Study on Isolation, Characterization, and Docking Studies of Isolated Compounds as Antidiabetic Molecules from Cressa cretica

The goal of this work was to use spectroscopic analysis and molecular docking investigations to examine the diabetic effect of phytocompounds derived from Cressa cretica Linn. Methods: 2-Isopropyl-4-(1-methyl-dodeca-2,4-dienyloxy)-benzene-1,3,5-triol (Compound CN-01) and 11-Methyl-dodeca-2,4,6,8,10-pentenoic acid 2,3-dihydroxy-5-methyl-phenyl ester (Compound CN-02) were obtained in pure form from a coarse powder of the complete plant of C. cretica. The target protein’s three-dimensional structure was retrieved from the Protein Data Bank (www.rcsb.org), and the ligand files CN-01 and CN-02 were converted to MDL Molfile (V2000) format using Chem Sketch 2017.2.1. Because these files couldn’t be directly used in AutoDock 4.0 tools, they had to be converted to PDB files using an open babel tool. Spectroscopic investigation yielded compounds, which were then screened using AutoDock 4.0 techniques. An existing phytochemical from the plant C. cretica, CN-01 and CN-02, had the greatest fitness docking score and hence potentially be an effective antidiabetic medication, according to a docking research. Conclusion: Based on molecular docking research, we found that the receptor (glycogen phosphorylase protein) holds a promising lead target formation against diabetes (minimum hydrogen bond length and maximum docked score). As a result, these molecules can be employed effectively as medications to treat diabetes, as indicated by docking scores.

Author(s) Details

Dr. Sangeeta Rani
Department of Pharmacognosy, S.D. College of Pharmacy and Vocational Studies, Muzaffarnagar, Uttar Pradesh, India.

Dr. Kavita Gahlot
Department of Pharmacognosy, IFTM University, Moradabad, Uttar Pradesh, India.

Dr. Arvind Kumar
Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry and Drug Design, S.D. College of Pharmacy and Vocational Studies, Muzaffarnagar, Uttar Pradesh, India.

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Study on Resveratrol Chemoprotective Effect and COX 2 Down Regulation in Tumor Suppression in DMBA Induced Breast Cancer in Female Sprague Dawley Rats

Background: The purpose of this study was to see if Resveratrol might help protect female Sprague Dawley rats from developing breast cancer caused by 7,12 Dimethylbenzanthracene (DMBA), as well as if it could help downregulate COX 2, an enzyme seen in breast cancer tissues. Methods: In this investigation, 40 female Sprague Dawley rats (n = 10 per group) were employed. 6 week old rats were divided into four groups: group 1 received pulverised rodent diet, group 2 received DMBA and diet, group 3 received DMBA and diet with Resveratrol 100mcg, and group 4 received DMBA and diet with Resveratrol 100mcg. 200mcg. After 120 days, the study was terminated, and tumours were assessed for multiplicity, incidence, and histology. Cox 2 expression was examined by Western blot analysis. One way variance and Tukey’s comparison test were used to test the values statistically. Body weight and tumour volume were similar in the resveratrol-treated groups, and there was a very lengthy latency time for tumour initiation, as well as a reduction in tumour multiplicity and incidence. Group 2 had a tumour incidence of 42.2710.17, Group 3 had a tumour incidence of 21.915.87, and Group 4 had a tumour incidence of 13.733.98. Group 2 had a tumour multiplicity of 0.89090.30, group 3 had a tumour multiplicity of 0.10360.04, and group 4 had a tumour multiplicity of 0.045450.02. In groups 2, 3, and 4, histopathological investigation indicated ductal carcinoma, mild tissue necrosis, and fibroadenoma. Resveratrol reduces COX 2 expression in breast carcinoma and has a chemopreventive impact against DMBA-induced breast cancer, according to the findings.

Author(s) Details

Dr. Aneena Suresh
Department of Pharmacy Practice, JSS College of Pharmacy, JSS Academy of Higher Education & Research, Ooty, Nilgiris, India.

Rajat Rana
Department of Pharmacy Practice, Asmara College of Health Sciences, Asmara, Eritrea.

Keerthana C.
Department of Pharmacy Practice, JSS College of Pharmacy, JSS Academy of Higher Education & Research, Ooty, Nilgiris, Tamil Nadu, India.

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A Histopathological Study of Proton Pump Inhibitors: Are They Safe on Kidneys?

