Pullout Capacity of a Vertical Plate Anchor Embedded in Cohesion-less Soil

In this document, the ultimate cohesion-less pullout capability of a shallow laid vertical plate strip anchor  With the consideration of active and passive limit equilibrium states in the soil, the soil is analysed.  The equation of Kötter is used to measure the active and passive thrusts that are subsequently used in  Analysis in which all equilibrium equations are correctly interpreted. The distinctive loss  Surfaces under active and passive limits are defined on the basis of force equilibrium.  conditions of equilibrium. One distinctive characteristic of the system proposed is the ability to quantify the method.  Active/passive thrust application point using moment equilibrium. Another attribute that distinguishes  Predict the distribution of soil reactions on the surface of the failure. Comparison between the effects of the  The proposed approach demonstrates the experimental findings available in comparison to other theoretical approaches. That, up to the 3.0 embedment ratio, the method proposed is capable of Make predictions that are fairly successful.

Author (s) Details

G. S. Kame
Department of Civil Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Bombay, Powai, Mumbai 400076, India.

D. M. Dewaikar
Department of Civil Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Bombay, Powai, Mumbai 400076, India.

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Soil Carbon Sequestration: Basis & Basics

Global warming caused by the greenhouse gases has resulted in unprecedented climatic changes. Various anthropogenic as well as natural processes serve as sources for emission of carbon dioxide, the most potent greenhouse gas. Soil carbon stocks, a key determinant of soil health is getting depleted at a fast rate, indirectly placing the global food security at stake. Considerable variability in the soil organic carbon stocks exists in above and below ground phytomass, which vary with latitude and climatic regions and with different land use systems. The recalcitrant carbon fraction not only reduces the losses of soil organic carbon but also serve in locking up the carbon by way of soil carbon sequestration thus reducing carbon dioxide emissions and global warming to a considerable extent. Soil carbon sequestration includes a host of technologies that are employed which has the potential to greatly reduce, capture and store carbon produced both by anthropogenic factors and natural means in the soil. Mitigative and adaptive strategies of carbon sequestration are largely based on natural processes, engineering techniques and chemical transformations. A judicious land use and prudential adoption of recommended management practices is the need of the hour. While tillage based agriculture damages the soil, conservation agriculture builds soil quality, protects water quality, increases biodiversity and sequesters carbon. Pyrolytic production of biochar holds much prospect for soil carbon sequestration.

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Latest Research on Soil Pollution: Dec – 2019

The use of microbial parameters in monitoring soil pollution by heavy metals

Microbial parameters appear very useful in monitoring soil pollution by heavy metals, but no single microbial parameter are often used universally. Microbial activities like respiration, C and N mineralization, biological N2 fixation, and a few soil enzymes are often measured, as can the entire soil microbial biomass. Combining microbial activity and population measurements (e.g., biomass specific respiration) appears to supply more sensitive indications of soil pollution by heavy metals than either activity or population measurements alone. Parameters that have some sort of “internal control”, e.g., biomass as a percentage of soil organic matter, also are advantageous. By using such approaches it’d be possible to work out whether the natural ecosystem is being altered by pollutants without recource to expensive and long-running field experiments. [1]

Limitations of soil enzymes as indicators of soil pollution

Soil enzyme activities are considered to be sensitive to pollution and are proposed as indicators for measuring the degree of soil degradation. during this work we found that in three galician soils exposed to varied degrees of pollution by tanning effluent, hydrocarbons or landfill effluent, the changes within the activities of individual enzyme didn’t allow precise quantification of soil degradation. Thus, the enzymatic activities in polluted soils with reference to that on top of things soils was between 37 and 260% for phosphomonoesterase, between 16 and 250% for β-glucosidase, between 28 and 194% for urease and between 24 and 251% for dehydrogenase. The degree of degradation was, however, clearly shown altogether cases by the ratio Nc/Nk, where Nk is Kjeldahl nitrogen and Nc may be a function of microbial biomass C and nitrogen mineralization capacity combined with three enzyme activities (phosphomonoesterase, β-glucosidase and urease). [2]

