Impact of Mobile Access to the Internet on Sales Completion Time in e-Commerce: Recent Advances and Development

E-commerce is being transformed into mcommerce with the help of a new generation of mobile devices. While traditional fixed PC Internet access is still important, mobile Internet access appears to be attracting more customers due to its flexibility. The purpose of this research is to create and test a mathematical model that captures how mobile internet access affects e-commerce. efficiency The original paper by Sumita and Yoshii [1] has been improved for more realism. Traditional ecommerce requires a fixed PC, whereas m-commerce allows for both fixed and mobile access. It is possible to derive explicit distributions of the number of items purchased by time t and the time required to sell K products. Numerical examples are used to illustrate the behavioral differences between m-commerce and regular e-commerce users.

Author(s) Details

Prof. Ushio Sumita
Graduate School of Systems and Information Engineering, University of Tsukuba, #Tennoudai 1-1-1, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305- 8573, Japan.

Dr. Jun Yoshii
Graduate School of Systems and Information Engineering, University of Tsukuba, #Tennoudai 1-1-1, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305- 8573, Japan.

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Device to Device Mobile Communication with Novel Key Exchange Protocol

The model decomposition and iteration techniques in Stochastic Petri Nets (SPNs) are used to derive its approximate steady state solution, which is used to obtain the approximate performance metrics of D2D communications in terms of average queue length, mean throughput, average packet delay, and packet dropping probability of each link. Simulations are carried out to validate the analytical results under various traffic loads and interference conditions. The protocol we’re using here is the Novel Key Exchange Protocol. The goal of this technique is to present advancements on the current 3GPP LTEadvanced system in terms of Device-to-Device communication (D2D).

Author(s) Details

S. M. Asha Banu
Department of Electronics and Communication Engineering, Sri Krishna College of Engineering and Technology, Coimbatore, India.

Professor D. Mohana Geetha
Sri Krishna College of Engineering and Technology, Coimbatore, India.

Dr. V. Nandalal
Department of Electronics and Communication Engineering, Sri Krishna College of Engineering and Technology, Coimbatore, India.

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The Evaluation of Cloud Feedback at Local Scale either Cooling or Warming

Clouds have an impact on the climate in both positive and negative ways. In Logan, Utah, USA, a radiation station with two CM21 Kipp & Zonen pyranometers (one inverted) and two CG1 Kipp & Zonen pyrgeometers (one inverted) was set up to study these effects at the local scale. CV2 four The pyranometers and pyrgeometers were ventilated using Kipp & Zonen ventilation systems. The ventilation of pyranometers and pyrgeometers prevents the accumulation of dew, frost, and snow. would otherwise disrupt the measurement. Knowing that available energy (Rn) as Rn = Rsi - Rso + Rli- Rlo where Rsi and Rso are downward and upward solar radiation, respectively, and Rli and Rlo as atmospheric and terrestrial, respectively, on a daily and annual basis, the consequences of cloudiness were assessed. The findings indicate that for the partly cloudy days of 4 and 5 September, 2007, cloudiness caused less available energy (Rn) in the amounts of -1.83 MJ·m-2·d-1 and -3.83 MJ·m-2·d-1 on these days, respectively. Because of the cloudiness at the experimental site, as illustrated,, the net radiation loss was 2,804 - 4,055 = -1,251 MJ·m-2·y-1, As a result of the cloudiness, this implies a negative feedback.

Author(s) Details

Dr. Esmaiel Malek
Department of Applied Aviation Science, Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University, 600 S. Clyde Morris Boulevard, Daytona Beach, FL 32114-3900, USA.

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The Case Study of Forest Bioenergy as a Method for the Application of Stratified Random Sampling with Optimum Allocation

A methodology analysis was conducted in this paper for the application of stratified random sampling with optimum allocation in the case of a research topic involving the rural population and exhibiting high differentiations among the three strata into which this population could be classified. The rural population of Evros Prefecture (Greece) was divided into three strata based on the mean altitude of settlements in order to estimate the mean consumption of forest fuelwood for heating and cooking needs in these three strata. In this study, the quantitative variable used to form strata is family income, which is referred to as a factor. With this stratification, we expect greater homogeneity within the strata, requiring a smaller sample size and making stratified random sampling more cost effective than simple random sampling. The analysis of this methodology includes the following steps: a) determining the total size of the sample for the entire rural population and allocating it to the various strata; b) investigating the effectiveness of stratification using the technique of analysis of variance (One-Way ANOVA); c) conducting sampling research with the realization of face-to-face interviews in selected households; and d) the conclusion. SPSS for Windows, a statistical package for social sciences, was used to analyze the data from the questionnaire. All data for this methodology’s analysis and practical application were gathered through pilot sampling in each stratum. A review of the literature yielded no relevant papers.