Background: PPI is used in between 45 and 85 percent of instances in India. In 82.96 percent of cases, patients with chronic renal illness were prescribed a PPI. Recent case reports, however, suggest that PPI can cause AIN. Because many patients take many drugs, it’s tough to estimate the exact rate of this uncommon side effect, making establishing a causal relationship between AIN and PPI much more challenging. Early detection of AIN and withdrawal of the offending medicine may delay the progression of AIN to end-stage chronic renal disease. As a result, we decided to conduct research to see if there is a link between PPI and AIN. The goal of the study was to see what effect concomitant usage of PPI and NSAID or AMA had on the histopathology of experimental animals. The goal was to use histopathological investigations to determine the effect of simultaneous treatment of PPI with NSAIDS/antimicrobials on kidneys and compare it to a normal histological picture to see what changes had occurred due to medication administration. The rats used in the experiment weighed between 150 and 250 grammes. Omeprazole, Three groups were given pantoprazole, rabeprazole, and diclofenac for 28 days: group A received nothing, group B received diclofenac, and group C received ofloxacin. The animals with disturbed RFTs were grouped together after the 28th day. Two animals were sacrificed for each group. Their histopathology tests were also finished. The RFTs of at least three rats in each group were found to be aberrant. And, whether or not AIN is used, the majority of histopathological studies show structural and vascular changes. Conclusions: PPIs alone are known to cause AIN, but when other nephrotoxic medications are taken, the risk of AIN increases.


Author(s) Details

Dr. Ramachandra Prabhakar Limay
Department of Pharmacology, Bharati Vidyapeeth (Deemed to University), Medical College and Hospital, Sangli, Maharashtra, India.

Dr. Shabbir Rafik Pendhari
Department of Pharmacology, Bharati Vidyapeeth (Deemed to University), Medical College and Hospital, Sangli, Maharashtra, India.

Kedar Shashikant Joshi
Hanul Medizin Pvt Ltd, Pune, Maharashtra, India.

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A Hospital Based Cross Sectional Study for Assessment of Quality of Life in Patients on Antiepileptic Drug

Background: Quality of life (QOL) is a multifaceted concept that encompasses subjective assessments of both positive and negative aspects of life. In India, very few studies on QOLIE 31 have been conducted, and study in this field will discover characteristics that affect QOL. In order to establish the level of health-related QOL of epilepsy patients in a tertiary care teaching hospital, a study was done. To assess patterns of anti-epileptic drug (AED) use and their influence on people with epilepsy’s Quality of Life (QOL). The Department of Pharmacology, in collaboration with the Department of Medicine, Government Medical College, Srinagar, undertook a hospital-based cross-sectional study. A total of 134 patients over the age of 18 were studied over one and a half years, from January 2015 to July 2016. The data on health-related QOL was collected using the QOLIE 31 questionnaire. The overall mean QOLIE-31 score was 53, which corresponded to a t-score of 44. The cognitive subscale (73.6) had the highest mean score among the QOLIE-31 subscales, followed by pharmaceutical effects (55.5) and social functions (52). Conclusions: Our research shows that various factors influence people with epilepsy’s quality of life. The sort of pharmacological therapy used plays a significant effect in this. Clinical counselling and other interventions addressing the physical, mental, psychological, social, and emotional elements of health wellbeing are likely to improve epilepsy patients’ health outcomes.


Author(s) Details

Junaid A. Ahangar
Department of Clinical Pharmacology, Sher-i-Kashmir Institute of Medical Sciences (SKIMS), Soura, Jammu and Kashmir, India.

Samina Farhat
Department of Pharmacology, Government Medical College, Srinagar, Jammu and Kashmir, India.

Rabbanie T. Wani
Department of Social and Preventive Medicine, Government Medical College, Srinagar, Jammu and Kashmir, India.

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Design and Development of Taste Masked Formulations of Model Drug by Using Eudragit L-100: A Recent Study

Tenofovir disoproxil fumarate is a nucleotide reverse transcriptase inhibitor with an extremely bitter taste that is critical for patient compliance when taken orally. At this study, a complexation technique and an oral dispersible tablet formulation including super disintegrant croscarmellose sodium in various dosages were used to try to conceal the bitter taste of Tenofovir Disproxil Fumarate. In the formulation of the combination containing Tenofovir Disproxil Fumarate, the polymer Eudragit L -100 was utilised. The complexes were made in ratios of 1:1, 1:2, and 1:3. The medication The loading technique was optimised using and polymer ratio. The panel method was used to determine taste masking, and FTIR was used to characterise the compounds. Using the optimised drug-polymer complexes, oral dispersible tablets were made and evaluated for pre-formulation and post-formulation characteristics (1:3 ratio). Thickness, hardness, diameter, weight fluctuation, friability, disintegration time, invitro dissolution time, and stability were all assessed on the formulations. All of the parameters pass the test. This breakthrough could lead to the creation of a non-bitter Tenofovir Disoproxil Fumarate dosage form with great bioavailability and stability.

