Basics of Nuclear Radiation

The first chapter of this book discusses nuclear radiation’s history, while the second and third chapters discuss nuclear radiation’s origins and forms. The X-ray was discussed in further depth in Chapter 4. Chapters five, six, and seven covered radiation amount, radiation interaction with matter, and radioisotopes, respectively. The usage and dangers of nuclear radiation on humans are discussed in Chapters 8 and 9. The tenth chapter looked at several types of nuclear detectors and how they work. In chapter eleven, the topic of nuclear radiation shielding was discussed. The significant pollution sources of depleted Uranium and radon gas are discussed in detail in Chapters 12 and 13. Finally, several photographs were used to illustrate the importance of nuclear and radiation accidents that occur around the world.

Author(s) Details

Ali Abid Abojassim
University of Kufa, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics, Al-Najaf, Iraq.

Rusul Hadi Hashim
University of Kufa, Faculty of Computer and Mathematics, Al-Najaf, Iraq.

Najlaa Saleh Mahdi
University of Kufa, Faculty of Science, Department of Biology, Al-Najaf, Iraq.

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On the Evolution of Universe Using Relativistic Cosmology

The geodesic equation is developed using calculus of variations for the collision region of two gravitationally coupled structures A and B. A method for calculating any conceivable curvature of universe beyond observable flat cosmos is discussed using the geodesic equation derived for the collision region of A and B. This relativistic method is used to explain a general concept about the evolution of gravitationally bound structures and their impact on the evolution of the cosmos. The distribution of matter and antimatter in the cosmos, observed accelerated expansion of the universe, cosmic inflation, and the current universe’s large-scale structure are all explained using this concept.

Author(S) Details

Vigneswaran Ramamoorthy
Park College of Engineering and Technology, India.

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Application of Quantum Mechanical Calculations and Symmetry in Chemistry; Vibration Frequencies, Corrosion Inhibition and Prodrugs

The principles of nature are the sole foundation for ab initio quantum chemistry: Molecular modelling methods that can accurately predict structures, energetics, reactivity, and other features of molecules have been created over the last two decades. Computational chemistry does not replace experimental studies, but it does play an important role in chemists’ ability to:

Many molecular properties, such as bond energies and reaction energies, structures of ground-excited-and transition-states, atomic charges and electrostatic potentials, vibrational frequencies (IR and Raman), transition energies and intensities for UV and IR spectra, NMR chemical shifts, and dipole moment, can be computed. This book was focused on three applications to show the importance of quantum chemistry calculations in chemical applications supporting experimentation.

The first application was for the electrical, chemical, vibration frequencies, and absorption intensities of SWCNTs, which differ greatly depending on symmetry, chirality, and diameter, necessitating experimental evaluation of these structural parameters. The vibrational density of states, especially at low frequencies, gives information about the structure of carbon nanotubes. Significant differences in the frequencies and relative intensities of these peaks provide a method for distinguishing between structurally different nanotubes. Experiments can now yield additional structural information thanks to our findings.

The second application involves calculating the geometrical structure, physical properties, and inhibition efficiency parameters of new organic compounds as inhibitors against carbon steel corrosion in acidic or basic solutions using the quantum mechanical method of PM3 and Density Functional Theory (DFT) of B3LYP with a level of 6-311++G (2d, 2p) in a simulated environment. The findings were in line with the experimental percent IE. Mulliken charges population analysis was used to investigate local reactivity. The third use involves adopting recommended novel prodrug designs to increase active drug solubility and thus bioavailability, increase permeability and absorption, and change the drug’s distribution profile for improved efficacy, reduced toxicity, and adverse effects. Over time, new pharmacological therapy advances have become increasingly complex, time-consuming, and expensive. The Gaussian 09 programme was used to execute a computational method in our prodrug design. The total energy of the reactants was compared to the energies and transitional stages up to the final products. The goal of the theoretical study of the suggested primary pharmaceuticals is to see whether there are any ways to improve the qualities of prodrugs and if there are any new alternatives to approved prodrugs. Correlations between experimental and calculated data were used to verify and ensure that the final results could be used.

