The Uncertainty Principle: A Variable Concept. It Depends on the Complex Physical Time Only

According to the uncertainty principle, the quantity of uncertainty in a particle’s velocity multiplied by the quantity of uncertainty in a particle’s position is a constant. To put it another way, the more certain a particle’s velocity is, the less certain it is about its position, and vice versa. The focus of this chapter will be on the fact that the uncertainty measure is a variable, not a constant. Situation based realism is the uncertainty principle. It’s more in some cases and less in others. The variable uncertainty principle states that the total amount of uncertainty in position and velocity multiplied by the total amount of certainty in position and velocity equals the total amount of certainty in position and velocity equals the total amount of certainty in position and velocity equals the total amount of certainty in position and velocity equals the total amount of certainty in position and velocity equal. I’ll also talk about how physical time is a complex quantity, and how the variable uncertainty principle is actually based on it. The real physical time and the imaginary physical time make up the complicated physical time.

Author (S) Details

Prasenjit Debnath
The Department of Physics, National Institute of Technology Agartala, Barjala, Jirania, PO NIT Agartala, District Tripura (West), State Tripura, India.

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Symmetry between Shape and Orbit of Astronomical Bodies

In geometry, a sphere is the ideal shape. When enough mass clumps together to form an astronomical body, it tends to take the shape of a sphere. Any celestial body, regardless of its material composition, can achieve spherical form with a diameter of a few hundred kilometres. However, celestial bodies always deviate slightly from their spherical form, becoming elliptical to be accurate. As a result, practically all astronomical entities of sufficient size have an elliptical shape. The elliptical shape of an astronomical body and the elliptical orbits in which other astronomical bodies revolve around it are symmetrical. In this chapter, I’ll look at how astronomical bodies’ shapes and orbits are symmetrical. I’ll also talk about how a slight variation from the spherical shape causes physical time to travel forward. Finally, I’ll explain why particles and anti-particles form and recombine together.

Author (S) Details

Prasenjit Debnath
The Department of Physics, National Institute of Technology Agartala, Barjala, Jirania, PO NIT Agartala, District Tripura (West), State Tripura, India.

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Trace Element Analysis of Dental Powders by X-Ray Fluorescence Technique: A Recent Study

The current study will focus on the experimental method, the elements that should be found in dental powder, and the findings. Medical research has shown that Hg is continuously emitted as vapour into oral air, inhaled, absorbed into body tissues, oxidised to ionic Hg, and finally covalently bonded to cell proteins throughout the last decade. Traditional XRF and hand-held XRF were used to examine dental powder (HHXRF). In XRF, the spectrum reveals a lot of Si, K, Ca, and Zr, while in HHXRF, it displays a lot of Al. The HHXRF has the advantage of revealing Al, a common element found in dental powders. HHXRF is preferable over traditional XRF for obtaining Al, which is abundant in dental powders. The current study will focus on the experimental method, the elements that should be found in dental powder, and the findings.

Author (S) Details

Dr. Daisy Joseph
Nuclear Physics Division, BARC, Mumbai, India.

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On the Design of a Yaw Colloidal Damper Used to Suppress the Hunting Motion and to Improve the Travelling Stability of a Bullet Train

The yaw damper is a primary source of excitation for the railway carbody’s flexural vibration. To decrease the transmission of such unwanted excitation, the yaw damper should allow for substantial force transmission at low working frequencies while acting as a vibration isolator at higher working frequencies. Unfortunately, the yaw oil damper, which is now in use, has limited inherent elastic capacities and produces damping forces that change as a power function of piston speed. Colloidal dampers are an intriguing alternative to standard yaw dampers because they have intrinsic elastic properties and greater damping forces at lower excitation frequencies. The working conditions to be met by the yaw damper are detailed in this chapter, which begins with a simple but reliable analytical formula to estimate the negative damping happening spontaneously during the hunting motion of the railway wheelset. In particular, technical methods for reducing the consequences of the wheelset unstable hunting mode are mentioned, as well as the impact of carriage geometry, hunting wavelength, and lateral disturbance on the yaw damper stroke. The ride comfort of a bullet train subjected to lateral stimulation is compared to the normal approach in order to determine the effectiveness of the yaw damper. as well as by taking into consideration some specific frequency weightings that account for the discomfort experienced by passengers when reading and writing. The dynamic parameters of a yaw colloidal damper, which will be used to suspend the carbody of a full-scale bullet train, are then analysed using experimental data acquired during horizontal vibration tests on a ball-screw shaker. The frictional and colloidal effects of the yaw colloidal damper are studied in relation to the working stroke and frequency. The experimental yaw colloidal damper allows for a 31.6 percent weight decrease when compared to the similar classical yaw oil damper. Long piston stroke with low excitation frequency produces big damping force, dissipated energy, and spring constant; short piston stroke with high excitation frequency produces low damping force, dissipated energy, and spring constant. The yaw colloidal damper’s elastic properties are explained using a model that includes the effect of a porous lyophobic matrix on the behaviour of a classical liquid spring.