Author(s) Details

M. N. Tsatiris
Department of Forestry and Management of the Environment and Natural Resources, Democritus University of Thrace, 193 Pantazidou Street, 68200, Orestiada, Greece.

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A Brief Overview of Gbagyi Beyekpe (Education) and Imperialism in Minna 1928 – 1960

The current chapter examined Gbagyi Beyekpe (education) and imperialism in Minna from 1928 to 1960. The Gbagyi in Minna first came into contact with imperialism in the early twentieth century. As a result of the Gbagyi’s interaction with imperial power, a new system of knowledge replaced the Gbagyi’s Beyekpe (education), which was a process of educating children and every individual for happy and productive living, as well as creating the Gbagyi individual who will be honest, responsible, and loyal. skilled, cooperative, and obedient to the day’s social order This new order, which was explicitly intended to restructure the social pattern of the Gbagyi and his society, began in 1928 and had replaced the Gbagyi Beyekpe by 1960. (education). According to the study, this development ushered in the dependency syndrome that defined Gbagyi modernity and continues to impede Gbagyi and his Minna society’s evolution. The paper demonstrated the impact of this alien knowledge system on the Gbagyi in Minna and argued for a redefinition of the Gbagyi knowledge system that differs from the western educational tradition, which emphasizes superiority as a measure of educational attainment.

Author(s) Details

Idris, Abubakar Zakari
Department of History, Bayero University Kano, Kano State, Nigeria.

Umar, Alhaji Bako
Department of History, University of Maiduguri, Borno State, Nigeria.

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A Comparative Study between Laser Beam Ceilometer and Algorithm for Continuous Evaluation of Cloud Base Height, Temperature, and Cloud Coverage in Logan City, USA

This article discusses how pyrgeometers, pyranometers, and some basic weather parameters can be used to evaluate cloud base height, cloud base temperature, and cloud coverage at the local scale throughout the year. Ground-based laser beam ceilometers are used at Automated Surface Observing Systems (ASOS) in major airports in the United States to measure cloud base height and report sky conditions hourly or at shorter intervals. These are fixed-type laser ceilometers, with transmitters and receivers pointing straight up at the cloud (if any) base. They can’t detect clouds that aren’t directly above the sensor. Many of these are used to report cloudiness at the local scale. Various types of ceilometers are required. A single cloud hanging over the sensor will result in overcast readings, whereas a hole in the clouds above the sensor may result in a clear reading. To address this issue, we have operated a ventilated radiation station at Logan – Cache Airport in Utah, United States of America, since 1995. This airport has one of the above-mentioned ceilometers. Throughout the year, this radiation station (composed of pyranometers and pyrgeometers with fields of view of 150o) and net radiometer provide continuous measurements of incoming and outgoing shortwave and longwave radiation, as well as net radiation. Taking into account the additional longwave radiation captured by the facing-up pyrgeometer during cloudy skies, which comes from the cloud in the wave band (8-13 m) that gaseous emission lacks, we developed an algorithm that provides continuous cloud information (cloud base height, cloud base temperature, and percent of skies covered by cloud) at the local scale throughout the day and night. This article reports on comparisons between ASOS and model data for the month of June, 2004. The proposed algorithm is a promising approach for evaluating cloud base temperature and height, as well as the percentage of the sky covered by cloud and its effects on aviation throughout the year. With enough pyrgeometers and surface weather parameters, the study can be expanded to a regional scale for continuous cloud evaluation.

Author(s) Details

Dr. Esmaiel Malek
Department of Applied Sciences, Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University, Worldwide Campus, 1 Aerospace Boulevard, Daytona Beach, FL 32114Port Orange, Florida, United States.

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Does Mechanical Damage on Soybean Induces the Production of Flavonoids?

