Latest News on Myopia: July – 2020

Many people have reduced unaided vision because of myopia, a spherical error of refraction. The biological theory of myopia views myopia as the result of genetically determined characteristics of eye tissues, whereas the use-abuse theory views myopia as the result of habitual use of the eye at a near focal length, near-work. [1]

Takeover Threats and Managerial Myopia

This paper examines the familiar argument that takeover pressure can be damaging because it leads managers to sacrifice long-term interests in order to boost current profits. If stockholders are imperfectly informed, temporarily low earnings may cause the stock to become undervalued, increasing the likelihood of a takeover at an unfavorable price; hence the managerial concern with current bottom line. The magnitude of the problem depends on a variety of factors, including the attitudes and beliefs of shareholders, the extent to which corporate raiders have inside information, and the degree to which managers are concerned with retaining control of their firms. [2]

Alcohol myopia: Its prized and dangerous effects.

This article explains how alcohol makes social responses more extreme, enhances important self-evaluations, and relieves anxiety and depression, effects that underlie both the social destructiveness of alcohol and the reinforcing effects that make it an addictive substance. The theories are based on alcohol’s impairment of perception and thought—the myopia it causes—rather than on the ability of alcohol’s pharmacology to directly cause specific reactions or on expectations associated with alcohol’s use. Three conclusions are offered: (a) Alcohol makes social behaviors more extreme by blocking a form of response conflict. (b) The same process can inflate self-evaluations. (c) Alcohol myopia, in combination with distracting activity, can reliably reduce anxiety and depression in all drinkers by making it difficult to allocate attention to the thoughts that provoke these states. These theories are discussed in terms of their significance for the prevention and treatment of alcohol abuse. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved) [3]

Is There a Causal Relationship between Myopia and Intraocular Pressure

Aims: To determine if there is causal association between myopia and intraocular pressure at the University of Port Harcourt Teaching Hospital (UPTH), Nigeria.

Study Design: A case control study.

Place and Duration of Study: The study was carried out at the University of Port Harcourt Teaching Hospital (UPTH) between November, 2012 and May, 2013.

Methodology: Eighty consecutive patients of myopes (group A) and emmetropes (group B) were sampled in two groups. Group A was subgrouped into low myopia (−3.0D<Spherical Equivalent (SE)≤ −0.5D), moderate myopia (−3.0D≤ SE-< -6.0D) and high myopia (SE ≥ -6).[4]


Wavefront-guided Versus Standard Laser in situ Keratomileusis in Myopia Using a 213 nm Wavelength Solid-state Laser: Comparison of Higher-order Aberrations

Purpose: To assess the accuracy, efficacy, stability and safety of laser in situ keratomileusis (LASIK) for myopia and compare the pre- and post-operative changes in higher-order aberrations after wavefront-guided (WF) and standard (STD) LASIK done using the Pulzar Z1, a 213-nm wavelength solid-state laser, and determine their effects on visual acuity and refractive outcomes.

Methods: This a retrospective case series composed of 80 eyes (40 patients) that had LASIK in an out-patient refractive surgery center in Manila, Philippines. Outcome measured were pre and post-operative manifest refraction spherical equivalent (MRSE), uncorrected distance visual acuity (UDVA), best-corrected distance visual acuity (CDVA), keratometry, root-mean-square (RMS) values, flap and ablation related complications. [5]


[1] Angle, J. and Wissmann, D., 1980. The epidemiology of myopia. American journal of epidemiology, 111(2), pp.220-228.

[2] Stein, J.C., 1988. Takeover threats and managerial myopia. Journal of political economy, 96(1), pp.61-80.

[3] Steele, C.M. and Josephs, R.A., 1990. Alcohol myopia: Its prized and dangerous effects. American psychologist, 45(8), p.921.

[4] Chinawa, N.E., Adio, A.O. and Chukwuka, I.O., 2017. Is There a Causal Relationship between Myopia and Intraocular Pressure. Journal of Advances in Medicine and Medical Research, pp.1-7.

[5] Iguban, E.B., Agahan, A.L. and Evangelista, R.P., 2016. Wavefront-guided Versus Standard Laser in situ Keratomileusis in Myopia Using a 213 nm Wavelength Solid-state Laser: Comparison of Higher-order Aberrations. Journal of Advances in Medicine and Medical Research, pp.1-11.