Author (S) Details

Barenten Suciu

Department of Intelligent Mechanical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Fukuoka Institute of Technology, 3-30-1 Wajiro-Higashi, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka-shi, Fukuoka 811-0295 Japan.

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Study on Thermomagnetic Conversion of Low-grade Waste Heat into Electrical Power

This chapter presents a theoretical analysis based on the thermal modelling of a Curie wheel, which is used to convert low-grade waste heat into electrical power. It enables designers to better understand the thermal behaviour of a Curie wheel in steady-state operation. A stationary one-dimensional analytical thermal model based on a Lagrangian technique was created to achieve this goal. It enables the determination of the temperature distribution in a magnetocaloric material exposed to a periodic sinusoidal heat source throughout time. The impacts of several parameters (the nature of the magnetocaloric material, the nature and temperature of the fluid) were determined and analysed using this model.

Author (S) Details

G. El Achkar
International Centre in Fundamental and Engineering Thermophysics, Tianjin University of Commerce, Guangrong Rd 409, Beichen District, Tianjin, 300134, China.

A. Dianoux
IJL, UMR CNRS 7198, Universite de Lorraine, BP 70239, 54506 Vandoeuvre-l ´ es-Nancy Cedex, ` France.

A. Kheiri
LEMTA, UMR CNRS 7563, Universite de Lorraine, 2 avenue de la For ´ et de Haye, TSA 60604, 54518 ˆ Vandoeuvre-les-Nancy Cedex, France.

D. Maillet
LEMTA, UMR CNRS 7563, Universite de Lorraine, 2 avenue de la For ´ et de Haye, TSA 60604, 54518 ˆ Vandoeuvre-les-Nancy Cedex, France.

T. Mazet
IJL, UMR CNRS 7198, Universite de Lorraine, BP 70239, 54506 Vandoeuvre-l ´ es-Nancy Cedex, ` France.

S. Colasson
LSED, Commissariat a l’Energie Atomique et aux ` energies alternatives, 17 rue des Martyrs, 38054 ´ Grenoble Cedex 9, France.

M. Feidt
LEMTA, UMR CNRS 7563, Universite de Lorraine, 2 avenue de la For ´ et de Haye, TSA 60604, 54518 ˆ Vandoeuvre-les-Nancy Cedex, France.

C. Rado
LMA, Commissariat a l’Energie Atomique et aux ` energies alternatives, 17 rue des Martyrs, 38054 ´ Grenoble Cedex 9, France.

F. Servant
LMA, Commissariat a l’Energie Atomique et aux ` energies alternatives, 17 rue des Martyrs, 38054 ´ Grenoble Cedex 9, France.

V. Paul-Boncour
ICMPE, UMR CNRS 7182, 2-8 rue Henri Dunant, 94320 Thiais, France.

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Multiple Geomatic Techniques for Analyzing Coastline Retreat: The Case of Gerra Beach (Cantabrian Coast, Spain)

Strong winter storms batter the beaches of the Cantabrian coast (northern Spain), causing the coastline to recede. The coastal retreat of the Gerra beach (Cantabria) is investigated in this chapter through a diachronic study using the following geomatic techniques: orthophotography from 1956; photogrammetric flights from 2001, 2005, 2010, 2014, and 2017; LiDAR survey from August 2012; Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) survey from November 2018; and terrestrial laser scanner. TLS has made 17 observations. In this eight-year period (2012–2020), changes in volume of the beach and the sea cliff are determined throughout the winter (November–April) and summer (May–October) seasons, with a focus on their association with storms. The results of this analysis show that the cliff’s base retreat is minor, but this is not the case for the cliff’s top and existing beaches in the Cantabrian Sea, where the retreat is noticeable. Between 1956 and 2020, the retreat of the cliff top line in Gerra beach reached heights of more than 40 metres. During the same time span, other beaches around the Cantabrian Sea have receded by more than 200 metres. Our observations have bolstered inquiries into the retreat of cliffs on the Atlantic coast, where the cliff lithology diversity and the aggressive action of the sea (storms) have been responsible for active erosion on the cliff face. In addition, this study used geomatic techniques that became commercially available between 1956 and 2020, such as aerial photogrammetry, TLS, LiDAR, and UAV, and analysed the data to see how precise each method might be when applied to similar geomorphological structures. The combination of strategies, as well as their adaptation to the geomorphological peculiarities and orographic position of the beach, serve as a model for the regulation of beach dynamics and cliff retreat.