Author(s) Details

Assistant Professor Bhagyashri M. Raut
Department of Pharmaceutics, P. Wadhwani College of Pharmacy Yavatmal 445001, Sant Gadge Baba Amravati University,Amravati, Maharashtra, India.

Associate Professor Dr. Bharati V. Bakade
Department of Pharmaceutics, P. Wadhwani College of Pharmacy Yavatmal 445001, Sant Gadge Baba Amravati University, Amravati, Maharashtra, India.


Assistant professor Sayali S. Bompelwar
Department of Pharmaceutics, P. Wadhwani College of Pharmacy Yavatmal 445001, Sant Gadge Baba Amravati University, Amravati, Maharashtra, India.

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Study on Prescribing Pattern of Fixed Dose Combinations of Antibiotics in a Post-operative Surgical Ward of Tertiary Care Teaching Hospital, India

Background: Fixed dosage drug combinations (FDCs) are two or more active drugs combined into a single dose. It should be used when the combination has a confirmed efficacy, safety, and compliance advantage over a single medication. The World Health Organization lists just 19 such combinations (WHO). The Indian market, on the other hand, is inundated with hundreds of unauthorised FDCs, resulting in irrational use. The goal of this study was to determine the fixed dose combination of antimicrobial medicines used in a tertiary care teaching hospital’s post-operative general surgery unit. Methods: Prescriptions of patients admitted between April 2013 and March 2014 were evaluated after receiving consent from the institutional human ethics council. Demographic information, surgeon-prescribed FDC, Dose, Frequency, Duration, Route, Formulation, Brand or generic medicines, Adverse effects The events that occurred as a result of the usage of FDC were recorded, and statistical analysis was performed using SPSS version 17. In 90 patients, fixed dosage combinations were used. Ampicillin with Cloxacillin (43) was the most regularly used FDC, followed by amoxicillin with clavulanic acid (22), cefoperazone with sulbactam (19), and piperacillin with tazobactam (6). Metronidazole and aminoglycosides were a common medication used in combination with FDC. Ampicillin plus Cloxacillin (8.88 percent) of the total FDC was the illogical combination seen in this investigation, which is not approved by DCGI or FDA. Results: Of the 145 medications used in this study, 41 were given three times a day, 90 were given twice a day, and 14 were given once a day. FDCs were given to 53 patients for prophylaxis and 37 patients for therapy. All of the FDCs were prescribed under their brand names. In this trial, no adverse medication reactions were reported. Conclusions: Rather than relying on representation, consultants should participate in evidence-based continuing medical education (CME) on novel drug combinations and related adverse drug events.

Author(s) Details

R. Velvizhy
Department of Pharmacology, Aarupadai Veedu Medical College and Hospital, Kirumampakkam, Puducherry- 607402, India.

J. Johan Pandian
Department of Pharmacology, Mahatma Gandhi Medical College & Research Institute, Pillaiyarkuppam, Puducherry 607402, India.

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Assessment of Quality of Life and It’s SocioDemographic Correlates in Post Menopausal Women

Introduction: Psychological, somatic, and vasomotor problems, as well as sexual dysfunction, can accompany menopause. Current health-care paradigms, on the other hand, are blind to the fact that these symptoms have a substantial impact on a woman’s personal and social functioning, and hence her quality of life. As a result, the purpose of this study is to identify postmenopausal women’s quality of life as well as the socio-demographic factors that influence quality of life. Materials and Methods: 105 females aged 45 to 65 years old were questioned using the MENQOL questionnaire in a cross-sectional study in an urban slum region. Participants in the study were asked about their age, menopausal duration, education, occupation, job status, family income, marital status, and number of children. The participants in this study had an average age of 54.13 4.05 (45-62) years. Twenty percent of the 105 postmenopausal women who participated in the study were illiterate, while 26.7 percent had finished secondary school. The overall MEN-QOL score ranged from 62 to 148, with a mean of 101.3 23.44. Conclusion: Menopause has an impact on a woman’s physical and mental health, as indicated by the current study, which discovered that MEN-QOL scores were higher after menopause, indicating a lower quality of life. Age, a lack of education, a lower socioeconomic status, unemployment, and a lack of spouse support all contributed to a poor quality of life.


