7 ways to prove the earth is round

There are few certainties in life: death, taxes, and the sun’s rising in the east and setting in the west. Or does it rise on the left and set on the right?

Lately, as flat-Earth theorists have become more vocal, it seems as though people are more frequently asking questions of that very nature, and the movement is gaining ground. (Just this week, a flat-earth believer launched himself into space in a homemade rocket in an effort to disprove the round-Earth theory.) These questions go against every logical explanation of what we know to be true about our planet: mainly, that it is sphere-shaped and orbits the sun.

The rise in visibility of flat-Earth theories might be a product of what’s rapidly becoming known as the “post-fact/post-truth era” in our society, in which an untruth repeated enough times becomes truth by groupthink. However, these theories existed long before the 2016 election cycle and have outlasted counterarguments from Aristotle, Ferdinand Magellan, NASA, and most rational-thinking humans.

Too often, the discourse about the shape of Earth becomes about proving negatives and centers on explaining that something isn’t true rather than proving that it is. Indeed, the burden should be on flat-Earth theorists to explain clearly why their theories are correct and to use science to back those claims.

Fortunately, for every idea on why Earth might be flat, there is physical evidence that proves Earth is definitely globular. Here’s a bunch of that evidence, and you don’t even need to spend $1 million to launch yourself into space.

1. Watch a ship sail off to sea

Without being in the sky, it is impossible to see the curvature of the Earth. However, you can always see a demonstration of this if you visit a harbor or any place with a wide-open view of the water.

If you are able to watch a ship sail off to sea, watch its mast and flag as it fades off into the distance. You will notice that, in fact, it does not “fade off into the distance” at all; instead, you will see its mast and flag appear to slowly sink. The ship sailed beyond the point at which you would see it. Just to be sure, bring a pair of binoculars with you so that you can see even farther off into the distance.

It’s as if you’re watching it go over to the other side of a hill. This phenomenon can only be explained by a sphere-shaped planet.

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Greenhouse gases were the main driver of climate change in the deep past

Greenhouse gases were the main driver of climate throughout the warmest period of the past 66 million years, providing insight into the drivers behind long-term climate change.

Antarctica and Australia separated around the end of the Eocene (56 to 22.9 million years ago), creating a deep water passage between them and changing . Some researchers believe these changes were the driver of cooling temperatures near the end of the Eocene ‘hothouse’ period, but some think declining levels of  were to blame.

If the cooling had been caused by changes in , regions around the equator would have warmed as the polar regions cooled, shifting the distribution of heat on Earth. But changing the concentration of  would affect the total heat trapped in Earth’s atmosphere, causing cooling everywhere (including in the tropics), which is what the researchers found. The findings were published in the journal Nature.

The synchronized evolution of tropical and polar  we reconstructed can only be explained by  forcing,” said Margot Cramwinckel, a Ph.D. candidate at Utrecht University in the Netherlands and first author of the paper. “Our findings are uniquely compatible with the hypothesis that the long-term Eocene cooling was driven by greenhouse gasses. This greatly improves our understanding of the drivers behind long-term  change, which is important in order to predict the development of future climate change.”

Climate change often has more intense effects near the poles than elsewhere on the planet, a phenomenon known as polar amplification.

The study found that temperature change was more dramatic near the poles than in the tropics during the Eocene, even though most of the period was extremely warm, leaving little to no ice near the poles.

“Even in a largely ice-free world, the poles cooled more than the tropics as temperature dropped,” Cramwinckel said. “This indicates that greenhouse gas forcing by itself can cause polar amplification.”

The researchers had one more question about polar amplification: does it reach some sort of limit?

“Our results support the idea that polar amplification saturates out at some point in warm climates and does not continue to increase with further warming,” said Matthew Huber, a professor of earth, atmospheric and planetary sciences at Purdue University and co-author of the paper.

As a proxy for temperature, the research team looked at membrane lipids of simple, sea-surface dwelling organisms called Thaumarchaeota that change their membrane composition as temperatures change in deep sea sediment cores drilled near the Ivory Coast.

They combined these observations with climate models, produced by Huber’s team at Purdue, to mesh together a timeline of temperature throughout the Eocene.

