Trends in Evolution of Anthelminthic Chemical Agents: Ecological, Physiological and Biochemical Adaptation in Helminth

In this study, the key anthelminthic compounds are discussed, including alternative medicine components, different types of pluripotent manufactured and naturally occurring compounds. The sections devoted to recent discoveries (Emodepside, Monepantel, Derquantel, Tribendimidine) and certain promising efforts receive a lot of attention. The overview also covers molecular mechanisms of action of anthelminthic substances, helminth adaptation to anthelminthic chemicals, and alternative worming therapies. Synthetic non-organic and organic or natural compounds are used as antihelminthic agents. The hypothesis on the viability of the targeted search for such compounds among the derivatives of conditionally progenitor cyclic hydrocarbons – benzene, indene, naphthalene, 1H-cyclopenth [a]-naphthalene, and phenanthrene – by alternating absolutely unsaturated and saturated structures, is based on a systemic analysis of particular features of the chemical structure of anthelminthic substances.

Author (s) Details

M. Kh. Dzhafarov
K. I. Skryabin Moscow State Academy of Veterinary Medicine and Biotechnology, 109472 Moscow, ul. Akademika Skryabina, Russia.

F. I. Vasilevich
K. I. Skryabin Moscow State Academy of Veterinary Medicine and Biotechnology, 109472 Moscow, ul. Akademika Skryabina, Russia.

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Development and Validation of UV-Spectrophotometric Method for the Determination of Lornoxicam in Microsponges

Objective: To develop and verify a new UV-spectrophotometric method for estimating the amount of lornoxicam in microsponges that is specific, precise, and simple. Lornoxicam is an oxicam-class non-steroidal anti-inflammatory medication (NSAID) with analgesic, anti-inflammatory, and antipyretic (fever-reducing) effects.

Thermo Scientific Evolution 201 UV-Vis spectrophotometer was used to make UV-spectrophotometric measurements with methanol as the medium. The absorption maximum (max) of the standard solution was determined by running its spectra from 200 to 400 nm. Lornoxicam has a maximum wavelength of 353 nm. The absorbance of standard solutions containing 3, 6, 9, 12, and 15 g/ml of drug solution was measured against a blank at an absorption maximum of 353 nm. The concentration was then plotted on the X-axis and the absorbance on the Y-axis, yielding a straight line. As per ICH recommendations, validation criteria such as linearity and range, selectivity and specificity, LOD and LOQ, accuracy, precision, and robustness were assessed.

With a correlation coefficient of 0.9995, the UV-spectrophotometric technique was found to be linear over a concentration range of 3.0-15.0 g/ml. Lornoxicam has a limit of detection (LOD) of 1.26 g/ml and a limit of quantification (LOQ) of 3.82 g/ml, respectively. The accuracy ranged from 99.21 to 99.60 percent. The percent RSD for repeatability, intraday precision, and interday precision was determined to be 0.473, 0.478-0.619, and 0.855-1.818, respectively. The UV technique proposed is shown to be reliable.

Conclusion: The suggested UV-Visible spectrophotometric method was verified using ICH recommendations, and the findings and statistical parameters showed that the developed method is sensitive, precise, reliable, and easy for estimating the amount of lornoxicam in microsponges.

Author (s) Details

Ayya Rajendra Prasad
Department of Pharmaceutics, Nirmala College of Pharmacy, Mangalagiri 522503, Andhra Pradesh, India.

Bannaravuri Thireesha
Department of Pharmaceutics, Nirmala College of Pharmacy, Mangalagiri 522503, Andhra Pradesh, India.

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Antiseptic Use in Wounds of the Lower Limb

The goal of this study is to go over all of the available research on antiseptic safety and efficacy in surgical wounds. Different antiseptic solutions, irrigation amounts, time scales, and delivery systems have been examined in order to develop evidence-based antiseptic recommendations for plastic, orthopaedic, and foot and ankle surgical operations.

