Latest Research on Vitamin D April-21

[1] Vitamin D: A millenium perspective

Vitamin D is one of the oldest hormones that have been made in the earliest life forms for over 750 million years. Phytoplankton, zooplankton, and most plants and animals that are exposed to sunlight have the capacity to make vitamin D. Vitamin D is critically important for the development, growth, and maintenance of a healthy skeleton from birth until death. The major function of vitamin D is to maintain calcium homeostasis. It accomplishes this by increasing the efficiency of the intestine to absorb dietary calcium. When there is inadequate calcium in the diet to satisfy the body’s calcium requirement, vitamin D communicates to the osteoblasts that signal osteoclast precursors to mature and dissolve the calcium stored in the bone. Vitamin D is metabolized in the liver and then in the kidney to 1,25‐dihydroxyvitamin D [1,25(OH)2D]. 1,25(OH)2D receptors (VDR) are present not only in the intestine and bone, but in a wide variety of other tissues, including the brain, heart, stomach, pancreas, activated T and B lymphocytes, skin, gonads, etc.

[2]  Global vitamin D status and determinants of hypovitaminosis D


This review describes the vitamin D status in different regions of the world with the objective of understanding the scope of hypovitaminosis D and the factors related to its prevalence that may contribute to the pathogenesis of osteoporosis and fragility fractures.


Vitamin D status has been linked to the pathogenesis of hip fractures as well as other skeletal and non-skeletal disorders. The purpose of this review is to provide a global perspective of vitamin D status across different regions of the world and to identify the common and significant determinants of hypovitaminosis D.


Six regions of the world were reviewed—Asia, Europe, Middle East and Africa, Latin America, North America, and Oceania—through a survey of published literature.


The definition of vitamin D insufficiency and deficiency, as well as assay methodology for 25-hydroxyvitamin D or 25(OH)D, vary between studies. However, serum 25(OH)D levels below 75 nmol/L are prevalent in every region studied whilst levels below 25 nmol/L are most common in regions such as South Asia and the Middle East. Older age, female sex, higher latitude, winter season, darker skin pigmentation, less sunlight exposure, dietary habits, and absence of vitamin D fortification are the main factors that are significantly associated with lower 25(OH)D levels.


Reports from across the world indicate that hypovitaminosis D is widespread and is re-emerging as a major health problem globally.

[3] Estimates of optimal vitamin D status

Vitamin D has captured attention as an important determinant of bone health, but there is no common definition of optimal vitamin D status. Herein, we address the question: What is the optimal circulating level of 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] for the skeleton? The opinions of the authors on the minimum level of serum 25(OH)D that is optimal for fracture prevention varied between 50 and 80 nmol/l. However, for five of the six authors, the minimum desirable 25(OH)D concentration clusters between 70 and 80 nmol/l. The authors recognize that the average older man and woman will need intakes of at least 20 to 25 mcg (800 to 1,000 IU) per day of vitamin D3 to reach a serum 25(OH)D level of 75 nmol/l. Based on the available evidence, we believe that if older men and women maintain serum levels of 25(OH)D that are higher than the consensus median threshold of 75 nmol/l, they will be at lower risk of fracture.

[4] A Short Questionnaire for Assessment of Dietary Vitamin D Intake

Aims: Dietary vitamin D intake is difficult to assess as it is irregular. In Sweden, main sourcesare oily fish, fortified dairy products and margarines. This relative validation study intends to investigate the agreement in dietary vitamin D intake between a short vitamin D questionnaire and a four day food record.

Study Design: A cross sectional study design was implemented.

Place and Duration of Study: Department of Internal Medicine and Clinical Nutrition, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg. Assessments were conducted between January 2009 and December 2012.

Methodology: Ninety-five female subjects (25-40 years old) performed a short vitamin D questionnaire (VDQ), covering the consumption of four foods with high vitamin D content (oily fish, milk, margarine and yoghurt/sour milk). They also performed a food record for four consecutive days in connection to the VDQ.

Results: Median (quartile 1-quartile 3) dietary vitamin D intake was 4.7 (3.6-7.4) µg/day assessed by food record and 3.4 (2.3-4.6) µg/day assessed by VDQ. The dietary intakes of vitamin D correlated significantly between methods (P=.007). The amounts of vitamin D derived from each of the four foods did not differ between methods (P>.05).