“The simulations took about four years of continuous computing to achieve equilibrated climate states at various carbon dioxide levels,” Huber said. “For the first time, the climate model is capable of capturing the main trends in tropical sea surface temperatures and temperature gradients across a range of climate encompassing nearly 20 million years. The only problem is that the simulations required more carbon dioxide changes than observed, which demonstrates that this model is not sensitive enough to carbon dioxide.”

Historically, researchers have had trouble reproducing temperature gradients between the tropics and the poles throughout the Eocene. These new climate models are capable of overcoming most of the issues faced by past models.

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Mars rocks may harbor signs of life from 4 billion years ago

Summary: Iron-rich rocks near ancient lake sites on Mars could hold vital clues that show life once existed there, research suggests.

Iron-rich rocks near ancient lake sites on Mars could hold vital clues that show life once existed there, research suggests.

These rocks — which formed in lake beds — are the best place to seek fossil evidence of life from billions of years ago, researchers say.

A new study that sheds light on where fossils might be preserved could aid the search for traces of tiny creatures — known as microbes — on Mars, which it is thought may have supported primitive life forms around four billion years ago.

A team of scientists has determined that sedimentary rocks made of compacted mud or clay are the most likely to contain fossils. These rocks are rich in iron and a mineral called silica, which helps preserve fossils.

They formed during the Noachian and Hesperian Periods of Martian history between three and four billion years ago. At that time, the planet’s surface was abundant in water, which could have supported life.

The rocks are much better preserved than those of the same age on Earth, researchers say. This is because Mars is not subject to plate tectonics — the movement of huge rocky slabs that form the crust of some planets — which over time can destroy rocks and fossils inside them.

The team reviewed studies of fossils on Earth and assessed the results of lab experiments replicating Martian conditions to identify the most promising sites on the planet to explore for traces of ancient life.

Their findings could help inform NASA’s next rover mission to the Red Planet, which will focus on searching for evidence of past life. The US space agency’s Mars 2020 rover will collect rock samples to be returned to Earth for analysis by a future mission.

A similar mission led by the European Space Agency is also planned in coming years.

The latest study of Mars rocks — led by a researcher from the University of Edinburgh — could aid in the selection of landing sites for both missions. It could also help to identify the best places to gather rock samples.

The study, published in Journal of Geophysical Research, also involved researchers at NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Brown University, California Institute of Technology, Massachusetts Institute of Technology and Yale University in the US.

Dr Sean McMahon, a Marie Sklodowska-Curie fellow in the University of Edinburgh’s School of Physics and Astronomy, said: “There are many interesting rock and mineral outcrops on Mars where we would like to search for fossils, but since we can’t send rovers to all of them we have tried to prioritise the most promising deposits based on the best available information.”

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Materials provided by University of EdinburghNote: Content may be edited for style and length.


Journal Reference:

  1. S. McMahon, T. Bosak, J. P. Grotzinger, R. E. Milliken, R. E. Summons, M. Daye, S. A. Newman, A. Fraeman, K. H. Williford, D. E. G. Briggs. A Field Guide to Finding Fossils on MarsJournal of Geophysical Research: Planets, 2018; DOI: 10.1029/2017JE005478

Source: sciencedaily.com

Jupiter Will Be Closer Tonight Than It Has Been In Years – Here’s How To See It

Jupiter will be at its most visible on May 8.

The planet will be in opposition to the sun, which means it’ll be on the exact opposite side of Earth to the sun. 

Your best chance of getting a glimpse will be around 1:00 a.m. on May 8th when the gas giant is due south. 

Space-watchers, get excited: Jupiter is about to be closer to Earth than it has been for years, and it’ll make for some prime viewing.

The gas giant will be in “opposition” during the nighttime hours of May 8th, which means it’ll be on the exact opposite side of Earth to the sun. Jupiter will also swing within 409 million miles of Earth — 5 million miles closer than last year’s opposition — making the planet shine extra bright in the sky, according to National Geographic.

The effect of opposition is similar to how we see the moon at its fullest and brightest each month when our planet is positioned directly between the moon and the sun. While Jupiter will be in exact opposition on May 8th, you can see what amounts to a “full Jupiter” for the entire month of May.

On May 8th, you’ll be able to see Jupiter as a bright white spot in the sky with only your eyes. With binoculars or a telescope, you’ll be able to Jupiter’s full complement of moons, as well as some of the gas giant’s famous storms, including the Great Red Spot.

