Latest Research News on Isoptera: Dec – 2019

Termites (Isoptera) from the Australian region.

A systematic study of the termites found in Australia, New Guinea, and in islands south of the equator between longitudes 140° E. and 170° W. The author recognizes 4 families, 14 genera, 11 subgenera (inclusive of 1 new subgenus and exclusive of a gaggle of Calotermes species to which no name or names are given), 193 species and eight subspecies. The four recognized families of termites are Mastotermitidae, Calotermitidae, Rhinotermitidae and Termitidae. The distinguishing characters of every family are outlined, and every one species with synonyms are listed as are the described castes. Thirty-two of the species are described as new, 13 of them within the winged adult and soldier castes, 5 within the winged adult caste only, and 14 within the soldier caste only. [1]

Morphological phylogenetics of termites (Isoptera)

Isoptera (termites) are an ecologically important order, with both a high abundance and biomass in tropical ecosystems. However, there are few phylogenetic hypotheses for termites, and that we present here the primary comprehensive cladistic analysis for the group. We analysed relationships between all seven termite families, including representatives of all known feeding group, plus variety of systematically critical taxa. Termite species richness is biased towards the upper termites (Termitidae), and our taxon sampling reflects this. Our analysis was based essentially on morphological characters (96 workers, 93 soldiers) plus seven biological characters. [2]

Family-Group Names for Termites (Isoptera)

Thirty-nine available family-group names are identified within the insect Isoptera (termites). For all names the right author, date, genus, and mixing stem are provided for the primary time. This nomenclatural compilation is completed to stabilize the usage of family- group names within the Isoptera beforehand of a world catalog. Several problems of priority are identified and discussed. the small understood subfamily Foraminitermitinae is diagnosed; while generally believed by many authors to be a replacement, unnamed subfamily, it had been actually established by Holmgren nearly a century ago. The subfamilies Syntermitinae and Sphaerotermitinae are newly proposed for the mandibulate genera of nasute termites and for Sphaerotermes, respectively. The classification of Isoptera is briefly outlined. [3]

Molecular phylogeny of Polyneoptera (Insecta) inferred from expanded mitogenomic data

The Polyneoptera represents one among the earliest insect radiations, comprising the bulk of hemimetabolous orders, during which many species have great economic importance. Here, we sequenced eleven mitochondrial genomes of the polyneopteran insects by using high throughput pooled sequencing technology, and presented a phylogenetic reconstruction for this group supported expanded mitochondrial genome data. Our analyses included 189 taxa, of which 139 species represent all the main polyneopteran lineages. Multiple results support the monophyly of Polyneoptera, the monophyly of Dictyoptera, and therefore the monophyly of Orthoptera. [4]

Impacts and Management of Termites (Isoptera: Termitidae) among Smallholder Farmers In East Africa

Effective termite management strategies should involve a minimum of one among the following:
Provision of adequate food to discourage termites from attacking crops.
Enhancing multiplication and proliferation of natural enemies (e.g. nematodes, fungus, bacteria, virus, ants, frogs, beetles and spiders).
Reduce vulnerability of crops through improved crop nutrition and water system for vigorous growth.
Integration of termite-repelling crops and plants within the farms.
Killing of termites e.g. use of termicide, physical destruction of the mound, killing of the queen.
In areas regularly suffering from termites, scouting and control should be incorporated as regular components of seasonal crop production trainings.
Particular emphasis should tend to non-chemical practices which have significant co-benefits like enhanced soil health.
Effective and long-lasting control is predicated on combination of chemical and non-chemical practices – dig out mounds, kill the queen then spray with termicide. For fields which experience termite attacks every season, farmers should dress seed with termicide before planting. These chemicals should be used judiciously to scale back negative impact to the environment and health risks to the farmers. [5]


[1] Hill, G.F., 1942. Termites (Isoptera) from the Australian region. Termites (Isoptera) from the Australian region. (Web Link)

[2] Donovan, S.E., Jones, D.T., Sands, W.A. and Eggleton, P., 2000. Morphological phylogenetics of termites (Isoptera). Biological Journal of the Linnean Society, 70(3), (Web Link)

