Elasto-optic Effect and Its Spatial Anisotropy in Ca3TaGa3Si2O14 Crystals

The photoelasticity of the Ca3TaGa3Si2O14 (CTGS) crystal was investigated using an interferometric technique based on a single-pass Mach-Zehnder interferometer. To illustrate the accuracy of piezo-optic coefficient determination, the most sample orientations for piezo-optic investigations were used. All the coefficients pik of the elastic-optic matrix are computed using the matrices of piezo-optic coefficients and elastic stiffness coefficients. The acousto-optic efficiency is measured for the pik coefficient with the highest value. CTGS data is corroborated by similar values in La3Ga5SiO14 (langasite) crystals. When compared to langasite and strontium borate, CTGS M2 = 1.6610-15 s3/kg has the highest acoustooptic figure of merit, which is two to three times higher, and is often used in the UV spectral range for acousto-optic light modulation.

Author (s) Details

Bohdan Mytsyk
Karpenko Physico-Mechanical Institute, 5 Naukova St., 79601 Lviv, Ukraine.

Yuriy Suhak
Clasthal University of Technology, Am Stollen 19B, Goslar, Germany.

Nataliya Demyanyshyn
Karpenko Physico-Mechanical Institute, 5 Naukova St., 79601 Lviv, Ukraine.

Oleh Buryy
Lviv Polytechnic National University, 12 Bandera St., 79046 Lviv, Ukraine.

Nataliya Syvorotka
Scientific Research Company “Electron-Carat”, 202 Stryjska St., 79031 Lviv, Ukraine.

Dmytro Sugak
Lviv Polytechnic National University, 12 Bandera St., 79046 Lviv, Ukraine and Scientific Research Company “Electron-Carat”, 202 Stryjska St., 79031 Lviv, Ukraine.

Serhii Ubizskii
Lviv Polytechnic National University, 12 Bandera St., 79046 Lviv, Ukraine.

Holger Fritze
Clasthal University of Technology, Am Stollen 19B, Goslar, Germany.

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Doubly-charged Negative Ion of C60 Molecule

An electronic structure of the doubly-charged negative ion is depicted in the Dirac- and Lorentz-bubble potential models C60A variational method was used to investigate it. The overall energy of the system is negative even in the first approximation of this method when a trial wave function of the two electrons is represented as a product of one-electron functions, indicating the existence of a stable state of the doubly-charged negative ion in these models. According to estimates, C60 second electron affinity is around ε2 ≈ 1 eV. This ion’s photodetachment cross sections σ(ω) have also been determined. Near the threshold σ(ω), strange and intriguing behaviour is observed. Near the process threshold, the first cross section accompanied by the transition of the doubly-charged negative ion into a singly-charged one is exponentially small. The photodetachment of a singly-charged ion is represented by the second cross section, which increases as a power function of the photoelectron’s kinetic energy near the threshold. The photodetachment cross sections of atomic ions with the same electron affinity are of the same order as these cross sections.

Author (s) Details

A. S. Baltenkov
Arifov Institute of Ion-Plasma and Laser Technologies Tashkent, 100125, Uzbekistan.

A. Z. Msezane
Center for Theoretical Studies of Physical Systems, Clark Atlanta University, Atlanta, Georgia 30314, USA.

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Phase Composition and Stress in Proton Exchanged Waveguide Layers in LiNbO3 and LiTaO3

Based on their mode and IR spectra, the phase composition of Li1-xHxNbO3 and Li1-xHxTaO3 waveguide layers created at various variations of the proton exchange (PE) technology and having complicated phase composition with varied quotas of the phases present is investigated. The optical integral approach is used to calculate the intrinsic stress induced by crystal lattice deformations at a rather high amount of hydrogen doping in the PE layers. The phase composition of the analysed samples is used to try to explain the level of stress. The findings aid in a better understanding of the features and characteristics of waveguides of this type.