Urban soil pollution in Damascus, Syria: concentrations and patterns of heavy metals in the soils of the Damascus Ghouta

The objective of the study was to assess the extent and severity of heavy metal contamination of arable soils of the Damascus Ghouta, a neighborhood with intensive agricultural production. We examined this degree and spatial distribution of heavy metal concentrations in 51 soil profiles and in 22 topsoil samples within the Damascus Ghouta. The soils were digested with nitrohydrochloric acid for heavy metal analysis. Pb, Cu and Zn concentrations within the topsoils exhibited anthropogenic increased values. the main sources for the heavy metal contamination in Damascus city are most possibly emissions from vehicles. These emissions transported by air and sewage water along side household and industrial sewage effluents are considered to be liable for the increased heavy metal concentrations found within the soils of the central Barada area. [3]

Assessment of soil heavy metals for eco-environment and human health in a rapidly urbanization area of the upper Yangtze Basin

Soil pollution with heavy metals (HMs) has been attracting more and more interests, however, assessment of eco-environmental and human risks particularly during a rapidly urbanization area (the upper Yangtze) remains limited. Multiple modern indices were firstly performed for complete risk assessment of eco-environment and human health supported a high-spatial-resolution sampling. Averages of HMs were far below grade II intensity of the Chinese Environmental Quality standards for soils, whereas Cd, As and Hg considerably exceeded the local background values. EF suggested overall moderate enrichments of Cd and Se, leading to soils uncontaminated to moderately contaminated with them. [4]

Management of Increasing Soil Pollution in the Ecosystem

The present paper may be a mini review of the increasing soil pollution within the environment and therefore the possible handy options available, to curb its rate. Soil being a non-renewable resource, must be shielded from all kinds of pollutants. The health of all life forms is related to the health of soil. Any degradation within the quality of soil can significantly produce many undesirable changes within the environment. Adoption of suitable strategies to guard our motherland from contamination is must for all folks to save lots of ourselves and continuation of natural cycles within the ecosystem. [5]


[1] Brookes, P.C., 1995. The use of microbial parameters in monitoring soil pollution by heavy metals. Biology and Fertility of soils, 19(4), (Web Link)

[2] Trasar-Cepeda, C., Leiros, M.C., Seoane, S. and Gil-Sotres, F., 2000. Limitations of soil enzymes as indicators of soil pollution. Soil Biology and Biochemistry, 32(13), (Web Link)

[3] Möller, A., Müller, H.W., Abdullah, A., Abdelgawad, G. and Utermann, J., 2005. Urban soil pollution in Damascus, Syria: concentrations and patterns of heavy metals in the soils of the Damascus Ghouta. Geoderma, 124(1-2), (Web Link)

[4] Assessment of soil heavy metals for eco-environment and human health in a rapidly urbanization area of the upper Yangtze Basin
Zhongmin Jia, Siyue Li & Li Wang
Scientific Reports volume 8, (Web Link)

[5] Sarkar, D., ., S., Rakesh, S., Ganguly, S. and Rakshit, A. (2017) “Management of Increasing Soil Pollution in the Ecosystem”, Advances in Research, 12(2), (Web Link)

Latest Research News on Soil Salinity: Dec – 2019

Soil Electrical Conductivity and Soil Salinity: New Formulations and Calibrations

A new model describing the relation between bulk soil electrical conductivity (ECa), volumetric content (θw) and electrical conductivity of soil water (ECw) is given along side supporting evidence for its validity. The new model distinguishes between the water and salt present within the soil within the “immobile” (fine pores) and “mobile” (large pores) phases. It provides a possible physical aiming to the transmission coefficient (T) previously utilized in an earlier model and eliminates a limitation of that model which existed under conditions of low salinity. New empirical relations are provided to estimate the parameters needed within the new and old models so as to utilize them for diagnosing soil salinity, in terms of the electrical conductivity of the extract of saturated soil pastes (ECe). [1]