[3] Engel, M.S. and Krishna, K., 2004. Family-group names for termites (Isoptera). American Museum Novitates, 2004(3432). (Web Link)

[4] Molecular phylogeny of Polyneoptera (Insecta) inferred from expanded mitogenomic data
Nan Song, Hu Li, Fan Song & Wanzhi Cai
Scientific Reports volume 6, (Web Link)

[5] Otieno, H. M. O. (2018) “Impacts and Management of Termites (Isoptera: Termitidae) among Smallholder Farmers In East Africa”, Journal of Agriculture and Ecology Research International, 16(1), (Web Link)

Latest Research News on Trichogrammatidae: Dec – 2019

Antibiotics cause parthenogenetic Trichogramma (Hymenoptera/Trichogrammatidae) to revert to sex

Completely parthenogenetic Trichogramma wasps are often rendered permanently bisexual by treatment with three different antibiotics or high temperatures. The evidence strongly suggests that maternally inherited microorganisms cause parthenogenesis in these wasps. Theories predict female-biased sex ratio in offspring under the influence of maternally inherited symbionts, but extreme sex ratios of 100% females were never considered because the shortage of males would prevent the host’s reproduction. [1]

Taxonomic Status of Thelytokous Forms of Trichogramma (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae)

Thelytokous populations, consisting only of females that produce daughter without mating, have long caused problems for systematists. within the wasp genus Trichogramma, these forms cause additional problems because the identity of most species is predicated on male characters. the invention that antibiotics and high temperatures can permanently change the mode of reproduction of the bulk of thelytokous sorts of Trichogramma to arrhenotoky now makes it possible to use male anatomy and reproductive compatibility as criteria for species identity. Thelytokous strains of Trichogramma chilonis Ishii, T. deion Pinto & Oatman, T. pretiosum Riley, and T. [2]

Studies on Trichogrammatoidea (Hymenoptera : Trichogrammatidae)

Egg parasites belonging to Trichogrammatoldea Girault (Hym. Trichogrammatidae) are poorly known. during this paper 10 new species and a subspecies : T. armigera, T. bactrae, T. fumata, T. cryptophleblae, T. fulva, T. guamensis, T. hypsipylae, T. prabhakeri, T. robusta, T. simmondsi and T. thoseae, reared from different lepidopterous pests occurring under different ecological conditions are described. Applying numerical taxonomy, Trichogrammatoidea was found to contain two species groups : lutea-group and nana-group. a number of the known species, namely, T. lutea Gir., T. nana (Zehnt.), T. rara Gir. and T. flava Gir. are redescribed. The taxonomic status of another species included under Trichogrammatoidea by earlier authors has been discussed. T lutea and T. prabhakeri are considered as semispecies with reference to one another. [3]

Performance of Trichogramma pretiosum Riley (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae) on eggs of Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae)

Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) may be a polyphagous pest with a good geographic distribution. This pest first arrived in Brazil in 2013, and since then studies on possible control methods for it are necessary. A possible method for the control of H. armigera is using the egg parasitoid Trichogramma pretiosum Riley (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae). Therefore, the target of this study was to guage the performance of T. pretiosum on H. armigera eggs, which are known to represent suitable hosts for the event of this parasitoid species within the laboratory. Parasitism and emergence rates and therefore the duration of the egg-to-adult period of T. [4]

Functional Response of Two Egg Parasitoids of Trichogramma (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae) Genre on Duponchelia fovealis Zeller (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) Eggs

Aims: to guage the potential of the parasitoids of the genus Trichogramma on European pepper moth, a functional response bioassay was performed with two Trichogramma lineages and different egg densities of the host.

Study Design: Adopting a totally randomized experimental design, 10 replications were finished each species.