Author (s) Details

M. Kuneva
Institute of Solid State Physics – BAS, 72 Tzarigradkso Chaussee Blvd., 1784 Sofia, Bulgaria.

S. Tonchev
Institute of Solid State Physics – BAS, 72 Tzarigradkso Chaussee Blvd., 1784 Sofia, Bulgaria.

K. Christova
Institute of Solid State Physics – BAS, 72 Tzarigradkso Chaussee Blvd., 1784 Sofia, Bulgaria.

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Estimating the Availability of Underground River Water Based on Rainfall in the Maros Karst Region, South Sulawesi

Water resources determine the life around the Maros Karst region, which covers 43.750 hectares. In the Maros Karst, water is found in the rock strata or in the cave’s underground river. Primary and secondary data were employed in this investigation. The medium’s characteristics are included in primary data. Secondary data includes BMKG rainfall data, PSDA water discharge data for South Sulawesi province from 1990 to 2010, and other Maros Karst characteristics such as cave, flora, and fauna from the Bantimurung Bulusaraung National Park. Laboratory tests for medium properties were used to analyse the data. The profile of the Maros karst, rainfall, and water discharge was determined using Minitab Program 1.5. Between 1999 and 2005, there was an average annual rainfall of more than 200 mm. The availability of a water discharge of more than 50 m3/s occurred in 1993 and 1995. The average precipitation for four years (2011-2014) will dramatically fluctuate, as predicted by modelling Autoregressive Integrated Moving Average (ARIMA) with rainfall data. The water discharge in the Maros Karst region was predicted for the months of January to August in 2011, with the kind of 0. The water discharge was added in 2012, and it began in early 2014. Clay and limestone soil make up the Maros Karst area. Clays have a higher tendency than limestone in terms of water weight, porosity, water content, permeability, and pore volume, according to the study.

Author (s) Details

Muhammad Arsyad
Department of Physics, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Science, State University of Makassar, Jl. Daeng Tata, UNM Campus Parangtambung, Makassar 90222, South Sulawesi, Indonesia.

Nasrul Ihsan
Department of Physics, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Science, State University of Makassar, Jl. Daeng Tata, UNM Campus Parangtambung, Makassar 90222, South Sulawesi, Indonesia.

Vistarani Arini Tiwow
Department of Physics, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Science, State University of Makassar, Jl. Daeng Tata, UNM Campus Parangtambung, Makassar 90222, South Sulawesi, Indonesia.

View Book :- https://stm.bookpi.org/NUPSR-V5/article/view/1403

Einstein’s Elevator in Cosmology

In comoving coordinates, the metrics of gravitational and cosmological models are brought into canonical form. From this, the FWR curvature parameter is calculated, and it is demonstrated that k = 0 does not correspond to a flat model, but to a spatially positively curved geometry with free-falling reference systems. This is also in line with Einstein’s elevator theory. Furthermore, we demonstrate that our subluminal universe is linked to the R = ct  Melia’s approach is based on the assumption that k = 0 is concerned with a free-falling system in the sense that it has been defined above.

Author (s) Details

Rainer Burghardt
Independent Researcher, Austria.

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Structural Studies of ZnO Nanostructures and Nano Powders: A Recent Approach

Nanostructures and nanoparticles have attracted a lot of attention from scientists because of their unique features. Zinc Oxide has piqued the curiosity of researchers because it might be utilised as a low-cost alternative to Si and GaN. Because of its piezoelectric and transparent conducting capabilities, zinc oxide is one of the most promising semiconducting materials. In the visible area, it exhibits strong electrical conductivity and optical transparency, as well as strong UV absorption. As a result, it can be used as a window and sunscreen. Sensors, transducers, biomedical devices, optoelectronic devices, solar cells, and other nanostructured ZnO applications are common. In a muffle furnace, high purity Zinc is oxidised at high temperatures, resulting in nanostructures on the surface of metallic Zinc. The high-energy ball-milling technology is used to make ZnO particles. Because of its enormous direct band gap of 3.37 eV and strong exciton binding energy at ambient temperature, ZnO is widely employed. X-Ray Diffraction and scanning electron microscopy are used to examine the structure and morphology of ZnO Nanostructures. The structure and morphology of furnace melt ZnO Nano particles are the subject of this work.

Author (s) Details

Mrs. T. V. Banumathi
Department of Physics, Sri G. V. G. Visalakshi College for Women, Udumalpet, Tamil Nadu, India.

Mrs. B. Nirmala
Department of Physics, Sri G. V. G. Visalakshi College for Women, Udumalpet, Tamil Nadu, India.

