News Update on Social Distance : May 21

[1] A social distance scale

In constructing this social distance scale, 60 single sentence descriptions heard in ordinary conversations and representing different types of social relationship were rated according to the amount of social distance each possessed. By means of judgments from 100 faculty members and graduate students it was possible to obtain a series of 7 situations with an equidistant mean rating. In administering this test composed of the 7 situations, each subject is given a list of 40 races, 30 occupations, and 30 religions with detailed instructions for rating. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved)

[2] The Social Distance Theory of Power

We propose that asymmetric dependence between individuals (i.e., power) produces asymmetric social distance, with high-power individuals feeling more distant than low-power individuals. From this insight, we articulate predictions about how power affects (a) social comparison, (b) susceptibility to influence, (c) mental state inference and responsiveness, and (d) emotions. We then explain how high-power individuals’ greater experienced social distance leads them to engage in more abstract mental representation. This mediating process of construal level generates predictions about how power affects (a) goal selection and pursuit, (b) attention to desirability and feasibility concerns, (c) subjective certainty, (d) value-behavior correspondence, (e) self-control, and (f) person perception. We also reassess the approach/inhibition theory of power, noting limitations both in what it can predict and in the evidence directly supporting its proposed mechanisms. Finally, we discuss moderators and methodological recommendations for the study of power from a social distance perspective.

[3] Social distance and its origins

This article discusses social distance, which refers to “the grades and degrees of understanding and intimacy which characterize pre-social and social relations generally.” To test this, two hundred and forty-eight persons, chiefly members of two graduate and upper division classes in social psychology, were asked to classify a list of twenty four racial and language groups into three columns based on their feelings of friendliness towards each group. Participants were also asked to give the races from which both their father and mother were descended. The author of this article discusses the findings from the categorization task in order to find out how and why social distance varies amongst groups. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2019 APA, all rights reserved).

[4] Social Distance towards People with HIV-AIDS versus Mental Illness in a Sample of Adolescent Secondary Students in Lagos Nigeria

Introduction: Stigma is a major barrier to help seeking among adolescents with mental disorders. HIV-AIDS is also a highly stigmatised chronic disorder among youths. In contrast with HIV-AIDS, there is scarcity of large scale interventions targeted at reducing mental illness related stigma in Nigeria.

Aim: This study determined the social distance of a sample of secondary school students in Nigeria towards individuals with mental illness, as compared with those with HIV-AIDS.

Methods: Using a cross-sectional study design, adolescent secondary school students (n=170) in Lagos, Nigeria completed the modified Borgadus Social distance Scale by self-report.  Data was analysed with SPSS 16.

Results: About seven out of ten (71.8%) and 20.6% of the participants would be afraid to have a conversation with someone who has mental illness and HIV-AIDS respectively (p<0.001). Participants were also more likely to be upset about being in the same classroom, sharing a bedroom or maintaining friendship with individuals affected by mental illness than HIV-AIDS (p<0.001).

Conclusion: The findings suggest that secondary school students in Nigeria desire a higher level of social distance from individuals with mental illness than those with HIV-AIDS. Interventions targeted at reducing the stigma associated with mental illness among school children require priority attention.

[5] Workplace Social Distance toward Psychiatric Patients among Employers

Employment-related problems of psychiatric patients are attracting attention in the field of mental health and welfare. Employers’ social distance from psychiatric patients negatively influences patients’ chances to work. Therefore, social distance should be carefully measured and evaluated among employers. In this study, we developed the Workplace Social Distance Scale (WSDS), rephrasing the eight items of the Japanese version of the SDS to apply to the work setting in Japan. We examined the reliability and validity of the WSDS among 938 employers. Factor analysis extracted two factors from the scale items: ‘negative factor’ and ‘positive factor.’ Cronbach’s alpha coefficient for the WSDS was 0.821. In the scores for the test and the retest, a significant correlation was seen for the scale overall and respective subscales, although the correlation for positive items was somewhat low, at 0.415. In addition, the WSDS was significantly correlated with the Japanese version of the SDS. These findings suggest that the WSDS represents an approximation of social distance in the workplace among employers. Our study assessed the reliability and validity of the newly developed WSDS for measuring social distance among employers in Japan. Future studies should investigate the reliability and validity of the scale in other countries.