Methods: To find in-vitro and in-vivo research relevant to antiseptic use in an orthopaedic context, a literature search was conducted utilising the online databases Medline and EMBase. Antiseptic, irrigation fluid, bacitracin, hydrogen peroxide, povidone-iodine, and chlorhexidine were among the terms used in the search. The whole text of literature published in English from the beginning to July 2020 was evaluated for inclusion. Authors analysed antiseptic efficacy and/or toxic effect of antiseptic on cells present in orthopaedic wounds, so cellular and animal research were included. Antiseptic usage in a surgical context was examined in clinical studies that matched the criteria for inclusion in this review, with a focus on foot and ankle procedures. Case reports, case series, case control, prospective and retrospective investigations, and randomised controlled trials were among them. In-vitro, animal, and human investigations were all classified. In-vitro, animal, and human research were detected in twenty-three, eleven, and forty-seven papers, respectively. These have been summarised and presented in a narrative fashion in this article.

Antiseptic skin treatment before plastic and orthopaedic surgeries minimises the incidence of post-operative infection, according to the findings. Conclusion: Routine intra-operative prophylactic antiseptic usage should be used with caution because it increases the risk of local and systemic problems. However, there is considerable evidence to support the use of antiseptics when prepping the skin prior to surgery. Because no single agent or solution is effective against all pathogens, determining the ideal antiseptic preparation remains a point of contention. To determine the efficacy of antiseptics in the prevention and treatment of infections, more research is required.

Author (s) Details

Tiffanie-Marie Borg
Academic Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery Group, Blizard Institute, Barts and the London School of Medicine and Dentistry, Queen Mary University of London, London, United Kindom.

Fahima A. Begum
University College Hospital, United Kingdom.

Hamed Mazoochy
Royal London Hospital, Barts Health NHS Trust, United Kingdom.

Nima Heidari
Royal London Hospital, Barts Health NHS Trust, United Kingdom.

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Experimental Evaluation of the Effect of Chloroform Inhalation as a Method of Euthanasia on the Cerebellum and Hippocampus of Adult Wistar Rats

In Nigeria, chloroform inhalation is a frequent method of rodent killing for study. The purpose of this study is to see how this form of sacrifice affects the cerebellum and hippocampus of Wistar rats. Twenty male Wistar rats, weighing 160 to 180 grammes, were separated into four groups, each with five rats. The control group, Group A, was sacrificed by cervical dislocation (a widely acceptable non-inhalation method of sacrifice). Groups B, C, and D were given 5 minutes of chloroform once a day (group B), twice a day for two days, and three times a day for three days. Four brains from each group were processed for antioxidant assays, and one brain from each group was preserved in Bouin’s fluid for histological examinations. Our findings reveal that inhaling chloroform had a dose-dependent negative impact on the antioxidant parameters investigated. That is, as the number of days increased, the negative effect became more pronounced. The histology findings confirmed this, with indications of cell necrosis in the cerebellum and hippocampus regions. This, too, demonstrated dosage dependence. As a result of our findings, we believe that chloroform inhalation is not the method of choice for rat death while investigating brain tissues or conducting brain-related research. As a result, chloroform sedation is not an appropriate method of rat sacrifice for experimental reasons, especially for investigating the rat brain.

Author (s) Details

Aguwa Ugochukwu Samuel
Anatomy Department, Faculty of Basic Medical Sciences, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Nnewi, Nigeria.

Okeke Somadina Nnamdi
Anatomy Department, Faculty of Basic Medical Sciences, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Nnewi, Nigeria.

Ezejindu Darmian Nnabuihe
Anatomy Department, Faculty of Basic Medical Sciences, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Nnewi, Nigeria.

Eze Chinyere Elizabeth
Anatomy Department, Faculty of Basic Medical Sciences, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Nnewi, Nigeria.

