Handbook of Pain & Palliative Approach in Cancer

The prevention and management of cancer are significant health concerns. Cancer treatment has broader importance nowadays. Cancer is not limited to humans and higher mammals, but affects nearly all species, plants and animals that are multicellular. Palliative Care is an approach that enhances the quality of life of patients and their families facing the issue of life-threatening disease, through the prevention and relief of distress through early diagnosis, impeccable evaluation, treatment of pain and other issues, physical, psychosocial and spiritual. In the Scottish Intercollegiate National Guidelines, the most detailed analysis of the evidence basis of palliative medicine pain treatment can be found, grief is likely to persist for a long time and can recur in a changed form, stimulated by anniversaries, potential losses or other reminders. The experience of grief is likely to alter people, but most find, with time, that they are able to work well and enjoy life again. There are many different kinds of pain, including surgery-induced pain, injury, nerve damage, and conditions such as diabetes. By using drugs administered by mouth or targeted injections, it often addresses pain that does not have a specific cause. In terms of finding meaning, reason, and relation to a higher force, spirituality is an aspect of one’s existence, and it helps the person to work effectively towards his or her life goal. Spirituality is believed to be an important element that provides a framework for cancer patients to derive hope and meaning from diagnosis through care, survival, recurrence, and dying to cope with their disease, and it could serve as a protective buffer for the worsening impacts of life stress and illness. A compatible primary provider is difficult to find. Choices about insurance are frustrating. There are daunting hospitals. It’s frightening to be sick. Yet he is his best advocate when it comes to the welfare of the patient, so he has to take charge. The key difference between palliative care and hospice care is that palliative care can start at any point in the continuum of cancer care, but hospice care starts when curative treatment is no longer the priority of care and quality of life is the primary focus. The end-of-life period usually lasts from a matter of days to a couple of weeks when body systems shut down and death is inevitable. Some patients die calmly and kindly, while others appear to be struggling against the inevitable. In this method, telling your loved one that it is okay to die will benefit both of you. Hydration choices, breathing assistance, and other treatments should be compatible with the wishes of your loved one.

Author(s) Details

Amit Kumar Dutta
Amity Institute of Biotechnology, Amity University Jharkhand, Ranchi, India.

Sanjukta Badhei
Former HOD (Chemistry), Assistant Professor, Vikash Group of Institutions, Odisha, India.

View Book :- https://bp.bookpi.org/index.php/bpi/catalog/book/372

Latest Research News on Social Relationship : July – 2020

Categories of social relationship

The study of social relationships lies at the heart of the social sciences, but our understanding of the cognitive structures that support them has received little attention. This paper develops an account of the form and content of these structures, arguing that social relationships are represented by a small number of categories, rather than by dimensions as proposed by others. Taxometric analyses demonstrated that categories proposed by Fiske (1991) are truly discrete, controverting dimensional representation and one possible form of protype structure. The categories appear to combine in the specification of actually existing social relationships, and are more informative, or “basic”, then colloquial relationship categories. [1]

Social relationship and its role in knowledge management systems usage

The KMS has been widely implemented in organizations. However, its availability does not guarantee that employees have been willing to spend time and effort using it. We explored the use of KMS with emphasis on social relationship. Specifically, social capital theory was employed to establish the social relationship construct and its three dimensions: tie strength, shared norms, and trust. By studying a company that had implemented a KMS, we explored the dimensions of social relationship and its importance in the use of a KMS by employees. A theoretical framework was used to depict the antecedents of employee’s usage behavior. Implications for both researchers and practitioners are discussed, especially for companies expecting to exploit knowledge sharing in the Chinese business environment. [2]


Enhancing group recommendation by incorporating social relationship interactions

Group recommendation, which makes recommendations to a group of users instead of individuals, has become increasingly important in both the workspace and people’s social activities, such as brainstorming sessions for coworkers and social TV for family members or friends. Group recommendation is a challenging problem due to the dynamics of group memberships and diversity of group members. Previous work focused mainly on the content interests of group members and ignored the social characteristics within a group, resulting in suboptimal group recommendation performance.