Author(S) Detalis

Rehab Majed Kubba
Department of Chemistry, College of Science, University of Baghdad, Baghdad, Iraq.

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Study on Breakthrough Space Obstacle

Based on specific experimental dates and numbers from somatic science, we attempt to suggest a soliton processing mechanism to explain the phenomenon of Breakthrough Space Obstacles (BSO). We discovered that the type of bio-electromagnetic wave field (BEF) is an origin of BSO through analysis and research. This BEF is proportional to the change in particle density of an object and solves a nonlinear quantum Maxwell equation. Furthermore, BEF has a wide spectrum range of 100MHz to 1GHz, a high amplitude electromagnetic response, as well as a wide frequency range and strong strength. By the nonlinear quantum interaction, this BEF allows an item to convert into a huge soliton with BSO probability.

Author (S) Details

Bi Qiao
Department Physics, Wuhan University of Technology, Wuhan 430070, China.

Song Kongzhi
Institute of Space Medico-Engineering, Beijing 100192, China.

Zhang Bao Sheng
Institute of Space Medico-Engineering, Beijing 100192, China.

View Book :- https://stm.bookpi.org/NUPSR-V11/article/view/3036

The Uncertainty Principle: A Variable Concept. It Depends on the Complex Physical Time Only

According to the uncertainty principle, the quantity of uncertainty in a particle’s velocity multiplied by the quantity of uncertainty in a particle’s position is a constant. To put it another way, the more certain a particle’s velocity is, the less certain it is about its position, and vice versa. The focus of this chapter will be on the fact that the uncertainty measure is a variable, not a constant. Situation based realism is the uncertainty principle. It’s more in some cases and less in others. The variable uncertainty principle states that the total amount of uncertainty in position and velocity multiplied by the total amount of certainty in position and velocity equals the total amount of certainty in position and velocity equals the total amount of certainty in position and velocity equals the total amount of certainty in position and velocity equals the total amount of certainty in position and velocity equal. I’ll also talk about how physical time is a complex quantity, and how the variable uncertainty principle is actually based on it. The real physical time and the imaginary physical time make up the complicated physical time.

Author (S) Details

Prasenjit Debnath
The Department of Physics, National Institute of Technology Agartala, Barjala, Jirania, PO NIT Agartala, District Tripura (West), State Tripura, India.

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Symmetry between Shape and Orbit of Astronomical Bodies

In geometry, a sphere is the ideal shape. When enough mass clumps together to form an astronomical body, it tends to take the shape of a sphere. Any celestial body, regardless of its material composition, can achieve spherical form with a diameter of a few hundred kilometres. However, celestial bodies always deviate slightly from their spherical form, becoming elliptical to be accurate. As a result, practically all astronomical entities of sufficient size have an elliptical shape. The elliptical shape of an astronomical body and the elliptical orbits in which other astronomical bodies revolve around it are symmetrical. In this chapter, I’ll look at how astronomical bodies’ shapes and orbits are symmetrical. I’ll also talk about how a slight variation from the spherical shape causes physical time to travel forward. Finally, I’ll explain why particles and anti-particles form and recombine together.

Author (S) Details

Prasenjit Debnath
The Department of Physics, National Institute of Technology Agartala, Barjala, Jirania, PO NIT Agartala, District Tripura (West), State Tripura, India.

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Trace Element Analysis of Dental Powders by X-Ray Fluorescence Technique: A Recent Study

The current study will focus on the experimental method, the elements that should be found in dental powder, and the findings. Medical research has shown that Hg is continuously emitted as vapour into oral air, inhaled, absorbed into body tissues, oxidised to ionic Hg, and finally covalently bonded to cell proteins throughout the last decade. Traditional XRF and hand-held XRF were used to examine dental powder (HHXRF). In XRF, the spectrum reveals a lot of Si, K, Ca, and Zr, while in HHXRF, it displays a lot of Al. The HHXRF has the advantage of revealing Al, a common element found in dental powders. HHXRF is preferable over traditional XRF for obtaining Al, which is abundant in dental powders. The current study will focus on the experimental method, the elements that should be found in dental powder, and the findings.