News Update on Strabismus: May 2020

Botulinum Toxin Injection into Extraocular Muscles as an Alternative to Strabismus Surgery

We report here our experience with the injection of botulinum A toxin into individual extraocular muscles as a technique to alter eye alignment. The rationale of this treatment is to create adequate weakness of sufficient duration that the injected muscle becomes slightly atrophied and stretched; at the same time, the antagonist muscle takes up the slack created by this paralysis. After several weeks of paralysis, even though innervation returns to the injected muscle, alignment of the eye is measurably changed.1  [1]

Psychosocial Aspects of Strabismus Study

Objective:  To assess the psychosocial implications of growing up with and living with socially noticeable strabismus.
Design:  Self-report mailed questionnaire and the Hopkins Symptom Checklist.

Setting:  Patients with strabismus who were seen at the University of California, Davis, Medical Center, Department of Ophthalmology, from 1976 to 1989. [2]

The negative psychosocial impact of strabismus in adults

Introduction: The goal in the treatment of strabismus is to realign the visual axes to eliminate diplopia, produce or restore binocular vision, expand the binocular visual field, and/or provide a normal appearance. [3]

Diplopia and Strabismus in Diabetics (Type II) and Non-diabetics in Yazd, Iran

Purpose: To describe the frequency of diplopia and strabismus in diabetics (Type II) and nondiabetics in Yazd, Iran. Methods: This is a cross -sectional study on 3000 patients including 1500 diabetics (type II) and 1500 non-diabetics in Yazd from 2011 to 2012.Based on aims, a questionnaire was designed and data including, demographic data, duration of diabetes, presence of diplopia or strabismus, duration of them, and involved cranial nerves were gathered and documented. Data were analyzed by SPSS (ver. 16) using descriptive statistics, chi-square, fisher and T tests. [4]

Scleral Repair by Biodegradable Collagen Implant in Strabismus Surgery

Aim: To evaluate biodegradable collagen implant as a patch for scleral defect. Case Presentation: A 3 years old girl was subjected to scleral rupture during lateral rectus (LR) advancement for correction of

consecutive esotropia. A scleral defect accidentally occurred with uveal exposure of an area 4×6 mm posterior to the original insertion of the lateral rectus muscle The defect was covered by a patch of biodegradable collagen matrix (CM) implant Ologen™ (Aeon Astron Europe B.V., Leiden, The Netherlands) measuring 12 mm diameter x 1mm thickness. Conjunctiva was meticulously closed over it. A follow up of 1 year was performed regarding ocular alignment and globe integrity which was assessed by slit lamp, fundus examination, photography and B-scan ultrasonography (U/S). Results: Both eyes remained aligned. Scleral defect was well covered, healed by the collagen implant which was incorporated in the surrounding scleral tissues. During postoperative follow up, no uveal exposure and intact retina (no retinal breaks) were detected. Discussion and Conclusion: Scleral rupture is a potential serious problem that can be managed by patching with collagen matrix biodegradable implant before closing the conjunctiva. [5]


[1]  Scott, A.B., 1980. Botulinum toxin injection into extraocular muscles as an alternative to strabismus surgery. Journal of pediatric ophthalmology and strabismus, 17(1), pp.21-25.

[2] Satterfield, D., Keltner, J.L. and Morrison, T.L., 1993. Psychosocial aspects of strabismus study. Archives of Ophthalmology, 111(8), pp.1100-1105.

[3] Olitsky, S.E., Sudesh, S., Graziano, A., Hamblen, J., Brooks, S.E. and Shaha, S.H., 1999. The negative psychosocial impact of strabismus in adults. Journal of American Association for Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus, 3(4), pp.209-211.

[4] Harati, M.D., Besharati, M.R., Shavazi, E.A., Ardekani, M.A., Salimpur, S. and Besharati, S., 2015. Diplopia and Strabismus in Diabetics (Type II) and Non-diabetics in Yazd, Iran. Ophthalmology Research: An International Journal, pp.54-58.

[5] Hamdi, M.M. and Hamdi, I.M., 2015. Scleral repair by biodegradable collagen implant in strabismus surgery. Ophthalmology Research: An International Journal, pp.141-146.

News Update on Visual Acuity Research: Dec – 2019

New design principles for visual acuity letter charts.