Conclusion: The short VDQ, including only four foods with high vitamin D content (oily fish, milk, margarine and yoghurt/sour milk), was able to capture the majority of the dietary vitamin D intake reported in food records. This relative validation study shows that the short questionnaire is a useful tool when assessing intake of major sources of dietary vitamin D on a group level.

[5] Vitamin D Status and Contributing Factors in Patients Attending Three Polyclinics in Benghazi Libya

Background: About one billion people in the world suffer from vitamin D deficiency or insufficiency. The consequences of low vitamin D level include increased risk of some cancers, cardiovascular diseases, and type one diabetes, which makes it a crucial public health concern. In spite of the imperative role of sunlight in vitamin D synthesis, recent reports have shown that higher rates of hypovitaminosis in the sunniest areas of the world. Benghazi city is sunny most of the year; there is a lack of research on Vitamin D status in Libya.

Objective: The purpose of this paper was to investigate the status of Vitamin D and the contributing factors among patients attending three out patient clinics in Benghazi.

Design: Cross-sectional study with stratified random sampling technique was used to collect patients attending three outpatient clinics in Benghazi Libya between July 1st to September 30th 2016.

Participants/Setting: All Patients attending Alkiesh polyclinic, Alfohyaht polyclinic and Yakeen Health Center were approached. 287 participants were recruited, baseline information and serum 25(OH)D concentrations were provided by 184 subjects; participation rate of 64% (58.8% females and 5.9% males).

Statistical Analyses: Description and analysis of data were carried using SPSS version 21. Level of significance was set at p value < 0.05.



[1] Holick, M.F., 2003. Vitamin D: A millenium perspective. Journal of cellular biochemistry88(2), pp.296-307.

[2] Mithal, A., Wahl, D.A., Bonjour, J.P., Burckhardt, P., Dawson-Hughes, B., Eisman, J.A., Fuleihan, G.E.H., Josse, R.G., Lips, P. and Morales-Torres, J., 2009. Global vitamin D status and determinants of hypovitaminosis D. Osteoporosis international20(11), pp.1807-1820.

[3] Dawson-Hughes, B., Heaney, R.P., Holick, M.F., Lips, P., Meunier, P.J. and Vieth, R., 2005. Estimates of optimal vitamin D status.

[4] Hedlund, L., Brekke, H.K., Brembeck, P. and Augustin, H., 2014. A short questionnaire for assessment of dietary vitamin D intake. European Journal of Nutrition & Food Safety, pp.150-156.

[5] Omar, M., Nouh, F., Younis, M., Younis, M., Nabil, N., Saad, M. and Ali, M., 2017. Vitamin D status and contributing factors in patients attending three polyclinics in Benghazi Libya. Journal of Advances in Medicine and Medical Research, pp.1-13.

Latest News on Energy Drink April-21

[1] Drug and Alcohol Dependence

Since the introduction of Red Bull in Austria in 1987 and in the United States in 1997, the energy drink market has grown exponentially. Hundreds of different brands are now marketed, with caffeine content ranging from a modest 50 mg to an alarming 505 mg per can or bottle. Regulation of energy drinks, including content labeling and health warnings differs across countries, with some of the most lax regulatory requirements in the U.S. The absence of regulatory oversight has resulted in aggressive marketing of energy drinks, targeted primarily toward young males, for psychoactive, performance-enhancing and stimulant drug effects. There are increasing reports of caffeine intoxication from energy drinks, and it seems likely that problems with caffeine dependence and withdrawal will also increase. In children and adolescents who are not habitual caffeine users, vulnerability to caffeine intoxication may be markedly increased due to an absence of pharmacological tolerance.

[2] Journal of the American Pharmacists Association


To describe benefits and adverse effects associated with the consumption of energy drinks.

Data sources

Searches were conducted using Medline, IPA (International Pharmaceutical Abstracts), EMBASE, and MANTIS; databases such as Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database, Natural Standard, ALTMEDEX, and AltHealthWatch; and Google (range 1980 to September 2007). Search terms included energy drink, Red Bull, caffeine, glucose, ginseng, guarana, taurine, and bitter orange.