Azurunwa Ogechi
Anatomy Department, Faculty of Basic Medical Sciences, Madonna University Nigeria, Nigeria.

Obinwa Benedict Nzube
Anatomy Department, Faculty of Basic Medical Sciences, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Nnewi, Nigeria.

Ovie Ogbo. Felix
Anatomy Department, Faculty of Basic Medical Sciences, Madonna University Nigeria, Nigeria.

Obi Kelvin Chukwuemeka
Anatomy Department, Faculty of Basic Medical Sciences, University of Abuja, Nigeria.

Onwuelingo Sopuru
Anatomy Department, Faculty of Basic Medical Sciences, Madonna University Nigeria, Nigeria.

Okonkwo David
Anatomy Department, Faculty of Basic Medical Sciences, Madonna University Nigeria, Nigeria.

Doris Ogbuokiri
Anatomy Department, Faculty of Basic Medical Sciences, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Nnewi, Nigeria.

Okeke Chijioke
Anatomy Department, Faculty of Basic Medical Sciences, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Nnewi, Nigeria.

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Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome: Insights into the Recent Trends

PCOS (polycystic ovarian syndrome) is a hormonal disorder that affects millions of women around the world. Obesity, hyperandrogenism, and insulin resistance have all been identified as key triggering factors for PCOS, despite the fact that the exact cause is unknown. PCOS symptoms include menstrual irregularities, acne, hirsutism, a predisposition to central obesity, and insulin resistance symptoms. The clinical signs and implications of PCOS are treated with reduced body weight, androgen-lowering medicines, insulin-lowering medicines, and surgical procedures. The purpose of this chapter is to provide information about PCOS, including its prevalence, etiological causes, aetiology, clinical presentations, diagnostic tools, treatment options, and prognosis, in light of contemporary trends.

Author (s) Details

Ahmed M. Kabel
Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Medicine, Tanta University, Tanta, Egypt.

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Phytotherapeutic Activities of Six Plant Infusions: Chemical Constituents and Antioxidant Activity

Traditional medicine is used for a variety of reasons, including cultural and economic factors as well as the ineffectiveness of many contemporary treatments. The absence of effective pharmaceutical formulations, as well as current antibiotic pathogen resistance and oxidative stress, have led to the development of new therapeutic compounds derived from plants. Several investigations have revealed that medicinal plants have antioxidant effects, owing to their phytochemical makeup. Furthermore, their antioxidant properties can prevent oxidative modification by neutralising free radicals, scavenging oxygen, or degrading peroxides. By countering oxidative stress and its related pathologies, endemic plants can be a source of new bioactive substances that can prevent diseases including cancer, diabetes, hypertension, and Alzheimer’s disease. Camellia sinensis, Melissa officinalis, Lippia citriodora, Cymbopogon citratus, Matricaria chamomilla, and Tilia cordata were studied for total phenolics, flavonoids, and caffeine concentration in six medicinal plants used traditionally in phytotherapy, usually ingested as tea or infusion. There were significant differences in total phenolics and flavonoids content among the plants studied, as well as depending on the extract type. Caffeine concentrations were also substantially different, with M. officinalis, T. cordata, C. citratus, M. chamomilla, L. citriodora, and C. sinensis following the sequence M. officinalis, T. cordata, C. citratus, M. chamomilla, L. citriodora, and C. sinensis. C. citratus (90.9%) > C. sinensis (87.8%) > M. officinalis (50.7%) > M. chamomilla (45.3%) > T. cordata (32.2%) > L. citriodora (32.2%) > M. chamomilla (45.3%) > M. chamomilla (45.3%) > M. chamomilla (45.3%) > M. chamomilla (45.3%) > M. chamomilla (4 (28.0 percent ).

Author (s) Details

Ana F. Vinha
FCS/UFP-Faculdade de Ciências da Saúde, Universidade Fernando Pessoa, Porto, Portugal and LAQV/REQUIMTE/Departamento de Ciências Químicas, Laboratório de Bromatologia, Faculdade de Farmácia, Universidade do Porto, Porto, Portugal.