This paper intoduces new principles for the planning and use of letter charts for the measurement of acuity. it’s advocated that the test task should be essentially an equivalent at each size level on the chart. Such standardization of the test task requires the utilization of letters of equal legibility, an equivalent number of letters on each row, and uniform between-letter and between-row spacing. it’s also advocated that, combined with the test task standardization, there should be a logarithmic progression of letter size. Charts incorporating these design features are made. These charts facilitate the utilization of nonstandard testing distances which could be used when there’s low acuity, when examination room layout prevents testing at the quality distance, or when it’s necessary to validate acuity scores or detect malingering. [1]

New Visual Acuity Charts for Clinical Research

Three new acuity charts facilitate quantitative use of acuity test results. The charts have high-contrast lettering on washable white polystyrene. Each line has five Sloan letters; the lines are of equal difficulty, and there’s a geometrical progression in letter size from line to line. This provides an identical task for every line on the chart with the letter size being the sole variable. Charts with different letter sequences are used for testing right and left eyes. [2]

Proper Method for Calculating Average Visual Acuity

Calculating the typical acuity and variance on a series of patients isn’t difficult, but has been done incorrectly in most studies.1 the essential problem relates to the difference between the arithmetic and mean for a group of numbers. For the right average acuity, the mean must be used, which provides significantly different values than the first moment. [3]

Test-Retest Reliability of Swept Visual Evoked Potential Measurements of Infant Visual Acuity and Contrast Sensitivity

The aim of the study was to explain variations in swept visual electric potential (SWEEP-VEP) assessment of acuity and contrast sensitivity in infants and to guage the simplest thanks to estimate visual performance from obtained SWEEP-VEP data. The visual performance of 92 infants (6–40 wk of age) was measured in two separate visits. Results were verified with repeated tests in seven adults. There was a robust association between the 2 measurements of infant acuity (r = 0.91, p < 0.001), with no constant bias and an inter-assay coefficient of variation of 8.4%. [4]

The Retinal Layers in the Preservation of Visual Acuity in the Early Stages of Idiopathic Intracranial Hypertension

Purpose: to research the thickness of the retinal layers within the preservation of acuity within the early stages of the disease in patients with papilledema related to idiopathic intracranial hypertension (IIH).

Study Design: Retrospective clinical study.

Methods: Right eyes of 23 IIH patients and 28 healthy control subjects were included within the study. Peripapillary retinal nerve fibre layer (RNFL) thickness in four quadrants and average ganglion cell layer (GCL) thickness measured by high-definition optical coherence tomography (at a presentation in both groups, and also at 6-months after the presentation within the patient group) were retrospectively analysed. [5]


[1] Bailey, I.L. and Lovie, J.E., 1976. New design principles for visual acuity letter charts. American journal of optometry and physiological optics, 53(11), (Web Link)

[2] Ferris III, F.L., Kassoff, A., Bresnick, G.H. and Bailey, I., 1982. New visual acuity charts for clinical research. American journal of ophthalmology, 94(1), (Web Link)

[3] Holladay, J.T., 1997. Proper method for calculating average visual acuity. Journal of refractive surgery, 13(4), (Web Link)

[4] Test-Retest Reliability of Swept Visual Evoked Potential Measurements of Infant Visual Acuity and Contrast Sensitivity
Lotte Lauritzen, Marianne Hørby Jørgensen & Kim Fleischer Michaelsen
Pediatric Research volume 55, (Web Link)

[5] Duman, R., Yavaş, G., Norman, E., İnan, S. and Duman, R. (2018) “The Retinal Layers in the Preservation of Visual Acuity in the Early Stages of Idiopathic Intracranial Hypertension”, Journal of Advances in Medicine and Medical Research, 25(9), (Web Link)

Latest Research on Intraocular Pressure: Dec – 2019

Corticosteroids and Intraocular Pressure

Introduction  The finding of γ-globulin associated plasma cells within the fibrous tissue fabric of glaucomatous eyes urged an immunogenic part.1,2 this study was undertaken to work out, underneath controlled conditions, the result of topical corticosteroids within the eye with primary chronic glaucoma.Corticosteroids are incriminated within the exacerbation or production of the glaucomatous state.3-7 Such reports were mostly involved with eye disease occurring throughout the course of inflammation and were troublesome to interpret. [1]