Remote sensing of soil salinity: potentials and constraints

Soil salinity caused by natural or human-induced processes may be a major environmental hazard. the worldwide extent of primary salt-affected soils is about 955 M ha, while secondary salinization affects some 77 M ha, with 58% of those in irrigated areas. Nearly 20% of all irrigated land is salt-affected, and this proportion tends to extend in spite of considerable efforts dedicated to land reclamation. this needs careful monitoring of the soil salinity status and variation to curb degradation trends, and secure sustainable land use and management. Multitemporal optical and microwave remote sensing can significantly contribute to detecting temporal changes of salt-related surface features. Airborne geophysics and ground-based electromagnetic induction meters, combined with ground data, have shown potential for mapping depth of salinity occurrence. [2]

Vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizas and soil salinity

This review discusses the expansion and activity of vesicular-arbuscular (VA) mycorrhizal fungi in saline conditions. The review includes examination of the consequences of high concentrations of salts on the occurrence of VA mycorrhizal fungi in field soils, and on spore germination, growth of hyphae, establishment of the symbiosis and production of spores in controlled conditions. Information on the expansion and reproduction of VA mycorrhizal fungi under saline conditions is scarce and is usually circumstantial. there’s clear evidence that germination of spores and subsequent hyphal growth of some VA mycorrhizal fungi are reduced by increasing concentration of salts. [3]

Soil salinity and matric potential interaction on water use, water use efficiency and yield response factor of bean and wheat

We studied the consequences of soil matric potential and salinity on the water use (WU), water use efficiency (WUE) and yield response factor (Ky), for wheat (Triticum aestivum cv. Mahdavi) and bean (Phaseoulus vulgaris cv. COS16) in sandy loam and clay loam soils under greenhouse conditions. Results showed that aeration porosity is that the predominant factor controlling WU, WUE, Ky and shoot biomass (Bs) at high soil water potentials. As matric potential was decreased, soil aeration improved, with Bs, WU and Ky reaching maximum value at −6 to −10 kPa, under all salinities. [4]

On Improving Seed Germination and Seedling Growth in Rice under Minimal Soil Salinity

Aims: it had been assumed that two- way approach i.e. nutrient-priming with potassium salt of the seeds and afterward ammonium sulphate application could also be binary beneficial for growth of rice besides evidencing genetic variability under salt stress

Study Design: The experiment was laid call at Complete Randomized Design with three replications.

Place and Duration of Study: The study was conducted in laboratory and glass house of Soil Salinity Research Programme of natural resource Research Institute at National Agricultural research Centre, Islamabad, Pakistan during the amount from May to August, 2016. [5]


[1] Rhoades, J.D., Manteghi, N.A., Shouse, P.J. and Alves, W.J., 1989. Soil electrical conductivity and soil salinity: New formulations and calibrations. Soil Science Society of America Journal, 53(2), (Web Link)

[2] Metternicht, G.I. and Zinck, J.A., 2003. Remote sensing of soil salinity: potentials and constraints. Remote sensing of Environment, 85(1), (Web Link)

[3] Juniper, S. and Abbott, L., 1993. Vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizas and soil salinity. Mycorrhiza, 4(2), (Web Link)

[4] Soil salinity and matric potential interaction on water use, water use efficiency and yield response factor of bean and wheat
Mahnaz Khataar, Mohammad Hossien Mohammadi & Farzin Shabani
Scientific Reports volume 8, (Web Link)

[5] uz-Zaman, B.-, Ali, A., Ali Mahmood, I., Suhaib, M., Arshad Ullah, M. and Ishaq, M. (2017) “On Improving Seed Germination and Seedling Growth in Rice under Minimal Soil Salinity”, Asian Research Journal of Agriculture, 4(1), (Web Link)

News Update on Soil Erosion Research: Dec – 2019

Soil erosion and agricultural sustainability

Data drawn from a worldwide compilation of studies quantitatively confirm the long-articulated contention that erosion rates from conventionally plowed agricultural fields average 1–2 orders of magnitude greater than rates of soil production, erosion under native vegetation, and long-term geological erosion. the overall equivalence of the latter indicates that, considered globally, hillslope soil production and erosion evolve to balance geologic and climate forcing, whereas conventional plow-based agriculture increases erosion rates enough to prove unsustainable. In contrast to how net erosion rates in conventionally plowed fields (≈1 mm/yr) can erode through a typical hillslope profile over time scales like the longevity of major civilizations, no-till agriculture produces erosion rates much closer to soil production rates and thus could provide a foundation for sustainable agriculture. [1]