Place and Duration of Study: The bioassay was conducted at the Entomology Laboratory of the Universidade Federal do Espírito Santo (CCAE-UFES) in Alegre, ES, Brazil, within the year 2017. [5]


[1] Stouthamer, R., Luck, R.F. and Hamilton, W.D., 1990. Antibiotics cause parthenogenetic Trichogramma (Hymenoptera/Trichogrammatidae) to revert to sex. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 87(7), (Web Link)

[2] Stouthamer, R., Pinto, J.D., Platner, G.R. and Luck, R.F., 1990. Taxonomic status of thelytokous forms of Trichogramma (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae). Annals of the entomological Society of America, 83(3), (Web Link)

[3] Nagaraja, H., 1978. Studies on Trichogrammatoidea (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae). Oriental insects, 12(4), (Web Link)

[4] Performance of Trichogramma pretiosum Riley (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae) on eggs of Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae)
Valéria Lucas Laurentis, Dagmara Gomes Ramalho, Nathália Alves Santos, Vanessa Fabíola Pereira Carvalho, Alessandra Marieli Vacari, Sergio Antonio De Bortoli, Rodrigo Cassio Sola Veneziani, Gabriel da Costa Inácio & Bruno Gomes Dami
Scientific Reports volume 9, (Web Link)

[5] Pereira Paes, J., Souza Lima, V., de Carvalho, J. and pratissoli, D. (2018) “Functional Response of Two Egg Parasitoids of Trichogramma (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae) Genre on Duponchelia fovealis Zeller (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) Eggs”, Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, 20(6), (Web Link)

Latest Research on Larvae: Dec – 2019

4 Development: Eggs and Larvae

Fish eggs and larvae give a comparatively untapped supply of biological material, inflated by enhancements within the techniques for rearing marine species. Most species of fish submit to a larval stage before presumptuous the adult kind at metamorphosis. This chapter discusses the foremost substantial advances that are created within the investigations of marine eggs and larvae. Most fish eggs area unit spherical, though within the anchovy fish genus and bitterling Rhodeus they’re ovoid, and in sure gobies pear-shaped. At hatching, the creature is sometimes clear with some pigment spots of unknown perform. [1]

The physiology of digestion in fish larvae

The acquisition, digestion, and assimilation of food is important for the expansion and survival of fish faunae; a fish larva either grows or it perishes. Fish larvae square measure characterised by biological process systems and diets that disagree from adults. Larvae bear a pattern of biological process growth, dynamic  diet with increasing size, and these changes end in variations in biological process necessities. initially feeding, the larval GI tract is practical, however is structurally and functionally less advanced than that of adults. The larval GI tract remains unchanged histologically throughout the larval amount before transformation. throughout transformation, major changes that end in the event of the adult GI tract occur. [2]

Coral Reef Fish Larvae Settle Close to Home

Population property through larval spreading is a necessary parameter in models of marine population dynamics [1, 2, 3] and also the optimum size and spacing of marine reserves [4, 5, 6]. However, there ar remarkably few direct estimates of larval spreading for marine organisms, and also the actual birth sites of flourishing recruits have not been set. Here, we have a tendency to solve the mystery of the natal origin of clownfish (Amphiprion polymnus) juveniles by mass-marking via bactericide immersion all larvae created during a population. additionally, we have a tendency to established parentage by polymer genotyping all potential adults and every one new recruits incoming within the population. [3]

Novel probiotic approach to counter Paenibacillus larvae infection in honey bees

American foulbrood (AFB) could be a extremely virulent sickness afflicting honey bees (Apis mellifera). The conducive organism, Paenibacillus larvae, attacks honey bee brood and renders entire hives dysfunctional throughout active sickness states, however a lot of ordinarily resides in hives asymptomatically as inactive spores that elude even alert beekeepers. The mechanism of this unhealthful transition isn’t totally understood, and no cure exists for AFB. Here, we have a tendency to evaluated however hive supplementation with probiotic lactobacilli (delivered through a nutrient patty; BioPatty) affected colony resistance towards a present AFB irruption. [4]

Diversity of Gut Bacteria in Spodoptera litura (F) and Helicoverpa armigera (Hubn) Larvae