Intraocular Pressure Response to Topical Corticosteroids

The pressure response to topical betamethasone seems to be genetically determined. A study of patients with primary chronic glaucoma, their relatives, eye disease suspects, and volunteers shows 3 populations on degree of responsiveness. it’s instructed that these square measure the phenotypes that relate to the homozygous poor communicator (nn), the heterozygous communicator (ng), and also the homozygous larger communicator (gg). [2]

Marihuana Smoking and Intraocular Pressure

It is accepted wide that the physical effects of smoking marihuana don’t seem to be accepted, despite AN acknowledged high incidence of usage. Even the President of the us has caught up a significant effort to check drug effects in an exceedingly scientific manner. In an endeavor to analyze the results of marihuana smoking upon the human sensory system, complete ocular examinations were performed in an exceedingly cluster of vernal subjects, before and one hour when smoking. choice of subjects, medical and different safeguards utilised, and details of the protocol are going to be bestowed in an exceedingly later publication. [3]

Visual acuity and intraocular pressure after surgical management of late in-the-bag dislocation of intraocular lenses. A single-centre prospective study

Objectives: to explain index of the minimum angle of resolution (logMAR) best corrected visual sense (BCVA) and pressure (IOP) once surgical management currently in-the-bag dislocation of the lense.

Subjects/methods: during a single-centre prospective study, a hundred sixty five consecutive cases having surgical correction for late in-the-bag-dislocation of intraocular lenses were analysed. annual follow-up knowledge of BCVA, IOP and a specially created composite variable selected “IOP issue” that thought-about IOP ≥ 23 mmHg, in progress pressure reducing treatment and former pressure reducing surgery were compared with baseline values. supplying regression was wont to investigate factors with a attainable influence on the results. [4]

Is There a Causal Relationship between Myopia and Intraocular Pressure

Aims: to see if there’s causative association between shortsightedness and pressure at the University of Port Harcourt Teaching Hospital (UPTH), Nigeria.

Study Design: A case management study.

Place and period of Study: The study was allotted at the University of Port Harcourt Teaching Hospital (UPTH) between Gregorian calendar month, 2012 and will, 2013.

Methodology: Eighty consecutive patients of myopes (group A) and emmetropes (group B) were sampled in 2 teams. A was subgrouped into low shortsightedness. [5]


[1] Becker, B. and MILLS, D.W., 1963. Corticosteroids and intraocular pressure. Archives of ophthalmology, 70(4), (Web Link)

[2] Becker, B., 1965. Intraocular pressure response to topical corticosteroids. Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science, 4(2), (Web Link)

[3] Hepler, R.S. and Frank, I.R., 1971. Marihuana smoking and intraocular pressure. Jama, 217(10), (Web Link)

[4] Visual acuity and intraocular pressure after surgical management of late in-the-bag dislocation of intraocular lenses. A single-centre prospective study
Ditte Artzen, Branka Samolov, Mats Lundström & Per Montan
Eye (2019) (Web Link)

[5] Chinawa, N. E., Adio, A. O. and Chukwuka, I. O. (2017) “Is There a Causal Relationship between Myopia and Intraocular Pressure”, Journal of Advances in Medicine and Medical Research, 20(10), (Web Link)

Latest News on Retinopathy Research: Dec – 2019

The International Classification of Retinopathy of Prematurity revisited.

The International Classification of Retinopathy of immaturity (ICROP) was revealed in two components, the primary in 1984 and later distended in 1987. it had been a agreement statement of a global cluster of retinopathy of immaturity specialists. the first classification has expedited the event of huge multicenter clinical treatment trials and furthered our understanding of this probably blazing disorder. With improved imaging techniques within the nursery, we have a tendency to area unit able to supply a a lot of quantitative approach to a number of the characteristics delineated  within the ICROP. a global cluster of paediatric ophthalmologists and retinal specialists has developed a agreement document that revises some aspects of ICROP. Few modifications were felt to be required. [1]

Hypertensive Retinopathy

This review explains the pathophysiological changes that elevated force per unit area produces within the retinal circulation. Recent studies show that some specific retinal signs area unit robust predictors of stroke, freelance of elevated force per unit area. distinguishing the degree of retinopathy will facilitate clinicians to deliver best treatment and forestall upset and death. [2]