In this work, we propose a group recommendation method that utilizes both social and content interests of group members. We study the key characteristics of groups and propose (1) a group consensus function that captures the social, expertise, and interest dissimilarity among multiple group members; and (2) a generic framework that automatically analyzes group characteristics and constructs the corresponding group consensus function. Detailed user studies of diverse groups demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed techniques, and the importance of incorporating both social and content interests in group recommender systems. [3]

Social Relationship Attitudes of Student-athletes toward Heterosexual, Gay, and Lesbian Peers in Taiwan

This study investigated Taiwanese student-athletes’ social relationship attitudes toward heterosexual, gay, and lesbian peers in Taiwan. Participants were 192 male and 156 female heterosexual student-athletes from a sports university in Taiwan. The Social Relationship Attitudes toward Heterosexual/Gay/Lesbian Peers scales were used to measure participants’ attitudes toward their peers with different sexual orientations. The results indicate that Taiwanese heterosexual student–athletes’ social relationship attitudes toward peers are dependent on both student gender and the sexual orientation of the target. Male student-athletes’ social relationship attitudes toward gays and lesbians are more negative compared to female student-athletes across personal, societal, and moral domains. Both male and female student-athletes’ social relationship attitudes toward gays are more negative compared to their attitudes toward lesbians in the personal and societal domains. Male student-athletes indicate lower sympathy scores for gays than for lesbians. Females show no difference in their sympathy scores for peers with different sexual orientations. [4]


A Close Look at the Importance of Social Support on Relationship Quality and Social Commerce

Rapid development of web2 and social network sites has lead to develop an evolution in e-commerce, which is called social commerce .In social commerce consumers have opportunities to  share their knowledge about products and services and create a friendly and supporting online environment. This study draw on social support and relationship quality theories considered a model to examine the relationship between social support, relationship quality and social commerce intention. In this regard, after reviewing the relevant literature, a proper research model selected as the research model. A questionnaire of 22 items adapted from previous literature applied to data collecting. Then they were conducted on two popular social network users in Iran named Facebook and Telegram. The questionnaires were distributed among 384 volunteers to fill out. Pearson correlation analysis method and partial least square were applied to test the model. The results revealed the direct relations between social support, relationship quality and social commerce intention. The research findings emphasize on the importance of social interactions in  social commerce and encourage firms and sellers to adopt innovation and serve social networks in their business. [5]


[1] Haslam, N., 1994. Categories of social relationship. Cognition, 53(1), pp.59-90.

[2] He, W., Qiao, Q. and Wei, K.K., 2009. Social relationship and its role in knowledge management systems usage. Information & Management, 46(3), pp.175-180.

[3] Gartrell, M., Xing, X., Lv, Q., Beach, A., Han, R., Mishra, S. and Seada, K., 2010, November. Enhancing group recommendation by incorporating social relationship interactions. In Proceedings of the 16th ACM international conference on Supporting group work (pp. 97-106).

[4] Chang, T.-S., Hsu, W.-T. and Wang, T.-W. (2016) “Social Relationship Attitudes of Student-athletes toward Heterosexual, Gay, and Lesbian Peers in Taiwan”, Journal of Education, Society and Behavioural Science, 16(3), pp. 1-11. doi: 10.9734/BJESBS/2016/26239.

[5] Kamangarpoor, S. and Shahmoradi, B. (2017) “A Close Look at the Importance of Social Support on Relationship Quality and Social Commerce”, Journal of Economics, Management and Trade, 16(4), pp. 1-11. doi: 10.9734/BJEMT/2017/30606.

Latest Research News on Capital Territory : July – 2020

 Hospital system costs of artificial infant feeding: estimates for the Australian Capital Territory

Objective : To estimate the attributable ACT hospital system costs of treating selected infant and childhood illnesses having known associations with early weaning from human milk.