Data synthesis

Most energy drinks contain natural products such as guarana, ginseng, and taurine. As much as 80 to 300 mg of caffeine and 35 grams of processed sugar per 8-ounce serving are commonly present in energy drinks such as Cocaine, Pimp Juice, Red Bull, and Spike Shooter. No reports were identified of negative effects associated with taurine, ginseng, and guarana used in the amounts found in most energy drinks. Commonly reported adverse effects seen with caffeine in the quantities present in most energy drinks are insomnia, nervousness, headache, and tachycardia. Four documented case reports of caffeine-associated deaths were found, as well as four separate cases of seizures associated with the consumption of energy drinks.


The amounts of guarana, taurine, and ginseng found in popular energy drinks are far below the amounts expected to deliver either therapeutic benefits or adverse events. However, caffeine and sugar are present in amounts known to cause a variety of adverse health effects.

[3] Journal of Adolescent Health


This study examined relationships between energy drink consumption and problem behaviors among adolescents and emerging adults. It was hypothesized that frequent consumption of energy drinks would be positively associated with substance abuse and other risky behaviors, and that these relationships would be moderated by race.


Cross-sectional, self-report survey data were collected from 602 Western New York undergraduate students in the spring of 2006. Differences in problem behaviors by frequency of energy drink consumption were assessed with multivariate linear and logistic regressions, controlling for gender, race, age, parental education, and college grade point average. Follow-up regressions were conducted to test for a moderating effect of race.


Frequency of energy drink consumption was positively associated with marijuana use, sexual risk-taking, fighting, seatbelt omission, and taking risks on a dare for the sample as a whole, and associated with smoking, drinking, alcohol problems, and illicit prescription drug use for white students but not for black students.


These findings suggest that energy drink consumption is closely associated with a problem behavior syndrome, particularly among whites. Frequent consumption of energy drinks may serve as a useful screening indicator to identify students at risk for substance use and/or other health-compromising behavior.

[4] Pattern of Energy Drink Consumption and Associated Adverse Symptoms among University Students

Aims: This study estimated the prevalence of energy drink consumption among students at the University of the West Indies (UWI), and describes the frequency of consumption and associated adverse symptoms.

Study Design: A cross-sectional survey was conducted using a sex-stratified random sample of students residing in the halls of residence at the UWI, in Jamaica.

Place and Duration of Study: The study was conducted at the Mona campus of UWI, between October 2011 and January 2012.

Methodology: A self-administered questionnaire was used to obtain demographic data, use of energy drinks, frequency of use, symptoms associated with use and perception of benefits.

Results: There were 607 participants, consisting of 336 (55.4%) females and 271 (44.6 %) males. The mean age was 20.7 years. Jamaicans constituted 80% of responders. Energy drinks were used by 450 participants (74.1%), with 288 (64%) being once weekly users, consisting of 160 males (74.8%) and 128 females (54.2%). There were 20 students (4.4%) who used energy drinks 2-3 times/week, 11 (2.4%) 4-6 times weekly, 3 (0.7%) were daily users. Adverse symptoms experienced were: palpitation in 133 (29.6%), headache in 64 (14.2%), and nervousness in 58 (12.9%). Insomnia occurred in 236 (52.4%) with 129 (54.7%) females and 107 (50%) males. Chest pain was reported by 27 (6.0%) and fainting occurred in 2 respondents. Perceptions reported about the use of energy drinks included, enhanced sport performance, 38.9%, improved academic performance, 60%, and improved sexual performance, 21.8% and improvement in daily activities (both mental and physical), 22.3%.

Conclusion: Energy drink use is common among students on the halls of residence at UWI in Jamaica. Insomnia, palpitation and headache were the most common adverse symptoms, but students perceived benefits in their academic and daily activities.

[5] Levels of Selected Heavy Metals in Some Imported Canned Energy Drinks in Lagos Nigeria

Background: Energy Drink are drugs or beverage which is purported to boost mental or physical energy. The energy in these drinks is derived through a choice of stimulants, vitamins and herbal supplements the manufacturer has combined. Different brands of energy drinks are currently in high demands in this part of the country.