Retinopathy of prematurity

Retinopathy of prematureness (ROP) may be a common glaring unwellness in youngsters within the developed world despite current treatment, and is changing into progressively prevailing within the developing world. ROP progresses in 2 phases. the primary section begins with delayed retinal tube growth when birth and partial regression of existing vessels, followed by a second section of hypoxia-induced pathological vessel growth. 2 major risk factors of ROP area unit the utilization of element and a shrunken biological time. Excessive element contributes to ROP through regulation of tube epithelium protein (VEGF). Suppression of VEGF by element in phase I of ROP inhibits traditional vessel growth, whereas elevated levels of VEGF induced  by drive in clinical test of ROP precipitate pathological vessel proliferation. [3]

Vascular changes in diabetic retinopathy—a longitudinal study in the Nile rat

Diabetic retinopathy is that the commonest microvascular complication of polygenic disorder and may be a major explanation for cecity, however Associate in Nursing understanding of the pathologic process of the illness has been hampered by an absence of correct animal models. Here, we have a tendency to explore the dynamics of retinal cellular changes within the river rat (Arvicanthis niloticus), a carbohydrate-sensitive model for sort two polygenic disorder. the first retinal changes in diabetic river rats enclosed multiplied noncellular  capillaries and loss of pericytes that related  linearly with the period of polygenic disorder. These tube-shaped structure changes occurred within the presence of microglial infiltration however within the absence of retinal neural structure cell loss. [4]

Possible Biochemical Abnormalities of Plasma Lipids and Apo-lipoprotein in Diabetes mellitus Patients with or without Retinopathy In Saki- West Local Government Area of Oyo State- Nigeria

Study Background: potential metabolic disorders of supermolecule, supermolecule and supermolecule area unit related to DM which can embrace complications like retinopathy considering the pathophysiology of this metabolic illness.

Aims and Objectives: This work was designed to see apolipoproteins (ApoA, ApoB), Total cholesterin (TC), Total glyceride (TG), LDL (LDL-C), terribly LDL (VLDL), lipoprotein (HDL-C) in DM patients with or while not retinopathy. [5]


[1] International Committee for the Classification of Retinopathy of Prematurity, 2005. The international classification of retinopathy of prematurity revisited. Archives of Ophthalmology (Chicago, Ill.: 1960), 123(7), (Web Link)

[2] Wong, T.Y. and Mitchell, P., 2004. Hypertensive retinopathy. New England Journal of Medicine, 351(22), (Web Link)

[3] Chen, J. and Smith, L.E., 2007. Retinopathy of prematurity. Angiogenesis, 10(2), (Web Link)

[4] Vascular changes in diabetic retinopathy—a longitudinal study in the Nile rat
Huishi Toh, Alexander Smolentsev, Rachel V. Bozadjian, Patrick W. Keeley, Madison D. Lockwood, Ryan Sadjadi, Dennis O. Clegg, Barbara A. Blodi, Peter J. Coffey, Benjamin E. Reese & James A. Thomson
Laboratory Investigation volume 99, (Web Link)

[5] Folaranmi Olaniyan, M., Akanji Popoola, O., Priscilla Olasupo, O., Afolabi, T. and Gbenga Olayinka, S. (2018) “Possible Biochemical Abnormalities of Plasma Lipids and Apo-lipoprotein in Diabetes mellitus Patients with or without Retinopathy In Saki- West Local Government Area of Oyo State- Nigeria”, International Journal of Biochemistry Research & Review, 21(1), (Web Link)

Latest Research News on Ophthalmic: Nov – 2019

Ophthalmic Laser Interferometry

If the pupil of the attention is light by a collimated shaft the sunshine strolling back from the attention exhibits Newton’s interference fringes. This development may be used (1) to live body structure tissue pulsations and (2) to live the optical length of the attention. a primary series of clinical measurements of patients with angiological issues has shown a transparent correlation of the interferometrically measured body structure pulsations with circulation conditions. initial measurements of the optical length of human eyes indicate a awfully high potential exactitude of this new technique. [1]

Ophthalmic drug delivery systems—Recent advances

Eye-drops are the traditional dose forms that account for ninetieth of presently accessible ophthalmic formulations. Despite the wonderful acceptance by patients, one amongst the main issues encountered is speedy precorneal drug loss. to boost ocular drug bioavailability, there’s a major effort directed towards new drug delivery systems for ophthalmic administration.