Method : We identified relative risks of infant and childhood morbidity associated with exposure to artificial feeding in the early months of life vs breastfeeding from cohort studies cited by the American Academy of Pediatrics in 1997 as establishing the protective effect of breastfeeding. Data for ACT breastfeeding prevalence is assessed from a 1997 prospective population‐based cohort study of 1,295 women. ACT Hospital Morbidity Data and DRG treatment costs were used to estimate the attributable fraction of costs of hospitalisation for gastrointestinal illness, respiratory illness and otitis media, eczema, and necrotising enterocolitis.

Results : Although initiation rates were high (92%), less than one in 10 ACT infants are exclusively breastfed for the recommended six months, mainly due to supplementation or weaning on to formula within the first three months and the early introduction of solids by breastfeeding mothers. This study suggests the attributable hospitalisation costs of early weaning in the ACT are about $1 ‐2 million a year for the five illnesses.

Conclusions and implications : Early weaning from breast milk is associated with significant hospital costs for treatment of gastrointestinal illness, respiratory illness and otitis media, eczema, and necrotising enterocolitis These costs are minimum estimates of the cost of early weaning as they exclude numerous other chronic or common illnesses and out‐of‐hospital health care costs. Higher rates of exclusive breastfeeding would reduce these costs. Interventions to protect and support breastfeeding are likely to be cost‐effective for the public health system. [1]

Aged care services for Indigenous people in the Australian Capital Territory and surrounds:analysing needs and implementing change

Objective: To ascertain and meet current and anticipated needs for residential care and other services by older Indigenous people in the Australian Capital Territory (ACT) and region.

Methods: With advice from a reference group, qualitative and quantitative data were gathered from 98 older (45 years and over) Indigenous people in the ACT and region during 1999/2000. Indigenous and non‐Indigenous researchers worked closely throughout all phases of the research. We helped participants with immediate problems identified during the interviews and worked directly with the Government funding body to implement the findings.

Results: No one expressed a current need for residential services. In terms of future needs, 50% of respondents favoured an arrangement where an existing mainstream provider of aged care accommodated a cluster of Indigenous people in the same facility as non‐Indigenous people. Thirty‐two per cent preferred an Indigenous‐run organisation. Our study also revealed a broad range of health problems and needs. Assessment using the Resident Classification Scale showed that 70% required a low level of care and 4% needed a high level of care.

Conclusion: The research identified the needs and provided a health profile of older Indigenous people in the ACT and region. This then provided policymakers with evidence on which they acted to provide appropriate aged care services.

Implications: Collaboration between Indigenous and non‐Indigenous researchers can access high‐quality information, and partnership between researchers and policymakers can improve Indigenous services. [2]

A Geoid for the Australian Capital Territory

AUSGEOID93 is a national grid of geoid-ellipsoid separations (N values). When differences in N from AUSGEOID93 are subtracted from differences in ellipsoidal height from GPS surveys, the resulting differences in orthometric height frequently approach 3rd Order levelling accuracy. However, in areas of rapid changing terrain, the results may be less accurate. It was believed that this was due to the absence of terrain data in AUSGEOID93.

The ACT region was chosen to test this hypothesis and at the same time produce a grid of improved N values approximately 4 times denser than AUSGEOID93. [3]

Baseline Measurement of Natural Radioactivity in Soil, Vegetation and Water in the Industrial District of the Federal Capital Territory (FCT) Abuja, Nigeria

Natural radioactivity in environmental samples (soil, vegetation and water) from the (Idu) industrial district of Federal Capital Territory (FCT) Abuja, Nigeria was measured by means of gamma-ray spectrometer with NaI (Tl) detector to establish a baseline data for activity concentration of 40K, 226Ra and 232Th. The highest activity concentration of 40K, 226Ra and 232Th were found in soil collected from location S2 (943.1 Bq/kg), in vegetation VC (82.3 Bq/kg) and in soil collected from location S3 (107.3 Bq/kg), respectively, where only the activity from S2 is higher than the world average of 420 Bq/kg and the highest activity concentrations of both 226Ra and 232Th from VC (82.3 Bq/kg) is above the world average of 50 Bq/kg (UNSCEAR, 2000). Results from the twelve field samples analysed also indicated that the activity concentration due to 40K in the soil samples ranked highest against the lowest value obtained for sediments in the water samples. [4]