[1] Bogardus, E.S., 1933. A social distance scale. Sociology & Social Research.

[2] Magee, J.C. and Smith, P.K., 2013. The social distance theory of power. Personality and social psychology review17(2), pp.158-186.

[3] Bogardus, E.S., 1992. Social distance and its origins. Journal of Applied Sociology.

[4] Adeosun, I.I., Fatiregun, O. and Adeyemo, S., 2017. Social distance towards people with HIV-AIDS versus mental illness in a sample of adolescent secondary students in Lagos Nigeria. Journal of Education, Society and Behavioural Science, pp.1-7.

[5] Yoshii, H., 2015. Workplace Social Distance toward Psychiatric Patients among Employers. Journal of Education, Society and Behavioural Science, pp.63-69.

Security Issues in a Changing Asian Region

The book “Security Issues in a Changing Asian Region” examines the region’s geopolitical architecture from the late twentieth century to the year 2020. It delves into the key sources of regional threats to peace and security, as well as the political, social, and security factors that stymie regional growth and interregional cooperation. This research focuses on the position of India’s sociopolitical situation in the development of the Asian region’s geopolitical map, as well as the country’s foreign policy values, involvement in regional security, and activities within regional cooperation organisations. Security issues have spread across Asia, according to a study of Asian security. Simultaneously, such issues have a substantial negative effect on bilateral fiscal, trade, and investment ties. Inter-regional ties, both current and expected, are seen as promising tasks by New Delhi. Mutual economic interests can help keep political tensions under check, at least for the time being. India has immense potential, and if the new government realises it, it will be able to play a strategic role in Asia.

Author Details

Rano Tuychiyeva
Uzbekistan State University of World Languages, Uzbekistan

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Philosophy of Suffering

The great representative of world philosophical thought, F. Nietzsche, is known for his intense and enthusiastic ideas in his work “Thus Spoke Zarathustra.” Via Zarathustra, he shared the philosophy of man and life, as well as mental suffering.

Professor Narzulla Juraev, an Uzbek scientist and heir of Zarathustra’s philosophical thinking, uses F. Nietzsche to explain his observations about the personality and culture, about human life, and his experiences. Nietzsche’s theory is discussed in an unusual way in this science and philosophical discourse, in a symbolic context.

The book is intended for a broad audience.

Author(s) Details

Narzulla Juraev
Social Science Department, The Uzbek State World Languages University, Tashkent City, Uzbekistan

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The Crossroad of the Divine

A “compilation of wisdom” is a prospectus of spiritual thought or Veda, such as this “Crossroad of the Divine.” Upanishads are Vedic collections of poems, ritual guidance, monographs, and philosophical teachings.

The Upanishads, which number 108, are learning instruments that date back to about 3000 BCE in India’s Indus Valley. The term “Upanishad” refers to both a text and a method of “binding truth to the mind.” The method, as well as the Upanishads themselves, are still taught today all over the world.

The Vedas and Upanishads have one goal in mind: to advance the Learned Society. Civility is derived from Learned Society, and Civil Society is derived from that. The Upanishads’ job is to ensure that these events take place on a solid foundation of Spiritual Sciences. They teach prayer, meditation, and strategies for inquiring into God’s plans to this end.

The sages and gurus of ancient India, as well as those of today, are not alone in their desire to achieve this noble purpose. Scientists, spiritualists, and philosophers from every faith, community, and age of human history have scoured the infinite heavens above, peering between the most infinitesimally small of spaces in search of ways to think, sound, and live at our fullest, as well as build societies that promote the process and preserve God’s favour.

