yield and a accumulative financial gain of ca. US$9 billion. Our information show the substantial nation- and region-specific yield and financial effects of adjusting sowing temporal arrangement and highlight the importance of unceasingly quantifying and adapting to temperature change. The magnitude of impact calculable in our study recommend that policy manufacturers (e.g., federal crop insurance) and laggards (farmers that are slow to adopt) that fail to acknowledge and adapt to temperature change can impact the national food security and economy of the U.S.. [4]

Factors Affecting Awareness Level of Farmers about Crop Insurance: A Case Study of Haryana

Dependency of Indian agriculture remains continued on monsoon. The unpredictable and irregular distribution of monsoon rains will increase risk and uncertainty farmers. Spreading the danger is a crucial facet of deciding to farmers. For the development within the handling of unsafe outcomes across people, there’s a desire for contingent plans. So, to bear in mind and to grasp the importance of crop insurance and also the connected policies has become necessary for the farmers of Haryana. we’ve got tried to understand the stage of their awareness concerning crop insurance through this study. the most objective of the study is to trace out the attention level of farmers concerning crop insurance in Haryana and that square measure the most issue that have an effect on their awareness level. this study finds that there square measure such a big amount of socio-economic factors that have an effect on the data of farmers concerning crop insurance like age, education, sources of major financial gain, class of farming, financial gain level and knowledge of farming. Education plays major role in understanding policies and importance of insurance for the farmers. each the govt. and also the implementing agency within the space ought to initiate awareness campaign so as to extend the extent of farmers. Awareness campaign ought to be conducted by the govt. from time to time at the village level to reinforce the attention level of farmers. The study suggests that the data level of farmers concerning crop insurance and its schemes will be increased  by victimisation completely different platforms of spreading awareness through varied academic efforts. [5]


[1] Miranda, M.J., 1991. Area-yield crop insurance reconsidered. American Journal of Agricultural Economics, 73(2), pp.233-242. (Web Link)

[2] Miranda, M.J. and Glauber, J.W., 1997. Systemic risk, reinsurance, and the failure of crop insurance markets. American Journal of Agricultural Economics, 79(1), pp.206-215. (Web Link)

[3] Glauber, J.W., 2004. Crop insurance reconsidered. American Journal of Agricultural Economics, 86(5), pp.1179-1195. (Web Link)

[4] Defining Optimal Soybean Sowing Dates across the US

Spyridon Mourtzinis, James E. Specht & Shawn P. Conley

Scientific Reportsvolume 9, Article number: 2800 (2019) (Web Link)

[5] Duhan, A. and Singh, S. (2017) “Factors Affecting Awareness Level of Farmers about Crop Insurance: A Case Study of Haryana”, Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, 21(4), pp. 1-7. doi: 10.9734/AJAEES/2017/37966. (Web Link)