Role of Entrepreneurial Orientation in the Performance of Small and Medium Enterprises: Evidence from Federal Capital Territory, Abuja, Nigeria

This study investigated the role of entrepreneurial orientation in the performance of Small and Medium Enterprises in FCT, Abuja, Nigeria. The study employed a descriptive and quantitative research design. The instrument for data collection was structured questionnaire and works on entrepreneurial orientation-Performance nexus. The data was analyzed using the Principal Component Analysis and multiple linear regression analysis. The results showed that five entrepreneurial orientation dimensions as identified in the literature were not exhibited by SMEs in the study area. The entrepreneurial orientation dimensions exhibited by SMEs in Abuja in order of importance were: autonomy, proactiveness, innovativeness, and risk-taking. The entrepreneurial dimension of competitive aggressiveness was not demonstrated by SMEs in Abuja.  Innovativeness was the only entrepreneurial orientation dimension out of the five that exerted a positive and statistically significant relationship with the performance of SMEs. However, the other three dimensions of entrepreneurial orientation: proactiveness, risk-taking, and autonomy exerted a positive and insignificant relationship with the performance of SMEs.  Therefore, the study, recommends that to add values to their firms, SMEs operators in Abuja need to be innovative in their entrepreneurial activities with emphasis on process and radical innovations. In addition, considering the enabling environment provided by the government for business, SMEs operators should strive and build capacities on the four entrepreneurial orientation dimensions demonstrated by them in this study. Furthermore, the government should organize training for SMEs operators in collaboration with development partners to ensure the adoption and effective implementation of innovativeness in FCT, Abuja. [5]


[1] Smith, J.P., Thompson, J.F. and Ellwood, D.A., 2002. Hospital system costs of artificial infant feeding: estimates for the Australian Capital Territory. Australian and New Zealand journal of public health, 26(6), pp.543-551.

[2] Dance, P., Brown, R., Bammer, G. and Sibthorpe, B., 2004. Aged care services for indigenous people in the Australian Capital territory and surrounds: analysing needs and implementing change. Australian and New Zealand journal of public health, 28(6), pp.579-583.

[3] Freund, K.A., Steed, J. and Kearsley, A.H.W., 1997. A geoid for the Australian Capital Territory. Australian surveyor, 42(1), pp.25-32.

[4] Umar, A., Onimisi, M. and Jonah, S. (2012) “Baseline Measurement of Natural Radioactivity in Soil, Vegetation and Water in the Industrial District of the Federal Capital Territory (FCT) Abuja, Nigeria”, Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, 2(3), pp. 266-274. doi: 10.9734/BJAST/2012/1467.

[5] U. Duru, I., O. Ehidiamhen, P. and N. J. Chijioke, A. (2018) “Role of Entrepreneurial Orientation in the Performance of Small and Medium Enterprises: Evidence from Federal Capital Territory, Abuja, Nigeria”, Asian Journal of Economics, Business and Accounting, 6(1), pp. 1-21. doi: 10.9734/AJEBA/2018/39748.

Latest News on Gender Studies : July – 2020

Women’s and Gender Studies in English-Speaking Sub-Saharan Africa: A Review of Research in the Social Sciences

This article seeks to broaden understanding of issues and controversies addressed in social science research on women’s and gender studies by researchers and activists based in English-speaking sub-Saharan Africa. The topics covered were selected from those ratified by African women in the Africa Platform for Action in 1995 as well as from current debates on the politics of identity. The common feminist issues the authors identified were health; gender-based violence; sexuality, education, globalization and work; and politics, the state, and nongovernmental organizations. In addition, the authors address theoretical and methodological trends. All four coauthors are feminist sociologists: One scholar is based in an African academic institution, two are Africans based in U.S. academic institutions, and one is an African American based in a U.S. academic institution. [1]

Theorizing Women’s Studies Gender Studies and Masculinity: The Politics of Naming

This paper theorizes the relationship between women’s studies and gender studies and will explore the increasing use of the category ‘gender’ to analyse sexual divisions and the related growth of gender studies courses. It will also examine the creation of ‘men’s studies’ courses and an increasing emphasis on the deconstruction of masculinity within social theory. A number of questions are raised around these shifts and changes. Should we welcome them because they broaden the scope of theoretical enquiry, encompassing both female and male experience, and further the institutionalization of gender issues within the academy? Or should we be critical of such developments because they may lead to a narrower political and theoretical agenda in terms of analyses of women’s experience?