Unfortunately, we like to think of them as separate entities, inaccessible to one another. Our chances to learn about them and draw important conclusions are limited. In Comparative Religion schools, we are either exposed to slanderous remarks from oppositional extremists and fanatics or material of questionable accuracy.

Swami Chinmayananda, my teacher, suggested a different approach: a systematic analysis of the world’s scriptures, which he dubbed a Sastra (Sanskrit for “Jewel Box”). The Sastras contain the words that God spoke to His Prophets and Messengers in order to reroute societies that had gone astray.

Every one of them has something important to say about why Society must stand, how its problems can be found and solved, and why our contribution to its success is a commitment to Godliness. The culmination of all that is sophisticated and sublime in human nature is societies made up of Godly people.

In comparison, the future of the human condition is jeopardised as long as a state does not believe its job is to work for the happiness of its people and citizens harbour suspicions of their government.

The only difference is a change in mindset. We pray, attend worship services, and study the Bible to change our attitudes. We have all we need with them to transform this troubled planet into a place where all the living things that love and depend on it can survive and thrive.

To that end, I have compiled this Veda, this Divine Crossroad, a study guide to the World’s Great Spiritual Masterworks, in the hopes that the combined voices of all the Prophets, Gurus, demigods, Sages, Mystics, and Messengers will soften our hard hearts toward ourselves and lead us to the discovery of God’s Grace, the root cause of peace on earth and goodwill toward man.

The Foundation of our embodied souls is God’s Grace; it is how we find our way into a living body and into the universe. Our Grace is embodied by Civil Society. It’s how the world connects and brings meaning and purpose to everyone who lives in it.

The Divine Crossroads, dedicated to my Teacher, His Holiness Pujya Gurudev Swami Chinmayanandaji Saraswati, begins right here.

The lack of your P presence is mourned by a despondent world. May we work together to realise your vision of a world free of crime, hunger, and cruelty, and may we not fight along the way.

Author(s) Details

Michael Das
Independent Researcher, NW, Washington, USA.

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Frame Your Project

The title of this book alludes to sociology’s interconnections with other current institutions. As time progresses, new technologies occur, new difficulties and pains arise, new solutions are required, and new research must be implemented and made available. All of these improvements must be investigated, and the method for doing so is known as “sociology.” Health and safety projects must be strictly adhered to. In today’s changing world, sociological investigations in the form of planned projects are needed on a regular basis. In light of sociological studies in those societies, industrial societies could become better societies with a higher quality of life. Different age groups were given longer lives as a result of insurance in various areas. People of various ages need different levels of supervision, therapies, and other services. In today’s world, people of all ages expect to live better lives with higher expectations. Sociological evaluations are needed in response to such expectations. People today, in every corner of the globe, are dealing with problems that have never existed before. Memory problems are a recent phenomenon that has emerged as a result of global ageing. Sociological research on the rural-urban balance must be held in mind by planners; otherwise, more conflicts will emerge. Similarly, one of the current world’s necessities is the youth, who need their own schooling, jobs, and career, among other things. Such a subject necessitates in-depth research in order to make their lives easier. Aging, as a modern phenomenon for human society in the global sense, has brought with it a slew of new social issues. Children, as a defining segment of the population, must be studied on a regular basis; their present status, needs, and potential must be sociologically studied and evaluated. Children are the most affected by social change because they need more attention than others. If the world’s population continues to grow, the climate is being impacted in a variety of ways. As a result, it is essential to study the world from a sociological perspective in order to preserve it. Grandparents are one of the new segments of the population that are emerging more than ever before in every country; people with their own values and lifestyles who need security, affection, and financial support as they age. Sociology must pay particular attention to them.