Plants respond to grazing by producing chemical defense compounds such as protease inhibitors and secondary metabolites such as flavonoids, making them less palatable for feeding and negatively affecting the physiology of insects. The purpose of this study was to assess the phytochemical response of soybean cultivars Glycine max resistant (IAC-17, IAC-24) and susceptible (IAC-P1) to insects after mechanical damage. These cultivars were mechanically injured, and after 24 HPLC was used to identify and quantify flavonoids in plant samples for several hours. The flavonoids daidzein, quercetin, and rutin were measured, with daidzin having the highest concentration. soybean cultivars after mechanical damage. Rutin was biosynthesized by IAC-24. The cultivars IACPL1, IAC-17, and IAC-24 did not show a flavonoid response to mechanical damage. Flavonoids are not produced by mechanical damage in soybean cultivars.

Author(s) Details

Neilier Rodrigues da Silva Júnior
Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Laboratory of Enzymology, Protein and Peptide Biochemistry, BIOAGRO/INCT-IPP, Universidade Federal de Viçosa, Viçosa, Brazil.

Rafael Almeida Barros
Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Laboratory of Enzymology, Protein and Peptide Biochemistry, BIOAGRO/INCT-IPP, Universidade Federal de Viçosa, Viçosa, Brazil.

Yaremis Beatriz Meriño-Cabrera
Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Laboratory of Enzymology, Protein and Peptide Biochemistry, BIOAGRO/INCT-IPP, Universidade Federal de Viçosa, Viçosa, Brazil.

Maria Goreti de Almeida Oliveira
Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Laboratory of Enzymology, Protein and Peptide Biochemistry, BIOAGRO/INCT-IPP, Universidade Federal de Viçosa, Viçosa, Brazil.

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Research on Automatic Crack Detection for Concrete Infrastructures Using Image Processing and Deep Learning

Automatic crack detection is a critical task in the generation of a crack map for existing concrete infrastructure inspection. This paper describes an automatic crack detection and classification method based on a genetic algorithm (GA) for optimizing image processing technique parameters (IPTs). Under various complex photometric conditions, the crack detection results of concrete infrastructure surface images remain noise pixels. Following that, a deep convolution neural network (CNN) method is used to automatically classify crack candidates and non-crack candidates. Furthermore, the proposed method is compared to state-of-the-art crack detection methods. The experimental results validate the reasonable accuracy in practice. The final goal was to create a crack map, which necessitated automatic pixel-level accuracy.

Author(s) Details

Cuong Nguyen Kim
Faculty of Highway & Bridge, Mien Trung of Civil Engineering, Vietnam.

Kei Kawamura
Graduate School of Science & Technology for Innovation, Yamaguchi University, Japan.

Hideaki Nakamura
Graduate School of Science & Technology for Innovation, Yamaguchi University, Japan.

Amir Tarighat
Department of Civil Engineering, Shahid Rajaee Teacher Training University, Iran.

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Assessment of Atmospheric Metal Pollution Biomonitoring Potential by Neem Tree (Azadirachta indica) Leaves in Katsina Metropolitan Area of Katsina State, Nigeria

Trace metal concentrations in plants and animals have been used as an indicator of environmental monitoring. Heavy metals from the soil primarily enter plants through the root system. In general, plant roots are the most important site for chemical uptake from soil. The leaves of the neem tree (Azadirachta indica) were used as a bio-indicator in this study to track trace metal levels in Katsina. Leaves were collected from four locations in Katsina metropolis: Site A, Site B, Site C, and Site D. (Katsina Steel Rolling Round-about), Sites B (Kofar Kwaya Roundabout), C (Kofar Yandaka Roundabout), and D (Kofar Yandaka Roundabout) (Army Barrack, Natsinta). Using an atomic absorption spectrophotometer, the samples were tested for iron, manganese, copper, lead, cobalt, chromium, nickel, and zinc (AAS). The average results from the four sites showed relatively high levels of iron [93.44 gg–1], manganese [28.97 gg–1], and zinc [13.28 gg–1] over chromium [8.07 gg–1], cobalt [5.79 gg–1], lead [2.50 gg–1], nickel [2.13 gg–1], and copper [1.70 gg–1]. [gg–1] Iron concentrations were also found to be significantly related to distance from the Steel Rolling Company. Site A had the highest metal loading, while Site D had the lowest. The results also showed a slight correlation between the metal concentration and the distance of each site from the source of contamination (Steel Rolling Company)- Iron has the highest level among the trace metals analyzed, while copper has the lowest. According to the findings, the trace metal burden in Katsina and its environs does not pose an immediate threat to residents or other lives.