A Process-Based Soil Erosion Model for USDA-Water Erosion Prediction Project Technology

Amodel was developed for estimating erosion by water on hillslopes to be used in new USDA erosion prediction technology. Detachment, transport, and deposition processes were represented. The model uses a steady-state sediment continuity equation for predicting rill and interrill processes. Net detachment in rills is taken into account to occur when the hydraulic shear stress of flow exceeds the critical shear stress of the soil and when sediment load during a rill is a smaller amount than the sediment transport capacity. Net deposition is calculated when the sediment load is bigger than the transport capacity. Rill detachment rate depends upon the ratio of sediment load to move capacity, rill erodibility, hydraulic shear stress, surface cover, below ground residue, and consolidation. Rill hydraulics are wont to calculate shear stresses and a simplified transport equation, calibrated with the Yalin transport equation, is employed to compute transport capacity in rills. Interrill erosion is represented as a function of rainfall intensity, residue cover, canopy cover, and interrill soil erodibility. [2]

Environmental and Economic Costs of Soil Erosion and Conservation Benefits

Soil erosion may be a major environmental threat to the sustainability and productive capacity of agriculture. During the last 40 years, nearly one-third of the world’s arable land has been lost by erosion and continues to be lost at a rate of quite 10 million hectares per annum. With the addition of 1 / 4 of 1,000,000 people every day, the planet population’s food demand is increasing at a time when per capita food productivity is starting to decline. [3]

Countries and the global rate of soil erosion

Soil erosion may be a major threat to food security and ecosystem viability, as current rates are orders of magnitude above natural soil formation. Governments round the world try to deal with the difficulty of erosion. However, we don’t know whether countries have much actual control over their erosion. Here, we use a high-resolution, global dataset with over 35 million observations and a spatial regression discontinuity design to spot what proportion of the worldwide rate of erosion is really suffering from countries and which country characteristics, including their policies, are related to this. [4]

Developing GIS-Based Soil Erosion Map Using RUSLE of Andit Tid Watershed, Central Highlands of Ethiopia

Soil erosion may be a common phenomenon and major threat in many parts of Ethiopian highlands and it remains difficult to quantify and measure the quantity of erosion. Geographic data system (GIS) provides spatial information to spot erosion potential areas and useful tools to estimate the annual soil loss supported Universal Soil Loss Equation (USLE). This research was conducted in Central Highlands of Ethiopia, Andit Tid watershed which is 180 Km faraway from Addis Ababa north direction and covers 475 ha area. The aim of this research was to estimate the annual soil loss from the watershed and to map the topographic and anthropogenic factors for the design and implementations of sustainable conservation and management system within the watershed. A Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation (RUSLE) preferred for Ethiopian conditions and GIS was wont to estimate soil losses and identify potential effect of abrasion factors. [5]


[1] Montgomery, D.R., 2007. Soil erosion and agricultural sustainability. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 104(33), (Web Link)

[2] Nearing, M.A., Foster, G.R., Lane, L.J. and Finkner, S.C., 1989. A process-based soil erosion model for USDA-Water Erosion Prediction Project technology. Transactions of the ASAE, 32(5), (Web Link)

[3] Pimentel, D., Harvey, C., Resosudarmo, P., Sinclair, K., Kurz, D., McNair, M., Crist, S., Shpritz, L., Fitton, L., Saffouri, R. and Blair, R., 1995. Environmental and economic costs of soil erosion and conservation benefits. Science, 267(5201), (Web Link)

[4] Countries and the global rate of soil erosion
David Wuepper, Pasquale Borrelli & Robert Finger
Nature Sustainability (2019) (Web Link)

[5] Desalegn, A., Gessesse, A. and Tesfay, F. (2018) “Developing GIS-Based Soil Erosion Map Using RUSLE of Andit Tid Watershed, Central Highlands of Ethiopia”, Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, 19(1), (Web Link)