Author (S) Details

Dr. José Juan de Sanjosé Blasco
Departamento de Expresión gráfica, Escuela Politécnica, Universidad de Extremadura, 10003 Cáceres, Spain.

Enrique Serrano-Cañadas
Departamento de Geografía, Facultad de Filosofía y Letras, Universidad de Valladolid, 47011 Valladolid, Spain.

Manuel Sánchez-Fernández
Departamento de Expresión gráfica, Escuela Politécnica, Universidad de Extremadura, 10003 Cáceres, Spain.

Dr. Manuel Gómez-Lende
Departamento de Geografía, Facultad de Filosofía y Letras, Universidad de Valladolid, 47011 Valladolid, Spain.

Paula Redweik
Department of Engenharia Geográfica, Geofísica e Energia and Instituto Dom Luiz, Faculdade de Ciências, Universidade de Lisboa, 1649-004 Lisbon, Portugal.

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Geomatics Techniques for Monitoring the Retreat of Coastal Sandy Systems: Somo Beach (Cantabrian Coast, Spain, 1875–2017)

Geomatics tools (historical cartography, photogrammetry, topography, and terrestrial laser scanning (TLS)) were used to examine the dynamics and evolution of a coastal sandy system over the last 142 years (1875–2017). The continuous beach–dune system is a particularly active restricting sand barrier that closes an estuary system where coastal infrastructure and dwellings are damaged. Historical cartography, digitalizing the 5-m-level curve on maps from 1875, 1908, 1920, 1950, and 1985; photogrammetric flights from 1985, 1988, and 2001 without calibration certificates, digitalizing only the upper part of the sandy front; and historical cartography, digitalizing the 5-m-level curve on maps from 1875, 1908, 1920, 1950, and 1985. Photogrammetric flights in 2005, 2007, 2010, and 2014, using photogrammetric restitution of the 5-m-level curve; topo-bathymetric profiles made monthly with a total station between 1988 and 1993; a terrestrial laser scanner (TLS) since 2011 using two annual measurements; and meteorological data from 1985 to 2017. Winter storms with big waves and swells greater than 6 m, combining with times with a high tidal range of over 100 and periods with a large number of intense storms, caused the sandy complex to retreat. Between December 2013 and March 2014, the retreat was 8 metres. At Somo Beach, the overall change in the coastline between 1875 and 2017 was roughly 415 metres of retreat. Between 1999 and 2014, erosive processes on the foredune resulted in the outcropping of the rock face becoming a continuous rocky cliff without sands. Combining geomatic approaches with future TLS data sets may increase our understanding of shoreline changes in the context of sea level and global changes, allowing us to better understand recent coastal evolution and its ramifications for the human environment. To understand the evolution and erosive rhythms on the foredune, the integration and complementarities of multiple methodologies and sources, such as historical mapping, photogrammetric flight series, and TLS, were quite valuable.

Author (S) Details

Dr. José Juan de Sanjosé Blasco
Departamento de Expresión gráfica, Escuela Politécnica, Universidad de Extremadura, 10003 Cáceres, Spain.

Dr. Manuel Gómez-Lende
Departamento de Geografía, Facultad de Filosofía y Letras, Universidad de Valladolid, 47011 Valladolid, Spain.

Manuel Sánchez-Fernández
Departamento de Expresión gráfica, Escuela Politécnica, Universidad de Extremadura, 10003 Cáceres, Spain.

Enrique Serrano-Cañadas
Departamento de Geografía, Facultad de Filosofía y Letras, Universidad de Valladolid, 47011 Valladolid, Spain.