Gut microorganism diversity in field and laboratory strain of S. litura and H. armigera was studied mistreatment Denaturing Gradient Gel ionophoresis (DGGE) analysis. Results showed that field collected larvae found to be had additional numerous of gut microorganism community with larger Claude Elwood Shannon diversity index and Operational assortment Units (OUT’s) as compared to laboratory strain. Claude Elwood Shannon diversity index of field collected S. litura and H. armigera larvae recorded were one.89 and 2.60 for the primer combine PRBA338-PRUN518 severally. whereas another primer combine E1052-E1193 recorded Claude Elwood Shannon diversity index of two.65 and 2.03 severally. On the contrary laboratory reared larvae of S. litura recorded Claude Elwood Shannon diversity index of one.60 for PRBA338-PRUN518 primer combine and a couple of.20 for E1052-E1193 primer combine. Claude Elwood Shannon diversity index for H. armigera was two.02 and 1.09 against PRBA338-PRUN518 and E1052-E1193 primer pairs severally. [5]


[1] Blaxter, J.T., 1969. 4 Development: Eggs and Larvae. In Fish physiology (Vol. 3, pp. 177-252). Academic Press. (Web Link)

[2] Govoni, J.J., Boehlert, G.W. and Watanabe, Y., 1986. The physiology of digestion in fish larvae. In Contemporary studies on fish feeding: the proceedings of GUTSHOP’84 (pp. 59-78). Springer, Dordrecht. (Web Link)

[3] Jones, G.P., Planes, S. and Thorrold, S.R., 2005. Coral reef fish larvae settle close to home. Current Biology, 15(14), (Web Link)

[4] Novel probiotic approach to counter Paenibacillus larvae infection in honey bees
Brendan A. Daisley, Andrew P. Pitek, John A. Chmiel, Kait F. Al, Anna M. Chernyshova, Kyrillos M. Faragalla, Jeremy P. Burton, Graham J. Thompson & Gregor Reid
The ISME Journal (2019) (Web Link)

[5] Gadad, H., Vastrad, A. S. and Krishnaraj, P. U. (2017) “Diversity of Gut Bacteria in Spodoptera litura (F) and Helicoverpa armigera (Hubn) Larvae”, Annual Research & Review in Biology, 12(1), (Web Link)

Latest Research on Orthoptera: Dec – 2019

Venation pattern of Orthoptera

The revision of many taxa antecedently attributed to the plesion ‘Protorthoptera’ yielded data concerning the venation pattern of Orthoptera and therefore the sister-group relationships of Orthoptera. a brand new wing venation pattern is planned, i.e., (1) a basal composite stem M CuA, distally separated into M and CuA; (2) distal free CuA united with the anterior branch of CuPa (CuPa ‘alpha’). we have a tendency to think about the cluster} Orthoptera as AN apomorphy-based group (sensu Brochu & Sumrall), on the premise of this complicated structure and, additionally by the presence of 2 branches of MA, MA1 and MA2 (but reversed in some recent taxa, having a MA simple). within the stem cluster of Orthoptera, the free a part of CuA is united with CuPa, i.e., CuPa isn’t ramified into CuPa ‘alpha’ and CuPa ‘beta’. Also, MA is easy. [1]

Sound signalling in orthoptera

The sounds made by insect insects square measure terribly numerous. they’re wide studied for the insight they furnish into acoustic behaviour and therefore the biophysical aspects of sound production and hearing, yet because the transduction of sound to neural signals within the ear and therefore the sequent process of knowledge within the central systema nervosum. Some orthopterans decision largely in the dead of night (e.g. most bushcrickets), others decision largely throughout the day (e.g. most grasshoppers), whereas others decision each day and night (e.g. most crickets). The sounds made by insect insects cowl a large vary of sonic frequencies and extend well into the unhearable vary. the dimensions of most species is specified the potency of sound radiation is bigger at higher frequencies. The structure of the songs of insect insects is additionally terribly numerous. [2]

Venation pattern and revision of Orthoptera sensu nov. and sister groups. Phylogeny of Palaeozoic and Mesozoic Orthoptera sensu nov.