Aim: Trace metals (iron, zinc, manganese, cadmium and lead) were evaluated from ten brands of energy drinks using Atomic Absorptive Spectrophotometer (AAS).

Methodology: Ten brands of imported energy drinks which reflect the most popular brands consumed were sampled in triplicate from Yaba, Ojuelegba and Oyingbo markets in Lagos-Nigeria. The drinks were digested by weighing 20ml of the energy drinks into an evaporating dish and 10ml of Conc.HNO3 was added. Each metal was measured using the Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer which was set up according to the wavelength corresponding to that of the element under investigation. Reagent blank determination was used to correct the instrument reading.

Results: All metals, except lead and cadmium, were present at varying concentrations in the drinks. The concentration of cadmium and lead were below detectable value while. by and large, the mean value of the metals found in the energy drinks ranges from 0.040 – 0.010ppm. Zinc has the highest individual concentration of metals and it is closely followed by iron and then manganese. The Order of abundance of these heavy metals in the samples is presented as follows: zinc > iron > manganese > cadmium = lead.

Discussion and Conclusion: These results showed that there is no risk in energy drink with respect to the concentrations of zinc, iron and manganese as they were within the permissible limits set by health authorities. The trace metals in canned drinks must be monitored comprehensively and periodically with respect to the consumer health as the safety of drinks and any other edible material cannot be compromised.



[1]  Reissig, C.J., Strain, E.C. and Griffiths, R.R., 2009. Caffeinated energy drinks—a growing problem. Drug and alcohol dependence99(1-3), pp.1-10.

[2] Clauson, K.A., Shields, K.M., McQueen, C.E. and Persad, N., 2008. Safety issues associated with commercially available energy drinks. Journal of the American Pharmacists Association48(3), pp.e55-e67.

[3] Miller, K.E., 2008. Energy drinks, race, and problem behaviors among college students. Journal of adolescent health43(5), pp.490-497.

[4]  Orimoloye, A., Hurlock, L., Ferguson, T.S. and Lee, M.G., 2013. Pattern of Energy Drink Consumption and Associated Adverse Symptoms among University Students. Journal of Advances in Medicine and Medical Research, pp.1900-1909.

[5] James, O.O., Olusola, O.T., Olalekan, O. and Shagari, A.B., 2018. Levels of Selected Heavy Metals in Some Imported Canned Energy Drinks in Lagos Nigeria. Journal of Advances in Medical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, pp.1-6.

Latest News on Nutritional Status Research: Nov – 2019

Screening for nutritional status in the elderly.

A comprehensive assessment of nutritionary standing could be a critically necessary element of any patient analysis. based mostly upon clinical data, anthropometrical knowledge, and alittle variety of laboratory investigations, AN correct appraisal of nutritionary standing ought to be doable ANd an acceptable intervention set up are often developed. the particular approach depends on the actual downside discovered. These ar mentioned very well elsewhere during this issue. [1]

What is subjective global assessment of nutritional status?

Presented and delineate well may be a clinical technique known as subjective world assessment (SGA), that assesses nutritionary standing supported options of the history and physical examination. Illustrative cases are given. To clarify more the character of the SGA, the tactic was applied before channel surgery to 202 hospitalized patients. the first aim of the study was to work out the extent to that our clinician’s SGA ratings were influenced by the individual clinical variables on which the clinicians were schooled to base their assessments. just about all of those variables were considerably associated with SGA category. statistical method showed that ratings were most full of loss of connective tissue tissue, muscle wasting, and weight loss. A high degree of interobserver agreement was found (kappa = zero.78, ninety fifth confidence interval zero.624 to 0.944, p but zero.001). we have a tendency to conclude that SGA will simply be schooled to a range of clinicians (residents, nurses), which this system is reproducible. [2]

Use and interpretation of anthropometric indicators of nutritional status

Studies dole out throughout the last decade have diode to an improved understanding of the worth of anthropometrical indicators of biological process standing. this report concentrates on knowledge regarding 0-5-year-old youngsters and examines the indices of weight and height and also the biological significance of ”wasting” and ”stunting”. the necessity for a reference population still as for a regular or target is recognized and also the blessings and downsides of native versus international reference populations ar mentioned. within the analysis of information, preference is given to the employment of ordinary deviation (SD) scores and to the presentation of whole distributions. Cut-offs, for instance -2SD, ar required for comparison of prevalences and for screening of populations. successive or serial measurements and also the increasing use of growth velocities ar mentioned and their uses and difficulties ar made public. [3]