In several developed countries, social work, as one of the most important branches of the social sciences, is undervalued. Sociology needs to pay attention to this and emphasise its significance, especially in relation to the developing world. Social work will recognise and address various social, economic, and health challenges that families and individuals face, as well as the ties that connect them. Abortions, divorces, widowhood, and other family issues plague many women. Their issues will remain stalemated and unresolved unless sociology intervenes. As societies evolve, new laws are needed to address the problems that have arisen. Abuse of the elderly is a widespread problem that manifests itself in a variety of ways. Deep research in gerontology is one way to reduce it. Divorce is a social phenomenon that affects people all over the world. As a result, a thorough examination of causal effects is worthwhile. Similarly, substance abuse is a common misbehaviour among women, contributing to prostitution in a significant number of cases and necessitating special treatment. It’s worth calculating the three needs of water, electricity, and economic growth as a triangle. The creation of social capital is the foundation of every progress that should be investigated. Similarly, since agricultural development and environmental control are so closely linked, they must be closely monitored and studied. Infertility is a phenomenon that affects a significant number of people. It must be compared to an adoption case in every culture. Within countries, social policies must be seen in light of their ability. That is what the social planners consider. All countries in the world must constantly project their societies’/countries’ status. Countries must project their evolving position in areas such as health, ageing, sanitation, medical procedures, and many others. The current book provides researchers with the tools they need to begin sociological studies of medical services. With life expectancy nearly doubling since 1950, particularly in the developing world, such additional people need a wide range of medical services. Frame analysis is a technique used in social science to examine how people perceive circumstances and events. In sociology, “frame your project” refers to the context in which researchers and project managers can work.

Author(s) Details

Mohammad Taghi Sheykhi
Professor Emeritus of Sociology, Alzahra University, Iran.

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Pragmatics: Why do We Need It?

In culture, interactions between individuals are inevitable. Many invisible meanings give space to these interactions. Whose inquiry is known as pragmatics. Pragmatics, in other words, is the linguistic area in which invisible meanings are found. The manner in which language is used is dealt with. The meaning of the speaker, the meaning of the word, or even the meaning of the sentence, the context, the understanding of the listener, the language used, are taken into account. The way that social distance is conveyed is often focused on what is communicated rather than what is said. Pragmatics considers debate as an agency. No one is able to talk the way he wants in a given situation. There are norms, say criteria to be collected for every situation to be legitimised. As meaning is not external to the context waiting to be taken, we need pragmatics as a useful tool for taming darkness in communication. Rather, it is the product of the complex behaviour of the participants of the debate, ranging from explanations, effects and implications.

Author(s) Details

Zorobi Philippe TOH
Alassane Ouattara University, Côte d’Ivoire.

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Sub-clinical Narcissistic Personality Score and Academic Performance

Sub-clinical narcissism is the presence of narcissistic personality traits in otherwise normal people. People with high levels of these traits said to have inflated self-esteem and possibly a high egotism. A 40 itemed Narcissistic Personality Inventory is used to measure this type of personality traits. Those individuals who score above 20 points from the available 40 points of NPI-40 Inventory is considered to be having higher levels of Subclinical Narcissism and prone to exhibit socially dislikeable personality traits. This study tried to address the relationship between supposedly negative personality traits of Sub-clinical Narcissism using NPI-40 Score against past and present academic performance of a group of students in a Private University setup. The study included 202 participants from a Business School Division of a Private University. Analysis showed that only at the current academic levels of the respondents, NPI-40 scores were significantly correlating with their academic performance. Research implications are discussed.