While the planet will be one of the brightest spots in the night sky all night, your best chance of catching it in its full celestial glory at 1:10 a.m. EDT, when it will be positioned due south, according to The Washington Post. Jupiter will rise toward the southeast around 8 p.m. and won’t set until 6:18 a.m., just after sunrise.

Scientists are busy learning as much as they can about Jupiter from NASA’s Juno probe. While the mission is set to end in July, scientists are hopeful they’ll get to continue exploring the planet.

Source: iflscience.com

Measuring Marsquakes: How NASA’s InSight Lander Will Peer Inside Red Planet

This article was originally published at The Conversation. The publication contributed the article to Space.com’s Expert Voices: Op-Ed & Insights.

When we look up at Mars in the night sky we see a red planet – largely due to its rusty surface. But what’s on the inside?

Launching in May, the next NASA space mission will study the interior of Mars.

The InSight (Interior exploration using Seismic Investigations, Geodesy and Heat Transport) spacecraft will be a stationary lander mission that measures seismic activity on Mars (often referred to as marsquakes) as well as interior heat flow.

By listening to and probing the Martian crust and interior, the project aims to understand the formation and evolution of Mars.

The InSight mission is scheduled to launch from California in early May, with landing on Mars planned for November. The expected lifetime of the mission is at least two years.

The payload on board InSight includes the seismic instrument SEIS (Seismic Experiment for Interior Structure). Its task is to record seismic activity, or vibrations, of the planet.

Apart from shaking the ground while passing, seismic waves can be extremely useful in telling us about the structure of planetary interiors. Seismic waves travel at different speeds when passing through different materials. Processing their arrival time and strength via recorded seismographs is a clever way to learn about the interior structure of a planetary body – such as the crust, the next layer down (the mantle), and the core.

Seismic activity on Mars could be caused by a number of processes. For example, shallow marsquakes could originate from meteoroid strikes, and deep marsquakes could come from martian tectonic activity (the movement of tectonic plates at the surface of the planet).

It is generally believed that tectonic processes could have shaped Mars in its early evolution, similar to the Earth. However, unlike the Earth in younger ages, Mars has become largely tectonically dormant.

Considering that tectonics on Mars may not be reminiscent of what we see on our planet, we suspect that meteoroid strikes will play a major role in causing marsquakes.

On Earth, frequent and small meteoroids most often burn up in the atmosphere and appear to us as a form of “shooting star.” When a rock from space moving at supersonic speed encounters the terrestrial atmosphere, the air in front of it gets compressed extremely quickly. Temperature rises and heat builds up, so the rock starts to shine bright under the process of its destruction.

However, on Mars we think that meteoroids may not necessarily burn up entirely upon encountering the martian atmosphere. This is simply because Mars has a less dense atmosphere than the Earth – so incoming meteoroids have a higher penetrating power. These impact events would produce seismic disturbance in the atmosphere, and also likely in the ground.

Detecting meteoroid strikes on planetary bodies began with the lunar Apollo program. Apollo missions carried seismometers to the Moon, and as a result we had a network of seismometers that operated on the Moon from 1969-77.

During its lifetime, the Apollo seismic network recorded shallow quakes produced by frequent meteoroid bombardment. Considering that the Moon does not have an atmosphere to protect its surface from the incoming meteoroids, the Apollo seismic network provided heaps of seismic data from the Moon. These impact-induced seismic moonquakes provided the first constraints about the thickness of the lunar crust as well as structure of crust and deep interior.

During the lunar exploratory boom with the Apollo program, NASA also launched Vikings 1 and 2 to Mars in 1975. These became the first missions to land on Mars, and each Viking mission carried a seismometer.

While instruments on Viking have collected more data than expected, the seismometer on Viking Lander 1 did not work after landing. The seismometer on Viking Lander 2 demonstrated poor detection rates, with no quakes coming off the ground (as it had remained on the Lander).

To date, we have had no other seismic station on any extraterrestrial planetary body. This makes InSight the first-of-its-kind mission to be placed on Mars. While its design relies on proven technologies from past missions, it is ground-breaking in terms of expected science goals.

Instead of making orbital remote sensing surveys or roving on the surface similar to other rovers, InSight has a different goal to previous Martian missions.

Mars and Earth differ in size, temperature and atmospheric composition. But similar geological features such as craters, volcanoes or canyons can be observed on both planets. This implies that the interior of Mars may be similar to Earth’s.