Carla Sousa
FCS/UFP-Faculdade de Ciências da Saúde, Universidade Fernando Pessoa, Porto, Portugal.

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Potential of Saliva-Based Diagnostics to Decrease Hazardous Waste Generation

Green laboratories, which reduce environmental impact by promoting sustainable best practises such as waste minimization, have been increasingly popular in recent years. Researchers have created new technologies and verified a wide number of salivary indicators, paving the way for saliva to become a clinical reality in the near future. Saliva, like blood, includes a large number of indicators and has the potential to replace blood as a diagnostic fluid. When compared to traditional blood collection, the saliva collection approach is noninvasive, painless, and easy for participants. This chapter looks at the pros and cons of utilising saliva instead of blood in terms of the volume and impact of biomedical waste generated. This chapter presents experimental data and a theoretical explanation for how saliva-based diagnostics can significantly reduce the volume of potentially infectious, pathologically dangerous waste created by laboratories and have an impact on global waste management methods.

Author (s) Details

Nivedita L. Rao
Department of Biochemistry, Yenepoya Medical College, Yenepoya (deemed to be University), Deralakatte, Mangalore 575018, Karnataka, India.

Greeshma B. Kotian
Department of Biochemistry, Yenepoya Medical College, Yenepoya (deemed to be University), Deralakatte, Mangalore 575018, Karnataka, India.

H. Prathapchandra Kedilaya
Department of Biochemistry, Yenepoya Medical College, Yenepoya (deemed to be University), Deralakatte, Mangalore 575018, Karnataka, India.

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Poisoning; A Grave Public Health Concern

Over half a million people die each year as a result of intentional and unintentional poisoning, with low- and middle-income countries (LMIC) accounting for 84 percent of such fatalities. The clinical appearance of such instances differs depending on the age group, the cause of poisoning, the geographic region, the drugs involved, and the country’s economic progress. The goal of this study was to determine the number of poisoning incidents in Sindh’s central area. Between July and December 2019, the study was conducted in a tertiary care hospital (TCH) in Shaheed Benazirabad, Sindh, Pakistan. The poisoned patients admitted to the TCH were the test subjects. The study instrument was created using data from surveys conducted by the American Association of Poison Control Centers. A total of 263 poisoning cases were presented during the study period. The study’s findings revealed that cases of poisoning are more common among single (56.3 percent) males (58.9%) in the age bracket of 16-30 years (48.7%), with illiterate (55.1 percent) and jobless (54 percent) backgrounds. Suicide (intended poisoning) was the most prevalent cause of poisoning (36.5%), while pesticides (42.6%) were the most commonly poisoned substances. During the study period, 17.5 percent of such cases were admitted to Intensive Care Units, and 5.3 percent of such people died as a result of their condition. It was discovered in this study that enhancing regulatory controls for hazardous chemicals, establishing poison control centres, reducing reporting time, and minimising exposure to such compounds will all help to control such incidents.

Author (s) Details

Shaib Muhammad
Department of Pharmaceutics, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Sindh, Pakistan.

Jabbar Abbas
Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Peoples University of Medical and Health Sciences for Women, Nawabshah, Shaheed Benazirabad, Pakistan.

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Cross-linking Mast Cell Specific Gangliosides Stimulates the Release of Newly Formed Lipid Mediators and Newly Synthesized Cytokines: An Advanced Study