Author(s) Details
Dr. R. Indradevi

VIT Business School, Vellore Institute of Technology, Vellore, India

Dr. Vaidhyanatha Balaji
VIT Business School, Vellore Institute of Technology, Vellore, India

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The Process of Acquiring Self-genius and Its Effects Creations beyond Time

Love to bubble the innovative creativity within oneself and increase the capacity of creativity capacity in human nature show the most striking difference between him and the other creations and will never be the end for this aim because man has always been following the attainment of immortality and is ahead of its era. The innovative creativity capacity of the mind is the most powerful incentives to form the processes that human could have been successful to represent it till today because human did a lot of searches and endeavors to access the eternity and being vanguard against the time over the time so as to find the solution to this cycle but he couldn’t be successful in this field. Lack of access to the innovative internal sources is because the man should at the first step be aware of philosophy, ignorance and life and critic them without the slightest consideration so that by attending self architect be aware of the value and the ability of the mind and by depending on own ingenuity move toward the creation of the new theoretical to outshine the time and lead up to the millennium of those won be and the powerful presence and immortality would be realized that its output would be entering into the ultramodern mind cycle. The innovation means creating and providing new vents of the theoretical with the content of vanguard against the time. The process of entering to this cycle is so that the student must have believed his ignorance to be able to pass through his mental illness and feels the thirst of knowledge. Now he finds that having the eyes for viewing the wisdom and finding the ingenuity should pass via for main cycle to attend the knowledge and innovation through the sight of his architect (creator). Failure to pass the mentioned process expresses the shuck document with empty reason ownership. Realizing the process of forming own diagram and innovative design in this article has been delivered to the reader as discover page.

Author (s) Details

Mirtaleb Hosseini Kharvanagh
Department of Architecture, Islamic Azad University, Research and Science Branch, Zanjan, Iran.

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Investigating the Adequacy of Textual Materials Used in Teaching Science in Nigeria Secondary Schools for Conceptual Understanding with the New Physics and Chemistry Curriculum in View

This study investigated the adequacy of physics and chemistry textbooks used in Senior Secondary Schools in Nigeria using Owerri municipal as case study. Five research questions guided the study. The sampled textual materials were the three recommended physics and chemistry textbooks. Twenty six physics teachers and thirty chemistry teachers from ten public secondary schools in Owerri municipal, Imo State were used. The evaluation of these text books were carried out using the modified form of 8 – point quantitative approach to content evaluation of science text books (QACEST) and teacher’s perception rating scales (TPRS). The modified form of the 8 – point QACEST was used to answer research questions 1 to 4 while research question 5 was answered using teacher’s perception rating scale. The result revealed that while all the text books were adequate in terms of content and study questions inadequacies exist in some of the texts in the areas of learning activities, illustrations and teacher’s perception. This simply implies that no single text books have completely met the requirements of the new physics curriculum and chemistry curriculum while comprehensive chemistry could serve as good as support to other textbooks. However, teachers should not adhere to a particular text book but rather should expose their students to a variety of text books depending on the goal or aim of the lessons.

Author(s) Details

Dr. Chukwunenye, Joy Nkiruka
Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Alvan Ikoku Federal College of Education Owerri, Nigeria.

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Literature and Society: Reflection on the Socio – Cultural Function of Oral Literary Genres in Rwandan Wedding and Death Contexts

Literature, society and culture cannot be separated from each other. This paper is concerned with the role that oral literature holds in society with particular interest in Rwandan wedding and burial ceremonies. The researcher reflects on oral genres as a product of society. Observation was used as research instrument besides translation, interpretation and contextual analysis hinged on two literary theories namely expressive theory and didactic theory of literature as spearheaded by Muleka’s Performer Centric Approach. The paper revealed that oral literary genres such as proverbs, elegy, pastoral poems and songs, religious and wedding songs, rhetorical and skillful expressions play a socio-cultural role. They depict the culture and reflect socio- cultural values among Rwandan citizens at a particular occasion. In wedding context, some of these genres reflect a “give and take” culture, thus building the social ties among people of the same society but from different clans. In the death context, the oral genres are didactic as they express the message of the role that the departed one(s) played, their deeds and how they behaved for the community stayed behind to ape.

Author(s) Details

Bazimaziki Gabriel
Department of Humanities and Language Education, University of Rwanda, P.O.Box 55, Rwamagana, Rwanda.

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