Author (S) Details

Dr. Daisy Joseph
Nuclear Physics Division, BARC, Mumbai, India.

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On the Design of a Yaw Colloidal Damper Used to Suppress the Hunting Motion and to Improve the Travelling Stability of a Bullet Train

The yaw damper is a primary source of excitation for the railway carbody’s flexural vibration. To decrease the transmission of such unwanted excitation, the yaw damper should allow for substantial force transmission at low working frequencies while acting as a vibration isolator at higher working frequencies. Unfortunately, the yaw oil damper, which is now in use, has limited inherent elastic capacities and produces damping forces that change as a power function of piston speed. Colloidal dampers are an intriguing alternative to standard yaw dampers because they have intrinsic elastic properties and greater damping forces at lower excitation frequencies. The working conditions to be met by the yaw damper are detailed in this chapter, which begins with a simple but reliable analytical formula to estimate the negative damping happening spontaneously during the hunting motion of the railway wheelset. In particular, technical methods for reducing the consequences of the wheelset unstable hunting mode are mentioned, as well as the impact of carriage geometry, hunting wavelength, and lateral disturbance on the yaw damper stroke. The ride comfort of a bullet train subjected to lateral stimulation is compared to the normal approach in order to determine the effectiveness of the yaw damper. as well as by taking into consideration some specific frequency weightings that account for the discomfort experienced by passengers when reading and writing. The dynamic parameters of a yaw colloidal damper, which will be used to suspend the carbody of a full-scale bullet train, are then analysed using experimental data acquired during horizontal vibration tests on a ball-screw shaker. The frictional and colloidal effects of the yaw colloidal damper are studied in relation to the working stroke and frequency. The experimental yaw colloidal damper allows for a 31.6 percent weight decrease when compared to the similar classical yaw oil damper. Long piston stroke with low excitation frequency produces big damping force, dissipated energy, and spring constant; short piston stroke with high excitation frequency produces low damping force, dissipated energy, and spring constant. The yaw colloidal damper’s elastic properties are explained using a model that includes the effect of a porous lyophobic matrix on the behaviour of a classical liquid spring.

Author (S) Details

Barenten Suciu

Department of Intelligent Mechanical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Fukuoka Institute of Technology, 3-30-1 Wajiro-Higashi, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka-shi, Fukuoka 811-0295 Japan.

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Study on Thermomagnetic Conversion of Low-grade Waste Heat into Electrical Power

This chapter presents a theoretical analysis based on the thermal modelling of a Curie wheel, which is used to convert low-grade waste heat into electrical power. It enables designers to better understand the thermal behaviour of a Curie wheel in steady-state operation. A stationary one-dimensional analytical thermal model based on a Lagrangian technique was created to achieve this goal. It enables the determination of the temperature distribution in a magnetocaloric material exposed to a periodic sinusoidal heat source throughout time. The impacts of several parameters (the nature of the magnetocaloric material, the nature and temperature of the fluid) were determined and analysed using this model.

Author (S) Details

G. El Achkar
International Centre in Fundamental and Engineering Thermophysics, Tianjin University of Commerce, Guangrong Rd 409, Beichen District, Tianjin, 300134, China.

A. Dianoux
IJL, UMR CNRS 7198, Universite de Lorraine, BP 70239, 54506 Vandoeuvre-l ´ es-Nancy Cedex, ` France.

A. Kheiri
LEMTA, UMR CNRS 7563, Universite de Lorraine, 2 avenue de la For ´ et de Haye, TSA 60604, 54518 ˆ Vandoeuvre-les-Nancy Cedex, France.