It is also quite likely that there was liquid water on the surface of ancient Mars, which was the time Mars could have been very similar to Earth. So Mars could answer questions about the ancient habitability of our solar system.

Unlike potentially habitable planets orbiting distant stars, Mars is reachable within our lifetime. Discovering martian crustal properties is of great importance when it comes to planning landing missions and investigating signs of extraterrestrial habitability.

My role in the InSight mission is to work with the science team in analysing the data (impact-induced seismograms and any respective orbital imagery) to work out what kind of impacts had occurred during the mission lifetime.

Katarina Miljkovic, ARC DECRA fellow, Curtin University

Source: space.com

What do Uranus’s cloud tops have in common with rotten eggs?

This blog post is adapted from an article published by the Gemini Observatory.

Even after decades of observations, and a visit by the Voyager 2 spacecraft, Uranus held on to one critical secret: the composition of its clouds. Now, one of the key components has finally been verified.

Professor Patrick Irwin from the University of Oxford’s Department of Physics and global collaborators spectroscopically dissected the infrared light from Uranus captured by the eight-meter Gemini North telescope on Hawaii’s Maunakea. They found hydrogen sulfide, the odiferous gas that most people avoid, in Uranus’s cloud tops. The long-sought evidence is published in the journal Nature Astronomy.

The Gemini data, obtained with the Near-Infrared Integral Field Spectrometer (NIFS), sampled reflected sunlight from a region immediately above the main visible cloud layer in Uranus’s atmosphere. Professor Irwin said: ‘While the lines we were trying to detect were just barely there, we were able to detect them unambiguously thanks to the sensitivity of NIFS on Gemini, combined with the exquisite conditions on Maunakea. Although we knew these lines would be at the edge of detection, I decided to have a crack at looking for them in the Gemini data we had acquired.’

Dr Chris Davis of the United States’ National Science Foundation, a funder of the Gemini telescope, said: ‘This work is a strikingly innovative use of an instrument originally designed to study the explosive environments around huge black holes at the centres of distant galaxies. To use NIFS to solve a longstanding mystery in our own solar system is a powerful extension of its use.’

Astronomers have long debated the composition of Uranus’s clouds and whether hydrogen sulfide or ammonia dominates the cloud deck, but lacked definitive evidence either way. Professor Irwin said: ‘Now, thanks to improved hydrogen sulfide absorption-line data and the wonderful Gemini spectra, we have the fingerprint which caught the culprit.’ The spectroscopic absorption lines (where the gas absorbs some of the infrared light from reflected sunlight) are especially weak and challenging to detect, according to Professor Irwin.

The detection of hydrogen sulfide high in Uranus’s cloud deck (and presumably Neptune’s) contrasts sharply with the inner gas giant planets, Jupiter and Saturn, where no hydrogen sulfide is seen above the clouds, but instead ammonia is observed. The bulk of Jupiter and Saturn’s upper clouds are comprised of ammonia ice, but it seems this is not the case for Uranus. These differences in atmospheric composition shed light on questions about the planets’ formation and history.

Dr Leigh Fletcher, a member of the research team from the University of Leicester, adds that the differences between the cloud decks of the gas giants (Jupiter and Saturn), and the ice giants (Uranus and Neptune), were likely imprinted way back during the birth of these worlds. He said: ‘During our solar system’s formation, the balance between nitrogen and sulphur – and hence ammonia and Uranus’s newly detected hydrogen sulphide – was determined by the temperature and location of planet’s formation.’

Another factor in the early formation of Uranus is the strong evidence that our solar system’s giant planets likely migrated from where they initially formed. Therefore, confirming this composition information is invaluable in understanding Uranus’s birthplace, evolution and refining models of planetary migrations.

According to Dr Fletcher, when a cloud deck forms by condensation, it locks away the cloud-forming gas in a deep internal reservoir, hidden away beneath the levels that we can usually see with our telescopes. He said: ‘Only a tiny amount remains above the clouds as a saturated vapour. And this is why it is so challenging to capture the signatures of ammonia and hydrogen sulfide above cloud decks of Uranus. The superior capabilities of Gemini finally gave us that lucky break.’

Dr Glenn Orton of NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory, another member of the research team, said: ‘We’ve strongly suspected that hydrogen sulfide gas was influencing the millimetre and radio spectrum of Uranus for some time, but we were unable to attribute the absorption needed to identify it positively. Now, that part of the puzzle is falling into place as well.’