Abrahami-Einat, Judith (1993) ‘Cultural Differences and their Effect on Different Programmes of Women’s Studies’, paper given at the KEGME/UNESCO International Seminar ‘Gender Studies Towards The Year 2000’ , Athens, 2-5 June 1993. [2]

Is the ‘F’-word still dirty? A past, present and future of/for feminist and gender studies in Organization

This article looks back at 20 years of feminist/gender theory in Organization. In these years a very rich variety of articles has drawn on feminist and gender perspectives. This suggests that Organization is a welcome site for exploring feminist and gender theories and their contribution to critical analysis of organizations. However, the more theoretically sophisticated work that is to be found in feminist and gender studies has not yet been explored in much depth. There is unfilled potential here. The article looks forward to the next decade by discussing a small selection from the treasure house of feminist theorists and concerns that could offer rich insights for management and organization theory. There are many others; this discussion introduces theorists who will be new to some readers, and might provoke more general interest in feminist thought. [3]

Gender Variation Studies in Dermatoglyphic Patterns (Level 2 Details) of the Ikwerre Ethnic Group in Rivers State, Nigeria

Background to the Study: Dermatoglyphics have had several definitions but each boils down to a simple sentence ‘act, process or science of studying ridge patterns on the skin of the palm, fingers, foot and toes of primates. So much have been done on this area from the inception of the study till date. One of it is the ethnohistoric facts that can be obtained from dermatoglyphics and most recently its usefulness in tracing ancestry. There are lots of works on dermatoglyphics at level 1 details only last year we had a study on level 2 details which goes as far as revealing the uniqueness of such individuals or group of people under study.

Aims: This study was aimed at establishing whether there is a variation in gender at level 2 details in the dermatoglyphic patterns of the Ikwerre people of Rivers State, Nigeria.

Study Design:  A Non-experimental analytical design.

Place and Duration of Study: Department of Anatomy, University of Port Harcourt between March 2016 and August 2016.

Methodology: 100 subjects were used for the study which comprised 58 males and 42 females. The data was captured using the standard electronic scanner device and classified into the 10 different patterns at level 2 details. The various patterns types: bifurcation, trifurcation, ridge ending, bridge, lake, double bifurcation, island, dot, ridge crossing and opposed bifurcation were counted with the aid of a laptop zooming tool for a clearer view. Data analysis was done using z-test of proportionality.

Results: Males had the following distributions: Ridge ending 33.8%, Opposed bifurcation 2.6%, Bridge 3.1%, Lake (enclosure) 7.2% Bifurcation 43.9%, Double bifurcation 1.2%, Dot 2.5%, Trifurcation 2.2%, Island 1.4% Ridge crossing 2.1% while the females had the following: Ridge ending 10.6%, Opposed bifurcation 2.9%, Bridge 2.4%, Lake (enclosure) 9.9%, Bifurcation 51.8%, Double bifurcation 2.2%, Dot 5.9%, Trifurcation 8.2%, Island 2.9%, Ridge crossing 3.2%.

Conclusion: The results have revealed the distribution/ prevalence of the level 2 details  of the dermatoglyphic patterns seen in the Ikwerre people and have also shown that there was sexual dimorphism in the distribution of these patterns. On comparison, there was a statistical significant difference (p=.05) between the distribution of patterns in the males and females. [4]

A Survey of Gender Representation in Social Studies Textbooks of Ethiopian Primary Schools

This study was an attempt to investigate and analyze gender representation in second cycle (grade 5-8) primary schools Social Studies textbooks. For this purpose, four Social Studies textbooks which are in use in grades 5, 6, 7, and 8 were investigated thoroughly. The content analysis method was employed. The results revealed that there is no fair representation of females and males in some gender related characteristics. The supremacy of males over females was observed in terms of names (X2 = 122.64, df = 1, p< 0.05) and pronouns (X2 = 46.76, df = 1, p<0.05) and it was suggested that reconsideration Should be made in revising and/or producing new textbooks, if necessary, in the future. [5]


[1] Ampofo, A.A., Beoku-Betts, J., Njambi, W.N. and Osirim, M., 2004. Women’s and gender studies in English-speaking sub-Saharan Africa: A review of research in the social sciences. Gender & Society, 18(6), pp.685-714.