View Book :- https://stm.bookpi.org/NUPSR-V8/article/view/1755

Mapping of Students’ Learning Progression Based on Mental Model in Magnetic Induction Concepts

The teacher has not been observing student learning progress in a learning process to its full potential. The mental processes that occur in pupils’ thinking are not assessed, and the notion being taught is examined solely at the end of learning as a product of thinking. Facilitating students’ thinking through new phenomena can reveal students’ variation in thinking as a mental model of a concept, allowing assimilative and accommodative students to be identified in their pursuit of thought equilibrium, as well as an indicator of progressivity in the students’ thinking stages. The goal of this research is to map a student’s learning process using mental models based on the magnetic induction notion. The information for this study came from written documentation and interviews with students who learnt about magnetic induction using the Constructivist Teaching Sequences (CTS) paradigm. The findings of this study show that making students’ thinking processes on the notion of magnetic induction easier contributes to a higher percentage of students thinking in the “progressive change” group (76 percent ). Furthermore, 12 percent of students think in the category of “change more randomly,” 8% of students are consistent with the basis of analogy thinking, and just 4% are consistent in the scientific principles they have understood since the beginning of their education. As a result, it may be argued that student learning progresses more rapidly once teachers facilitate ideas through new phenomena.

Author (S) Details

R. Hamid
FKIP Universitas Halu Oleo, Jl. H.E.A. Mokodompit Kendari 93232, Indonesia.

D. B. Pabunga
FKIP Universitas Halu Oleo, Jl. H.E.A. Mokodompit Kendari 93232, Indonesia.

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Investigation of Distribution of Mass and Energy in Closed Model of the Universe

In the closed cosmic model, the horizon distance and volume of the universe are calculated. For t tme, the cosmic horizon distance distribution increases continuously, but for t > tme, it decreases. However, because to the shift of the universe space from flat to curved then closed in the interval 15.1261 Gyr t tme, the universe’s horizon volume exhibits a dramatic contraction in the range t = 0.5 Gyr tme. In the interval 39.3822 t 40.7521 Gyr, however, this distribution indicates a sudden spike in the range t = tme t due to the shift of the universe space from closed to curved to flat. The distributions of radiation mass, matter, and dark energy within the universe’s horizon volume are also studied. For the same reasons, these distributions show similar notable fluctuations as the universe’s horizon volume distribution. Up to t = 53221.5 yr, the mass of radiation dominates; beyond that, the mass of matter becomes bigger. Following then, both the distributions of radiation and matter decline, while the distribution of dark energy rises until t = 10.1007 Gyr, when dark energy’s mass dominates until t = tme. As a result, the dark energy distribution drops until t = 40.2892 Gyr, when the mass of matter resurfaces. At t = 53.6246 Gyr, the masses of both matter and radiation become so large that the intercluster void vanishes and galaxies begin to collide. In addition, not only will the intergalactic medium vanish, but galaxies will collide and merge, forming very compact and near cosmic bodies. Under the influence of central gravity, these extremely dense bodies will collide and merge in a series of collisions and mergers, causing the interstellar medium to evaporate and the universe to develop to a great crunch at tbc = 53.6251 Gyr. It’s worth noting that the universe’s horizon distance in the closed model at t = tme agrees well with the maximum horizon distances in the five generic cosmic models.

Author (S) Details

Dr. Fadel A. Bukhari

Department of Astronomy, Faculty of Science, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia.

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Investigating the Distribution of Mass and Energy in Five General Cosmic Models

In the light of five general cosmic models that were constructed in a previous study, distributions of the universe horizon distance and volume were explored. Both distributions rise slowly until t 21.5444 Myr, when they begin to rise very quickly until t 60 Gyr. After that, they gradually increase again until t 124 Gyr. The five general cosmic models looked at the distributions of mass of radiation, matter, and dark energy within the horizon volume of the universe. Radiation and matter have equal masses until t = 34627.5 – 55916.2 yr, when the mass of radiation equals the mass of matter. The mass of matter then took over until it was equal to the mass of dark energy at t = 9.4525 – 10.0632 Gyr. The universe is now dominated by the mass of dark energy. In the remote future of the cosmos, cosmic space will be nearly empty of stuff.

Author (S) Details

Dr. Fadel A. Bukhari

Department of Astronomy, Faculty of Science, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, KSA.

View Book :- https://stm.bookpi.org/NUPSR-V8/article/view/1752