This chapter can concentrate on 3 representative areas of ophthalmic drug delivery systems: chemical compound gels, mixture systems, cyclodextrins and scleroprotein shields. [2]

Ophthalmic instrument

An ophthalmic instrument is provided for removing vitreous and fibrous bands from the membrane of an eye fixed. The instrument consists of 2 tubes mounted coaxially among each other, and with a gap adjacent the top of the outer tube. Cutting of the vitreous and fibrous bands is performed by a chopping action discovered by the sharp finish of the tubing against the inner surface of the top of the outer tube. The vitreous and fibrous bands that ar treed within the mouth of the instrument ar cut and removed by suction by means of the tubing. within the instrument to be delineated , the vitreous is replaced unceasingly by a saline, as an example, that is introduced into the instrument by means of alittle infusion tube. [3]

Development and Effects of FTY720 Ophthalmic Solution on Corneal Allograft Survival

Fingolimod (FTY720), a completely unique category of sphingosine 1-phosphate receptor modulators, has received interest group among ophthalmologists, notably provided that oral administration of FTY720 has evidenced to effectively treat transplant rejection in animal models. However, no studies have examined the performance of FTY720 as AN ophthalmic answer in reducing membrane rejection in speculative corneal rejection models and therefore the stability and ocular irritation profile of FTY720 ophthalmic solution are unknown. Thus, we have a tendency to developed zero.1%, 0.2% and 0.5% FTY720 ophthalmic solutions and evaluated their chemical stabilities beneath numerous storage conditions with high- performance liquid action. [4]

Initial Diagnostic Dilemma with 3 Neuro-Ophthalmic Cases Seen at University of Port Harcourt Teaching Hospital, Nigeria

Aim: The aim is to gift 3 patients with neuro-ophthalmic symptoms and signs WHO at first conferred a diagnostic quandary. 2 later clad to be retroviral positive.

Presentation of Cases: CASE one was a thirty five yo feminine nurse assistant WHO 1st conferred with first-rate month history of ingrained pain within the right eye, right aspect of face and headache with explosive onset diminished vision within the right eye. She was at first diagnosed with optic inflammation however this was followed seven months later with panuveitis and bullous RD. Patient wasn’t hypertensive or diabetic and was retroviral (RV) negative. albeit she conferred a diagnostic quandary, a tentative identification of repeated disorder neuro-retinitis is amused on account of the clinical options and traditional investigations. CASE two was a 32yo feminine WHO conferred on account of explosive onset binocular horizontal double vision of two weeks period. She later developed lightheadedness and paresthesia of the left aspect of her body and examination disclosed bilateral torsional move. The patient was HIV positive with a CD4+=39 cells/μl. The third Case was a 17yo student at first diagnosed with Bell’s palsy however later developed transient visual loss. He was found to be HIV positive with a CD4+= 768 cells/μl. [5]


[1] Fercher, A.F. and Roth, E., 1986, September. Ophthalmic laser interferometry. In Optical instrumentation for biomedical laser applications (Vol. 658, pp. 48-51). International Society for Optics and Photonics. (Web Link)

[2] Le Bourlais, C., Acar, L., Zia, H., Sado, P.A., Needham, T. and Leverge, R., 1998. Ophthalmic drug delivery systems—recent advances. Progress in retinal and eye research, 17(1), (Web Link)

[3] Peyman, G. and Dodich, N., 1973. Ophthalmic instrument. U.S. Patent 3,776,238. (Web Link)

[4] Development and Effects of FTY720 Ophthalmic Solution on Corneal Allograft Survival
Zhaochuan Liu, Haotian Lin, Chulong Huang, Wan Chen, Wu Xiang, Yu Geng & Weirong Chen
Scientific Reports volume 5, Article number: 16468 (2015) (Web Link)

[5] Pedro-Egbe, C. N., Ejimadu, C. S., Onua, A. A., Adediji, A. K. and Sibeudu, O. A. (2019) “Initial Diagnostic Dilemma with 3 Neuro-Ophthalmic Cases Seen at University of Port Harcourt Teaching Hospital, Nigeria”, Ophthalmology Research: An International Journal, 9(4), (Web Link)