Mast cells are immune-regulatory cells that play a role in the inflammatory response. Mast cells are partially activated without the release of preformed mediators when GD1b generated gangliosides are cross-linked by mAbAA4. Following ganglioside cross-linking, the release of newly formed and newly synthesised mediators is investigated. The newly synthesised lipid mediators, prostaglandins D2 and E2, were produced when the gangliosides were crosslinked with mAbAA4, however leukotrienes B4 and C4 were not released. The impact of cross-linking these gangliosides on the activation of arachidonate cascade enzymes was then examined. The phosphorylation of cytosolic phospholipase A2 and enhanced production of cyclooxygenase-2 were both caused by ganglioside cross-linking. Ganglioside cross-linking did not cause 5-lypoxygenase to translocate from the cytosol to the nucleus. The newly produced mediators interleukin-4, interleukin-6, and TNF- were also released after cross-linking of GD1b generated gangliosides. After that, the impact of cross-linking the gangliosides on the MAP kinase pathway was examined. The phosphorylation of ERK1/2, JNK1/2, and p38, as well as the activation of both NFB and NFAT, was activated by cross-linking the gangliosides in a Syk-dependent way. As a result of cross-linking the mast cell-specific GD1b derived gangliosides, signalling pathways are activated, culminating in the release of newly generated and synthesised mediators. The current study contributes to a better understanding of the wide range of potential methods by which mast cells repress, enhance, and modulate non-FcRI driven immune responses.

Author (s) Details

Edismauro Garcia Freitas Filho
Department of Cell and Molecular Biology and Pathogenic Bioagents, Bandeirantes 3900, 14049-900, Ribeirão Preto, SP, Brazil.

Elaine Zayas Marcelino da Silva
Department of Cell and Molecular Biology and Pathogenic Bioagents, Bandeirantes 3900, 14049-900, Ribeirão Preto, SP, Brazil.

Camila Ziliotto Zanotto
Department of Pharmacology, Ribeirão Preto Medical School, University of São Paulo, Av. Bandeirantes 3900, 14049-900, Ribeirão Preto, SP, Brazil.

Constance Oliver
Department of Cell and Molecular Biology and Pathogenic Bioagents, Bandeirantes 3900, 14049-900, Ribeirão Preto, SP, Brazil.

Maria Célia Jamur
Department of Cell and Molecular Biology and Pathogenic Bioagents, Bandeirantes 3900, 14049-900, Ribeirão Preto, SP, Brazil.

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Recent Development and Validation of a Dissolution Method for Lamotrigine Tablets by UPLC

The goal of this study was to design and validate a UPLC dissolve method for lamotrigine tablets that was accurate, precise, repeatable, and cost-effective. The UPLC technique was carried out with a 75:25 percent v/v mixture of buffer and acetonitrile. The flow rate was 0.3 ml/min, and the UV detection wavelength was 310 nm. Acquity UPLC BEH Shield RP18,2.1X50 mm column was used. The proportion of the assay was found to be 100.8. The procedure was successfully applied to commercial linearity was plotted from (100 g/ml to 300 g/ml) (r2 = 0.9979) Lamotrigene formulations and validated according to International Conference on Harmonization requirements. In the respectively, the approach was discovered to be linear. Percent relative standard deviation figures in the intra-day and inter-day precision studies were satisfactory, indicating that the procedure is exact. A search of the literature found that many analytical methods for estimating lamotrigene have been published, but no UPLC dissolution method for lamotrigine tablets has been developed and validated. The approach was extensively scrutinised in order to ensure the drug’s stability during the analysis period.

Author (s) Details

S. Sangeetha
Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Vinayaka Mission’s College of Pharmacy, Salem -636008, Vinayaka Mission’s Research Foundation (deemed to be university), Tamilnadu, India.

S. Alexandar
Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Vinayaka Mission’s College of Pharmacy, Salem -636008, Vinayaka Mission’s Research Foundation (deemed to be university), Tamilnadu, India.

J. Loganathan
Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Vinayaka Mission’s College of Pharmacy, Salem -636008, Vinayaka Mission’s Research Foundation (deemed to be university), Tamilnadu, India.

B. Jaykar
Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Vinayaka Mission’s College of Pharmacy, Salem -636008, Vinayaka Mission’s Research Foundation (deemed to be university), Tamilnadu, India.

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