Author(s) Details

Dr. Purnima Raj
Department of Pharmacology, Late Shri Lakhiram Agrawal Memorial Government Medical College, Raigarh, Chhattisgarh, India.

Dr. Namita Deshmukh
Department of Community Medicine, Dr. Ulhas Patil Medical College, Jalgaon, Maharashtra, India.

Dr. Avinash Borkar
Department of Community Medicine, Dr. Ulhas Patil Medical College, Jalgaon, Maharashtra, India.

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The Concept of Direct Perception in Ayurveda

Direct perception can be regarded the sole reliable method of gaining knowledge from the environment. Though “seeing an item” is commonly associated with the word “direct perception,” it actually encompasses the process of obtaining knowledge through hearing, smelling, touching, and tasting through sense organs other than the eyes, such as the ears, nose, skin, and tongue. The five sense organs provide an individual with knowledge of the world around them. However, actual experience shows that, even if an object exists, it may not be able to be shown through direct perception due to a variety of reasons. A material can’t be seen if it’s too little or too big, a sound can’t be heard if it’s too low, a smell can’t be detected if it’s coming from afar, a substance can’t be touched if it’s being pressed with another substance, and a taste can’t be taken if the sample can’t be obtained. Interestingly, Charaka, the originator of Indian medicine, discussed the difficulties of direct perception under the name “PRATYAKSHYANUPALABDHI,” demonstrating the ancient scholars’ depth of knowledge and observation.


Author(s) Details

Dr. Dilip Kumar Goswami
Department of Agada Tantra and Vidhi Ayurveda, Govt. Ayurvedic College, India.

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Expanded Form – Concept of Child Care in Ayurveda

Adulthood is determined by one’s childhood. After maturing in the mother’s womb, a foetus is born as a newborn infant and grows into a man. Childhood is a time in life when anatomical and physiological development are yet incomplete. The children’s resistance is also lacking. Even they are unable to distinguish between useful and dangerous objects. They also want to play with the deadly snake. To summarise, a child is prone to disease, injury, and other forms of harm due to inadequate resistance, inability to distinguish between good and harmful substances, and other factors.Healthy children will lead to a healthy society, according to the nation. As a result, children have received special attention in the past, with a focus on disease, injury, and other hazards. Interestingly, the ancient Ayurvedic classics, like the present time, have detailed discussions on topics such as healthy conception, pregnancy, delivery, and child care.

Author(s) Details

Dr. Dilip Kumar Goswami
Department of Agada Tantra and Vidhi Ayurveda, Govt. Ayurvedic College, India.

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Determination of Efficacy and Safety of α-keto Analogs of Essential Amino Acids Supplementation in Patients of Chronic Kidney Disease: A Clinical Evaluation

The goal of this study was to see if -keto analogues of essential amino acids (KAA) as a supplement could help those with chronic renal disease (CKD). Methods: A prospective comparative study in patients with CKD was conducted in a tertiary care hospital in North India. The patients were divided into two interventional groups. Patients in Group I (control) received conservative management and placebo, while patients in Group II (KAA) received conservative management and KAA (600 mg, thrice daily) for 12 weeks. At 0, 4, 8, and 12 weeks of medication, hemograms, renal function tests, lipid profiles, and side events were all reported. Results: Both groups improved gradually in clinical characteristics after 12 weeks of treatment, albeit the KAA group improved more pronouncedly than the control group. In comparison to their pre-treatment levels, both groups showed a sustained improvement in biochemical markers, with the KAA supplemented group exhibiting a higher improvement. The levels of creatinine and total urine protein were both lower after 24 hours. The glomerular filtration rate, haemoglobin, and total urine volume in 24 hours all rose. The KAA group showed a significant (p0.05) improvement in lipid profiles when compared to the control group. There was no significant difference between the two groups in terms of side effects (p>0.05). Conclusion: KAA supplementation in combination with conservative therapy is beneficial and safe in delaying disease progression in patients with CKD.


Author(s) Details

Dr. Irfan Ahmad Khan
Department of Pharmacology, J.N. Medical College Hospital, Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh, Uttar Pradesh, India.


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