[2] Richardson, D. and Robinson, V., 1994. Theorizing Women’s Studies Gender Studies and Masculinity: The Politics of Naming. European Journal of Women’s Studies, 1(1), pp.11-27.

[3] Harding, N., Ford, J. and Fotaki, M., 2013. Is the ‘F’-word still dirty? A past, present and future of/for feminist and gender studies in Organization. Organization, 20(1), pp.51-65.

[4] Paul, C. W. and Paul, J. N. (2017) “Gender Variation Studies in Dermatoglyphic Patterns (Level 2 Details) of the Ikwerre Ethnic Group in Rivers State, Nigeria”, Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, 19(2), pp. 1-8. doi: 10.9734/JPRI/2017/29243.

[5] Dejene, W. (2017) “A Survey of Gender Representation in Social Studies Textbooks of Ethiopian Primary Schools”, Journal of Education, Society and Behavioural Science, 21(1), pp. 1-7. doi: 10.9734/BJESBS/2017/32754.

Impact of HIV/AIDS Burden on Economic Growth in Selected Sub- Saharan Africa (SSA) Countries: Evidence from a Dynamic System GMM Estimates

HIV/AIDS is seen as not only the leading cause of death in SSA region but a major public health challenge. Currently, 13% of total population workforce in the region lives with the epidemic; the above means that one in every ten adults in the region is HIV/AIDS positive. Regrettably so, there is a link between the epidemic prevalence and poverty. As a result, the study empirically examined the impact of HIV/AIDS burden on economic growth in selected Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) countries: Evidence from a dynamic system GMM estimates utilizing cross-country series of 18 countries in the region for the period of 1986-2015. The choice of the selected 18 SSA countries was driven by factors such as degree of prevalence of the epidemic, level of economic growth and regional affiliations resulting in four major regional blocs: SADC, ECOWAS, CEMAC and COMESA. Expectedly, the study employed a two-step dynamic Blundell-Bond system GMM panel estimation technique alongside with the Diebold and Yilmaz (2012) index variance decomposition approach. This was done to achieve conditional convergence in the growth equation and also to disaggregate the prevalence shock due to the epidemic burden. Series such as output per capita, output per capita growth, HIV/AIDS prevalence, public health expenditure, total investment, number of school enrollment are amongst others used in the study. Several pre-and post-diagnostics were accordingly carried out amongst which are Windmeijer (2005) finite sample correction for standard errors, stationarity test while controlling for heterogeinety, endogeneity or omitted variable biases, Hansen J-statistic for identification, Diff-in-Hansen test for validity of the additional moment restrictions, Breusch-Pagan Lagrange multiplier (LM) and Hausman tests for acceptability of the RE model etc. The findings from the study revealed that HIV/AIDS prevalence, not only have impacted negatively on human capital development and output growth in the region but has also currently been transmitting burden amongst member states thereby rendering the entire region vulnerable; particularly the low income countries. It further found that prevalence rate and income level of a country determines the level of her vulnerability to the epidemic burden in the region. The study therefore recommends that since members of SADC sub-region with very high prevalence rates are seen as powerful vector of contagion; therefore, a good understanding of cross-border epidemic burden spillovers on growth within the region is essential for policy coordination in the areas of preventive measures (reducing morbidity and mortality), improved capital inflow for inclusive growth ceteris paribus. Finally, it was recommended that the region should drive growth process as a unit.

Read full article: http://bp.bookpi.org/index.php/bpi/catalog/view/83/1173/817-1