Author(s) Details

A. Fowotade Sulayman
Department of Science Laboratory Technology, College of Science and Technology, Hussaini Adamu Federal Polytechnic, Kazaure, Nigeria.

Hamisu Abdu
Department of Polymer Technology, College of Science and Technology, Hussaini Adamu Federal Polytechnic, Kazaure, Nigeria.

A. Abdullah Saidu
Department of Science Laboratory Technology, College of Science and Technology, Hussaini Adamu Federal Polytechnic, Kazaure, Nigeria.

Fadhila Ahmad
Department of Science Laboratory Technology, College of Science and Technology, Hussaini Adamu Federal Polytechnic, Kazaure, Nigeria.

J. Zainab Suleiman
Department of Science Laboratory Technology, College of Science and Technology, Hussaini Adamu Federal Polytechnic, Kazaure, Nigeria.

Saleh, Isyaku
Department of Polymer Technology, College of Science and Technology, Hussaini Adamu Federal Polytechnic, Kazaure, Nigeria.

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Increase in Incidence of Spontaneous Combustion of the Skies, Forest Fires, Oil Tanker Vessel Fires, Earth Bursting, Death by Poisonous Gases, Increase in Stinging Insects, Wasps Accomplished by Global Contraception, Abortion, Eradication of Human Race with Putrefaction of Countless Aborted Fetuses

Spontaneous combustion of skies, resulting in forest fires, earth bursting, and sewage tank cleaners dying from toxic gas inhalation, is becoming more common; in the last decade, newer varieties of creeping, flying insects of larger size with stings have been observed. As a result, an altruistic analysis is performed based on observation and correlation with pathogenesis. For the past 15 years, an analysis of the above incidence has been conducted in relation to global contraception abortion implementation. Mortality from all causes was studied in 350 people divided into two groups: those with and those without. contraception, who were randomly selected from the community and hospital and were separated into three age groups: 20-35 years, >35 years, and >50 years. Over the last decade, there has been a 4-9 fold increase in spontaneous combustion of the skies, resulting in forest fires, earth breaking with explosion, connected with tsunami, death of sewage tank cleaners, and the introduction of newer insects.4-7 fold increase in mortality [p value<0.0005] was noticed, for contracepted couples among 20- >50 years 863,000,000 reported surgical abortions till 2010 1; 1989,375,754 women of reproductive age group Due to small family norms, forcibly declining fertility rates; global hypoxia 3 of air, water secondary to aborted blood, contraceptive menstrual blood pollution depleting oxygen, which cannot be replaced by plants, unlike mandatory live humans with their emissions, of God-ordained self-sustaining ecology, leads to lakhs of fish, water living washed ashore dead, The concept is an intentionally acquired aetiology of innumerable contraception, abortion, as described above, destroys human lives, water living, birds, living organisms, and enables massive putrefaction in the bodies of millions of aborted foetuses and millions of contracepted young parents with acquired early demise like flies, contracepted menstrual and aborted blood, releasing toxic gases in the environment. With spontaneous combustion of the skies or combustion with associated thunder lightning resulting in increased thunder bolt struck mortality unexplained forest fire, oil tanker vessel fire and emergence of stinging newer larger insects, mites, wasps; how much more will not the toxic gases of putrefaction swirl up the oceanic bed producing hiked up waves, split, rupture Waste food items in nature are degraded with their excreta to produce biogas, bio methane that can be used to fuel a car or supply energy, a reminder of God’s designed self-sustaining ecosystem that exists to sustain the living, creation, which is agonizingly disturbed by achieving contraception, abortion – i.e. acquired profound mortality [death, diseases] in the name of family welfare, specially  fetuses, children and young parents.

Author(s) Details

Elizabeth JeyaVardhini Samuel
Karpagam Faculty of Medical Sciences and Research, Karunya University, Coimbatore, TamilNadu, India.

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