Latest News on Soil Physical Properties Research: Sep – 2019

Relationship between Soil Physical Properties and Crop Production

Having been labelled a soil scientist, I even have received inquiries throughout my skilled career regarding relationships between soil physical properties and plant growth further as question on what constitutes smart soil physical properties. Most inquiries may well be delay by a recitation of generalities like a soil soil having intermediate bulk density, smart aggregation, smart infiltration rate, and no electrical resistance to emptying described a soil with smart physical conditions, and smart production may well be expected on such soil if chemical factors weren’t limiting. Generalities aren’t perpetually acceptable as verified by the subsequent 3 examples. [1]

Changes in Soil Physical Properties Due to Organic Waste Applications: A Review 1

Land application of organic wastes like animal manure, municipal wastes, and waste material sludge may alter the soil physical properties. recurrent substantial applications of waste increase the soil organic matter proportion. The out there knowledge on effects of waste applications on soil physical properties like bulk density, water holding capacity at each capacity measure and wilt purpose, and saturated hydraulic conduction were summarized. supported knowledge from twelve totally different sources, twenty one soil sorts, seven waste sorts, and eight crop sorts, a simple regression analysis of determined will increase in soil organic C as a results of waste applications on p.c reduction in bulk density indicated a extremely vital relationship (r2 = zero.69**). [2]

Grazing effects on soil physical properties and the consequences for pastures: a review

Grazing animals exert pressure on the bottom reminiscent of that of agricultural machinery. As a result, soil beneath pasture are often compacted. In grazing systems supported permanent pastures or rangelands, there’s very little chance to ameliorate poor soil physical conditions through tillage. Hence, it’s necessary to know the results of grazing on soil physical properties and also the resulting effects of those properties on pasture growth and composition. [3]

Effect of desertification on productivity in a desert steppe

Desertification, one among the foremost severe styles of land degradation within the world, is of nice importance as a result of it’s occurring, to a point, on about four-hundredth of the world area and affects quite one billion individuals. during this study, we tend to used a space-for-time methodology to quantify the impact of 5 totally different geological process regimes (potential (PD), light (LD), moderate (MD), severe (SD), and extremely severe (VSD)) on a desert plain scheme in northern China to look at the connection between the productivity of the vegetation and soil properties and to work out the mechanism underlying the consequences of geological process on productivity. [4]

Remediation of Cassava Effluent Contaminated Soil Using Organic Soap Solution: Case Study of Soil Physical Properties and Plant Growth Performance

The remedy of cassava effluent contaminated soil, exploitation organic soap answer was evaluated, during this analysis. Soil parameters and bean growth performance investigated were wetness content, pH, temperature, germination rate, leaf color, range of leaves and seed plant height. The analysis was dole out in natural status, with the analysis divided into 2 units, namely; management Unit (CU) and modification Unit (AU). below the AU, the cassava effluent contaminated soil was treated with organic soap solution; whereas below the metal, the contaminated soil was left untreated. From the results obtained, the organic soil answer was ascertained to boost the soil physical properties and bean growth performance. [5]


[1] Letey, J.O.H.N., 1958. Relationship between soil physical properties and crop production. In Advances in soil science (pp. 277-294). Springer, New York, NY. (Web Link)

[2] Khaleel, R., Reddy, K.R. and Overcash, M.R., 1981. Changes in soil physical properties due to organic waste applications: a review 1. Journal of Environmental Quality, 10(2), (Web Link)

[3] Greenwood, K.L. and McKenzie, B.M., 2001. Grazing effects on soil physical properties and the consequences for pastures: a review. Australian Journal of Experimental Agriculture, 41(8), (Web Link)

[4] Effect of desertification on productivity in a desert steppe
Zhuangsheng Tang, Hui An, Lei Deng, Yingying Wang, Guangyu Zhu & Zhouping Shangguan
Scientific Reportsvolume 6, Article number: 27839 (2016) (Web Link)

[5] Akpokodje, O. I., Uguru, H. and Esegbuyota, D. (2018) “Remediation of Cassava Effluent Contaminated Soil Using Organic Soap Solution: Case Study of Soil Physical Properties and Plant Growth Performance”, Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, 21(3), (Web Link)