Effects of enteral nutritional rich in n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids on the nutritional status of gastrointestinal cancer patients: a systematic review and meta-analysis

Postoperative deficiency disease could be a major issue among gi cancer patients. as a result of n-3 unsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs) have medicine edges, n-3 PUFAs ar wide utilized in oral nutritionary supplements (ONS). However, n-3 PUFAs in ONS reduced patients’ compliance with ONS and affected the role of ONS in maintaining the surgical  nutritionary standing of patients. The aim of this study was to consistently explore the advantages of enteral nutrition made in n-3 PUFAs in maintaining the nutritionary standing of patients when gi surgery. Databases together with PubMed, net of Science, Embase, Cochrane Library, China National data Infrastructure, Wanfang, and very important person databases were searched through March sixteen, 2019. [4]

Use of the Integrated Diagnosis and Recommendation System and Sufficiency Band for Nutritional Status of Conilon Coffee

Knowing the organic process conditions of the crop is a very important issue to know its development, indicating the leaf nutrient contents and creating potential correlations with the productivity so as to equate the bestowed variations. the target of this paper was to diagnose the foremost limiting organic process factors to getting high yields by identification And Recommendation Integrated System (DRIS) technique and sufficiency ranges for conilon occasional culture. within the occasional crop of the variability Robusta Tropical – Emcaper 8151, set within the county of Cachoeiro First State Itapemirim – metallic element, Associate in Nursing irregular mesh was designed, with one hundred forty georeferenced points. to get the info of the leaf analysis at every purpose, 2 pairs of leaves of the lateral branches were collected at the typical height of every plant at the four cardinal points. [5]


[1] Lipschitz, D.A., 1994. Screening for nutritional status in the elderly. Primary care, 21(1), (Web Link)

[2] Detsky, A.S., Baker, J.P., Johnston, N., Whittaker, S., Mendelson, R.A. and Jeejeebhoy, K.N., 1987. What is subjective global assessment of nutritional status?. Journal of parenteral and enteral nutrition, 11(1), (Web Link)

[3] WHO Working Group, 1986. Use and interpretation of anthropometric indicators of nutritional status. Bulletin of the World Health Organization, 64(6), (Web Link)

[4] Effects of enteral nutritional rich in n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids on the nutritional status of gastrointestinal cancer patients: a systematic review and meta-analysis
Guang-ying Wan, Li-yuan Zheng, Hui-qin Li, Hua Yuan, Hui Xue & Xiu-ying Zhang
European Journal of Clinical Nutrition (2019) (Web Link)

[5] da Fonseca, A., Souza Lima, J. and Silva, S. (2018) “Use of the Integrated Diagnosis and Recommendation System and Sufficiency Band for Nutritional Status of Conilon Coffee”, Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, 22(2), (Web Link)

Latest News on Fruit Juice Research: Oct – 2019

The Use and Misuse of Fruit Juice in Pediatrics

Historically, drinkable was counseled by pediatricians as a supply of ascorbic acid and an additional supply of water for healthy infants and young kids as their diets distended to incorporate solid foods with higher nephritic matter. drinkable is marketed as a healthy, natural supply of vitamins and, in some instances, calcium. as a result of juice tastes smart, kids without delay settle for it. though juice consumption has some advantages, it additionally has potential prejudicial effects. Pediatricians have to be compelled to be knowledgeable juice to tell folks and patients on its acceptable uses. [1]

Pomegranate juice: a heart-healthy fruit juice

Pomegranate juice could be a polyphenol-rich beverage with high inhibitor capability. In restricted studies in human and murine models, pomegranate juice has been shown to exert vital antiatherogenic, inhibitor, medicinal drug, and anti inflammatory effects. Pomegranate juice considerably reduced arteriosclerosis lesion areas in immune-deficient mice and membrane media thickness in internal organ patients on medications. It additionally belittled lipide peroxidation in patients with sort a pair of polygenic disease, and beat pressure and humor Hypertensin changing catalyst activity in hypertensive patients. Thus, the potential cardioprotective advantages of pomegranate juice merit more clinical investigation, and proof so far suggests it’s going to be prudent to incorporate this beverage during a wholesome diet. [2]