While the results set a lower limit to the amount of hydrogen sulfide around Uranus, it is interesting to speculate what the effects would be on humans even at these concentrations. Professor Irwin said: ‘If an unfortunate human were ever to descend through Uranus’s clouds, they would be met with very unpleasant and odiferous conditions. However, suffocation and exposure in the -200C atmosphere made of mostly hydrogen, helium and methane would take its toll long before the smell.’

The new findings indicate that although the atmosphere might be unpleasant for humans, this far-flung world is fertile ground for probing the early history of our solar system and perhaps understanding the physical conditions on other large, icy worlds orbiting the stars beyond our Sun.

Source: ox.ac.uk

Rotten egg smell surrounds Uranus

Seventh planet’s topmost cloud layer is composed of hydrogen sulfide

The giant ice planet Uranus’s clouds smell like rotten eggs, data from the Gemini Observatory in Hawaii has revealed. The gas responsible for the odour, hydrogen sulfide, has been identified as the main component of the planet’s upper cloud layer.

For a long time, scientists were puzzled by Uranus’s continuum microwave adsorption spectrum – it was missing a component that atmospheric models couldn’t account for. Now a team of researchers from the UK, US and France have for the first time unambiguously identified the source of the planet’s spectrum disturbance as hydrogen sulfide.

The team simulated infrared spectra for different gases known to exist on Uranus – methane, hydrogen sulfide and ammonia – and matched them with the observed signals. Only the hydrogen sulfide spectra gave a perfect fit. The team estimates the planet’s cloud tops to contain around 0.5ppm of the smelly gas and lower clouds to be made up mostly of hydrogen sulfide ice.

Only Uranus’s northern polar region didn’t show strong H2S signals, which could either mean the gas is absent from this region or that tropospheric haze masks its spectrum – a question the scientists hope to explore further.

Milky Way’s supermassive black hole may have ‘unseen’ siblings

Astronomers are beginning to understand what happens when black holes get the urge to roam the Milky Way.

Typically, a supermassive black hole (SMBH) exists at the core of a . But sometimes SMBHs may “wander” throughout their , remaining far from the center in regions such as the stellar halo, a nearly spherical area of stars and gas that surrounds the main section of the galaxy.

Astronomers theorize that this phenomenon often occurs as a result of mergers between  in an expanding universe. A smaller galaxy will join with a larger, main galaxy, depositing its own, central SMBH onto a wide orbit within the new host.

In a new study published in the Astrophysical Journal Letters, researchers from Yale, the University of Washington, Institut d’Astrophysique de Paris, and University College London predict that galaxies with a mass similar to the Milky Way should host several supermassive black holes.The team used a new, state-of-the-art cosmological simulation, Romulus, to predict the dynamics of SMBHs within galaxies with better accuracy than previous simulation programs.

“It is extremely unlikely that any wandering  will come close enough to our Sun to have any impact on our solar system,” said lead author Michael Tremmel, a postdoctoral fellow at the Yale Center for Astronomy and Astrophysics. “We estimate that a close approach of one of these wanderers that is able to affect our solar system should occur every 100 billion years or so, or nearly 10 times the age of the universe.”

Tremmel said that since wandering SMBHs are predicted to exist far from the centers of galaxies and outside of galactic disks, they are unlikely to accrete more gas—making them effectively invisible. “We are currently working to better quantify how we might be able to infer their presence indirectly,” Tremmel said.

Co-authors of the study are Fabio Governato, Marta Volonteri, Andrew Pontzen, and Thomas Quinn.

Read more at: phys.org 

Spectacular Lagoon Nebula Glows in Hubble’s 28th Birthday Photos

The NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope was launched into orbit by a space shuttle on April 24, 1990. It was the first space telescope of its kind, and has surpassed all expectations, providing a quarter of a century of discoveries, stunning images and outstanding science. To celebrate its 28th year in orbit, some of Hubble’s precious observation time was used to observe a colossal stellar nursery called the Lagoon Nebula.

The Lagoon Nebula, also known as Messier 8 or NGC 6523, is a vast stellar nursery 55 light-year wide and 20 light-years tall.

Even though it is about 4,000 light-years away from Earth, it is about 3 times larger in the sky than the full Moon. It is even visible to the naked eye in clear, dark skies.