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Investigation the Effect of Composition and Annealing on Electrodeposited CoxPt1- X Nanowires

By electrodepositioning highly ordered CoxPt1-x (x 0.82) magnetic nanowire arrays of 60 nm diameter into the pores of anodic aluminium oxide (AAO) templates, highly ordered CoxPt1-x (x 0.82) magnetic nanowire arrays of 60 nm diameter have been effectively produced. The electrodeposition approach was chosen because it is one of the most simple, cost-effective, and easy-to-control nanowire-making processes. Deposition potential was discovered to be an important component in controlling the composition and consequently the magnetic characteristics of nanowires. XRD analysis revealed that the as-deposited CoxPt1- x nanowires have a fcc structure with a preferred orientation of (111) or (001) along the nanowire. In contrast to the near superparamagnetic response of Pt-rich nanowires, Co-rich nanowires exhibit ferromagnetic behaviour. Because of the rise in magnetocrystalline anisotropy perpendicular to the wire axis, the effects of crystallisation cause a decrease in anisotropy along the wire axis for Co82Pt18 nanowires after annealing. Within the AAO template, segmented CoPtP/Pt multilayer nanowires are deposited in the next step of our research. Due to the creation of an ordered Co-Pt alloy phase at the interface, such multilayer nanowires are expected to have a significant anisotropy. We discovered that the deposition potential is a significant component in influencing the structure and, as a result, the magnetic characteristics of nanowires.

Author (s) Details

Manvendra Singh Khatri
Department of Physics, National Institute of Technology Uttarakhand, Srinagar Garhwal, 246174, India.

Shivani Agarwal
Department of Physics, National Institute of Technology Uttarakhand, Srinagar Garhwal, 246174, India.

Jen-Hwa Hsu
Institute of Applied Physics & Center for Nanostorage Research, National Taiwan Unviersity, Taipei, 106, Taiwan.

Chia-Hua Chien
Institute of Physics & Nanomaterial and Low temperature Physics laboratory, Academia Sinica, Taipei 11529, Taiwan.

Cheng-Lung Chen
Institute of Physics & Nanomaterial and Low temperature Physics laboratory, Academia Sinica, Taipei 11529, Taiwan.

Yang-Yuan Chen
Institute of Physics & Nanomaterial and Low temperature Physics laboratory, Academia Sinica, Taipei 11529, Taiwan.

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Energy Efficiency Improvement in DC Railway Systems: The State of the Art

In the context of worldwide concerns about decreasing CO2 emissions by minimising energy use and energy loss, this study focuses on the relevant subject of boosting energy efficiency in DC railway systems. In a detailed review, the main achievements in this complicated subject are synthesised and addressed, with a focus on the implementation and application of existing solutions on real case studies. As a result, all specific subtopics connected to energy efficiency are covered, beginning with power quality conditioning and concluding with the recovery of braking energy, which is lost in traditional DC-traction substations in huge amounts. Onboard and off-the-road storage devices for braking energy are explored and compared, with practical examples provided. The progress made in converting existing DC-traction substations into reversible substations with power quality improvement capabilities is then methodically evaluated by demonstrating the key findings of recent research on the subject. They include commercially accessible equipment as well as solutions that have been tested on experimental models. The findings of this comprehensive evaluation serve as a useful reference and source of support for research and development on energy-efficient traction systems.

Author (s) Details

Mihaela Popescu
University of Craiova, Romania.

Alexandru Bitoleanu
University of Craiova, Romania.

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Serological Thymidine Kinase1 is a Biomarker for Early Risk of Tumours Progression —Real World Data from a Health Screening Study on a Cohort of 35,365 People