Pomegranate fruit juice for chemoprevention and chemotherapy of prostate cancer

Prostate cancer is that the commonest invasive malignancy and also the second leading explanation for cancer-related deaths among U.S. males, with an analogous trend in several Western countries. One approach to manage this malignancy is its hindrance through the employment of agents gift in diet consumed by humans. Pomegranate from the tree fruit tree possesses sturdy inhibitor and antiinflammatory properties. we tend to recently showed that pomegranate fruit extract (PFE) possesses outstanding antitumor-promoting effects in mouse skin. during this study, using human glandular carcinoma cells, we tend to evaluated the antiproliferative and proapoptotic properties of PFE. PFE (10-100 μg/ml; forty eight h) treatment of extremely aggressive human glandular carcinoma PC3 cells resulted in an exceedingly dose-dependent inhibition of cell growth/cell viability and induction of programmed cell death. [3]

A lack of consideration of a dose–response relationship can lead to erroneous conclusions regarding 100% fruit juice and the risk of cardiometabolic disease

Excess intake of supplemental sugars particularly from sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) is related to inflated risk of avoirdupois, kind a pair of polygenic disorder, upset (CVD) and mortality [1]. Mounting proof suggests that SSBs contribute a considerable proportion of daily intake of sugars [2] whereas giving no biological process benefit; and it’s the obesogenic impact of excess calories that will increase the chance of cardiometabolic sickness and mortality instead of any adverse effect of fructose-containing sugars [3]. The consistent relationship between SSBs and cardiometabolic sickness outcomes in many massive cohorts has formed public health pointers career for the reduction of SSBs [4] and has resulted in a very soda-tax inside several countries. [4]

Effect of Different Fruit Juice Media on Bacterial Cellulose Production by Acinetobacter sp. BAN1 and Acetobacter pasteurianus PW1

Aim: to provide microorganism polysaccharide (BC) exploitation drink with high sugar contents because the substrate for production.

Study Design: The result of various drink on before Christ production by Acinetobacter sp. BAN1 and Acetobacter pasteurianus PW1 and Characterization of the before Christ was investigated. This analysis was allotted within the Department of biological science University of metropolis, Nigeria.

Methodology: 2 microorganism Acinetobacter sp. BAN1 and Acetobacter pasteurianus PW1 were obtained from stock culture. Pineapple, Pawpaw and Watermelon drink media were ready and used for the assembly of before Christ by isolation. The before Christ made was characterised. [5]


[1] Baker, S., Cochran, W., Greer, F., Heyman, M., Jacobson, M., Jaksic, T., Krebs, N., Blum-Kemelor, D., Dietz, W., Grave, G. and Harris, S., 2001. The use and misuse of fruit juice in pediatrics. Pediatrics, 107(5), (Web Link)

[2] Basu, A. and Penugonda, K., 2009. Pomegranate juice: a heart-healthy fruit juice. Nutrition reviews, 67(1), (Web Link)

[3] Malik, A., Afaq, F., Sarfaraz, S., Adhami, V.M., Syed, D.N. and Mukhtar, H., 2005. Pomegranate fruit juice for chemoprevention and chemotherapy of prostate cancer. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 102(41), (Web Link)

[4] A lack of consideration of a dose–response relationship can lead to erroneous conclusions regarding 100% fruit juice and the risk of cardiometabolic disease
Tauseef A. Khan, Laura Chiavaroli, Andreea Zurbau & John L. Sievenpiper
European Journal of Clinical Nutrition (2019) (Web Link)

[5] C. Adebayo-Tayo, B., O. Akintunde, M. and F. Sanusi, J. (2017) “Effect of Different Fruit Juice Media on Bacterial Cellulose Production by Acinetobacter sp. BAN1 and Acetobacter pasteurianus PW1”, Journal of Advances in Biology & Biotechnology, 14(3), (Web Link)