The Lagoon Nebula was first catalogued in 1654 by the Italian astronomer Giovanni Battista Hodierna, who sought to record nebulous objects in the night sky so they would not be mistaken for comets. Since Hodierna’s observations, the stunning nebula has been photographed and analyzed by many telescopes and astronomers all over the world.

Since it is relatively huge on the night sky, Hubble is only able to capture a small fraction of the total nebula. These new images are only about 4 light-years across, but they show stunning details.

The inspiration for Lagoon Nebula’s name may not be immediately obvious in the images. It becomes clearer only in a wider field of view, when the broad, lagoon-shaped dust lane that crosses the glowing gas of the nebula can be made out. These Hubble images, however, depict a scene at the very heart of the nebula.

Like many stellar nurseries, the Lagoon Nebula boasts many large, hot stars. Their UV radiation ionizes the surrounding gas, causing it to shine brightly and sculpting it into ghostly and other-worldly shapes.

The bright star embedded in dark clouds at the center of the images is Herschel 36.

This star is about 200,000 times brighter than our Sun, 32 times more massive and has a surface temperature of 40,000 degrees Kelvin. It is still very active because it is young by a star’s standards, only 1 million years old.

This star-filled image, taken by Hubble in near-infrared wavelengths of light, reveals a very different view of the Lagoon Nebula compared to its visible-light portrait. The observations were taken by Hubble’s Wide Field Camera 3 (WFC3) instrument between February 12 and 18, 2018. Image credit: NASA / ESA / STScI.

This star-filled image, taken by Hubble in near-infrared wavelengths of light, reveals a very different view of the Lagoon Nebula compared to its visible-light portrait. The observations were taken by Hubble’s Wide Field Camera 3 (WFC3) instrument between February 12 and 18, 2018. Image credit: NASA / ESA / STScI.

Herschel 36’s radiation sculpts the surrounding cloud by blowing some of the gas away, creating dense and less dense regions.

Among the sculptures created by this star are two interstellar twisters — eerie, rope-like structures that each measures half a light-year in length.

These features are quite similar to their namesakes on Earth — they are thought to be wrapped into their funnel-like shapes by temperature differences between the hot surfaces and cold interiors of the clouds.

At some point in the future, these clouds will collapse under their own weight and give birth to a new generation of stars.

Hubble observed the Lagoon Nebula not only in visible light but also at infrared wavelengths.

While the observations in the optical allow astronomers to study the gas in full detail, the infrared light cuts through the obscuring patches of dust and gas, revealing the more intricate structures underneath and the young stars hiding within it.

Only by combining optical and infrared data can astronomers paint a complete picture of the ongoing processes in the nebula.

Source: sci-news.com

Hubble Views Distant and Massive Galaxy Cluster

A new image from the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope shows PSZ2 G138.61-10.84, a colossal galaxy cluster located approximately 6 billion light-years away in the constellation of Andromeda.

Clusters of galaxies are the largest stable systems in the Universe.

They are like laboratories for studying the relationship between the distributions of dark and visible matter.

In 1937, Swiss astronomer Fritz Zwicky realized that the visible component of a galaxy cluster — the thousands of millions of stars in each of the thousands of galaxies — represents only a tiny fraction of the total mass.

About 80-85% of the matter is invisible, the so-called ‘dark matter.’

Galaxy clusters are gravitationally dominated by dark matter but also contain vast quantities of hot gas.

This gas cools by emitting X-ray radiation, decreasing its temperature and allowing more gas to flow to the center.

The galaxy at the center of a cluster sits at the center of the dark matter halo, where also the gas density is highest.

Furthermore, these so-called ‘brightest cluster galaxies’ assembled via many mergers of mostly cluster galaxies.

The color image of the massive galaxy cluster PSZ2 G138.61-10.84 was taken by Hubble’s Advanced Camera for Surveys (ACS) and Wide-Field Camera 3 (WFC3) as part of an observing program called Reionization Lensing Cluster Survey(RELICS).

RELICS imaged 41 giant galaxy clusters over the course of 390 Hubble orbits, aiming to find the brightest distant galaxies.

Studying these galaxies in more detail with both current telescopes and the forthcoming NASA/ESA/CSA James Webb Space Telescope will hopefully tell us more about our cosmic origins.

Source: sci-news.com