D. Maillet
LEMTA, UMR CNRS 7563, Universite de Lorraine, 2 avenue de la For ´ et de Haye, TSA 60604, 54518 ˆ Vandoeuvre-les-Nancy Cedex, France.

T. Mazet
IJL, UMR CNRS 7198, Universite de Lorraine, BP 70239, 54506 Vandoeuvre-l ´ es-Nancy Cedex, ` France.

S. Colasson
LSED, Commissariat a l’Energie Atomique et aux ` energies alternatives, 17 rue des Martyrs, 38054 ´ Grenoble Cedex 9, France.

M. Feidt
LEMTA, UMR CNRS 7563, Universite de Lorraine, 2 avenue de la For ´ et de Haye, TSA 60604, 54518 ˆ Vandoeuvre-les-Nancy Cedex, France.

C. Rado
LMA, Commissariat a l’Energie Atomique et aux ` energies alternatives, 17 rue des Martyrs, 38054 ´ Grenoble Cedex 9, France.

F. Servant
LMA, Commissariat a l’Energie Atomique et aux ` energies alternatives, 17 rue des Martyrs, 38054 ´ Grenoble Cedex 9, France.

V. Paul-Boncour
ICMPE, UMR CNRS 7182, 2-8 rue Henri Dunant, 94320 Thiais, France.

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Multiple Geomatic Techniques for Analyzing Coastline Retreat: The Case of Gerra Beach (Cantabrian Coast, Spain)

Strong winter storms batter the beaches of the Cantabrian coast (northern Spain), causing the coastline to recede. The coastal retreat of the Gerra beach (Cantabria) is investigated in this chapter through a diachronic study using the following geomatic techniques: orthophotography from 1956; photogrammetric flights from 2001, 2005, 2010, 2014, and 2017; LiDAR survey from August 2012; Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) survey from November 2018; and terrestrial laser scanner. TLS has made 17 observations. In this eight-year period (2012–2020), changes in volume of the beach and the sea cliff are determined throughout the winter (November–April) and summer (May–October) seasons, with a focus on their association with storms. The results of this analysis show that the cliff’s base retreat is minor, but this is not the case for the cliff’s top and existing beaches in the Cantabrian Sea, where the retreat is noticeable. Between 1956 and 2020, the retreat of the cliff top line in Gerra beach reached heights of more than 40 metres. During the same time span, other beaches around the Cantabrian Sea have receded by more than 200 metres. Our observations have bolstered inquiries into the retreat of cliffs on the Atlantic coast, where the cliff lithology diversity and the aggressive action of the sea (storms) have been responsible for active erosion on the cliff face. In addition, this study used geomatic techniques that became commercially available between 1956 and 2020, such as aerial photogrammetry, TLS, LiDAR, and UAV, and analysed the data to see how precise each method might be when applied to similar geomorphological structures. The combination of strategies, as well as their adaptation to the geomorphological peculiarities and orographic position of the beach, serve as a model for the regulation of beach dynamics and cliff retreat.

Author (S) Details

Dr. José Juan de Sanjosé Blasco
Departamento de Expresión gráfica, Escuela Politécnica, Universidad de Extremadura, 10003 Cáceres, Spain.

Enrique Serrano-Cañadas
Departamento de Geografía, Facultad de Filosofía y Letras, Universidad de Valladolid, 47011 Valladolid, Spain.

Manuel Sánchez-Fernández
Departamento de Expresión gráfica, Escuela Politécnica, Universidad de Extremadura, 10003 Cáceres, Spain.

Dr. Manuel Gómez-Lende
Departamento de Geografía, Facultad de Filosofía y Letras, Universidad de Valladolid, 47011 Valladolid, Spain.

Paula Redweik
Department of Engenharia Geográfica, Geofísica e Energia and Instituto Dom Luiz, Faculdade de Ciências, Universidade de Lisboa, 1649-004 Lisbon, Portugal.

View Book :- https://stm.bookpi.org/NUPSR-V8/article/view/1756