STK1p, a serological thymidine kinase 1 (STK1p) proliferation marker, is a reliable prognostic, monitoring, and relapse marker. The application of STK1p in health screening for early diagnosis of pre-malignant and malignant disorders was examined in this study. The research was based on 35,365 people who took part in four separate health screening studies in China from 2005 to 2019 using Real World Data. All of the individuals were given a clinical examination. A sensitive chemiluminescent dot blot ECL assay was used to measure the quantity of STK1p. The STK1p test had a ROC value of 0.96. The likelihood (+) value was 236.5 at a cut-off STK1p value of 2.0 pM, and the sensitivity and specificity were 0.78 and 0.99, respectively. The proportion of city dwellers with elevated STK1p values (>2.0 pM) was 0.8 percent (198/26,484), while the proportion of oil-field employees with elevated STK1p values (>2.0 pM) was 5.8 percent (514/8,355). In comparison to city inhabitants, the latter group had significantly greater rates of refractory anaemia, fatty liver, and obesity, but no incidences of breast or prostate hyperplasia were found. People who worked in oil drilling/transportation also had higher STK1p levels and a greater rate of pre-malignancies and benign illnesses than those who worked in oil-field administration. When comparing people with low STK1p values (2.0 pM) to people with high STK1p values (>2.0 pM), a statistically significantly higher number of people were found to have malignancies, pre-malignancies of all types, moderate/severe type of hyperplasia of breast or prostate, or refractory anaemia, or to be at high risk for hepatitis B. In the STK1p low group, no malignancies were discovered. Compared to 52.4 percent of individuals with low STK1p values, 85.4 percent of those with elevated STK1p values had illnesses linked to a higher risk of pre-/early neoplastic development. Persons with low STK1p levels (n=6,352/26,484) and raised STK1p values (170/702) were randomly selected and followed for 132 months. People with increased STK1p values had a 4 times higher chance of developing malignancies than people with low STK1p values. Based on official cancer statistics in China, the risk value was derived using an expected cancer occurrence incidence of 0.2 percent among people with low STK1p. We conclude that serological TK1 protein concentration is a reliable diagnostic for predicting the likelihood of cancer progression in the early stages.

Author (s) Details

Zhi-Heng Chen
Health Management Centre, The Third Xiangya Hospital, Central South University, Changsha, Hunan Province, China.

Xia Cao
Health Management Centre, The Third Xiangya Hospital, Central South University, Changsha, Hunan Province, China.

Shou-Qing Huang
Healthy Centre of the Affiliated Second Hospital, Fujian Chinese Tradition Medicine University, China.

Guo-zhan Zhao
Jilin Oil Field General Hospital, Jilin 131106, China.

Ai Zeng Yang
Department of Clinical and Laboratory Medicine, Nanjing 81 Hospital, Jiangsu 210002, China.

Jian Wen
Department of Clinical and Laboratory Medicine, Nanjing Tumor Hospital, Nanjing 210011, China.

Xiao-Hong Xu
Department of Clinical and Laboratory Medicine, Zhejiang Cancer Hospital, Hangzhou 310022, China.

Yan Chen
Laboratory of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Research, Fujian Cancer Hospital of Fujian Medical University Teaching Hospital, Fuzhou 350014, China.

Qu-Bo Chen
Chinese Medicine Hospital, Guangdong 510120, China.

Ying-Hong Wang
Central Laboratory, Cancer Institute & Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences (CAMS), Beijing 100021, China.

Ellen He
Shenzhen SSTK Precision Medicine Institute, Shenzhen 518057, China.

Ji Zhou
Shenzhen SSTK Precision Medicine Institute, Shenzhen 518057, China.

Sven Skog
Shenzhen SSTK Precision Medicine Institute, Shenzhen 518057, China.

View Book :- https://stm.bookpi.org/NUPSR-V5/article/view/1398

Electrochemical Properties of MnO2 Nanoparticle Obtained from Waste Battery Powder by Reductive Acid Leaching Method

The goal of this study is to extract manganese dioxide (MnO2) nanoparticles from spent battery waste using environmentally safe leaching materials. Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy was used to determine the concentration of metals (AAS). Energy Dispersive X-ray analysis (EDAX), X-ray Diffractometer (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and Fourier transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) were used to confirm the basic composition of metals recovered from dry cell batteries. Both Zn and Mn were higher at 90°C in the leaching investigations, and 4M sodium hydroxide was utilised as a precipitating agent to recover Mn as MnO2 nanoparticle. Cyclic voltammetry (CV) discloses the electrode’s reversibility, whereas electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) indicates the electrode’s charge transfer resistance (Rct) and capacitance. Among all the electrolytes, the electrode with 0.5M NaOH has the lowest Rct and the highest capacitance, suggesting greater conductivity and confirming that the charge transfer resistance and capacitive behaviour are faster.

Author (s) Details

M. Mylarappa
Sri Jagadguru Renukacharya College of Science Arts and Commerce, Race Course Road, Bengaluru-560009, Karnataka, India.

S. Kantharaju
Sri Jagadguru Renukacharya College of Science Arts and Commerce, Race Course Road, Bengaluru-560009, Karnataka, India.

View Book :- https://stm.bookpi.org/NUPSR-V5/article/view/1397