After the revision of many fossils and observations of recent taxa, we tend to propose a brand new interpretation of the wing venation pattern for the ‘orthopteroid lineage’. The Orthoptera and a number of other taxa antecedently appointed to the paraphyletic cluster ‘Protorthoptera’ square measure enclosed in an exceedingly common biological group, Archaeorthoptera taxonomic group November. The Orthoptera and a few nearest relative teams square measure enclosed within the Panorthoptera sensu November. These assignments square measure supported new autapomorphies supported venation patterns. A cladistic organic process analysis of the Orthoptera is performed for the primary time on the fossil record of this cluster, supported seventy four characters (131 informative states). 3 taxa appointed to the Archaeorthoptera NEC Panorthoptera compose the outgroup. The circle consists of 3 Panorthoptera NEC Orthoptera and sixty three Orthoptera, chiefly from the Palaeozoic and Mesozoic. Following this primary evolution, we tend to propose many nomenclatural changes; the Ensifera square measure redefined and also the relationships between Caelifera and Ensifera sensu November., and people between the key clades of recent Ensifera sensu November., square measure processed. [3]

Dosage compensation of the sex-linked enzyme phosphoglucomutase in the orthoptera

Sex-linkage of phosphoglucomutase (PGM) is widespread within the Orthoptera. for every of 3 species studied (representing the 2 suborders), the particular activity of PGM in males (the heterogametic sex) is sort of just like that in females, providing evidence that the distinction in cistron dose of a organic phenomenon locus in males and females is salaried within the Orthoptera. The Orthoptera is merely the third cluster that compensation has been incontestable . dose compensation has been investigated in 3 orders of insects: it’s gift in Orthoptera and order Diptera however absent in Lepidoptera. [4]

Meroncidius intermedius (Orthoptera: Tettigoniidae): Incidence and Analysis of Fruits Attacked in Banana Crops in the State of Espírito Santo, Brazil

The objective of this study was to guage the influence of abiotic factors on the incidence of the injury caused by Meroncidius intermedius on Prata cv. Pacovan banana fruits and whether or not such injury interferes within the development and exploitation of the fruits. The experiment was conducted in 2 stages. the primary one was applied at Fazenda Bonadiman, municipality of Iconha E, Brazil, in a section of 02 hectares cultivated with Pacovan banana, Prata selection, during a spacing three|of three} m x 3 m, between the months of June 2016 and should 2017, wherever the incidence of harm was monitored within the monthly harvested fruits. The second stage was applied at the Federal Institute of Education, Science and Technology of Espírito Santo – Santa missioner field, in might of 2018, the measurements of the fruits and also the sensory analysis and intention to shop for broken fruits being applied. As a result, it absolutely was obtained that the close temperature influenced the incidence of pests within the banana crop, being favoured by delicate temperatures, whereas higher temperatures disadvantage the insect inflicting a lower incidence. [5]


[1] Béthoux, O. and Nel, A., 2001. Venation pattern of Orthoptera. Journal of Orthoptera Research, 10(2), (Web Link)

[2] Robinson, D.J. and Hall, M.J., 2002. Sound signalling in Orthoptera. (Web Link)

[3] Béthoux, O. and Nel, A., 2002. Venation pattern and revision of Orthoptera sensu nov. and sister groups. Phylogeny of Palaeozoic and Mesozoic Orthoptera sensu nov. Zootaxa, 96(1), (Web Link)

[4] Dosage compensation of the sex-linked enzyme phosphoglucomutase in the orthoptera
Darcy R Hebbert
Heredity volume 53, (Web Link)

[5] Bonadiman, P. A., Junior, J. L. F., Madalon, F. Z., Carvalho, J. R., Garcia, A. D. B., Pratissoli, D. and Prezotti, L. (2018) “Meroncidius intermedius (Orthoptera: Tettigoniidae): Incidence and Analysis of Fruits Attacked in Banana Crops in the State of Espírito Santo, Brazil”, Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, 28(3),  (Web Link)

Latest News on Lepidoptera Research: Dec – 2019

The Lepidoptera. Form, function and diversity.

This book is a precis of the morphology of the Lepidoptera with regards to their phylogeny and is meant for the ones interested in the overall biology and variety of this order. In the primary element, the person head, thorax and stomach are discussed in separate chapters. After managing simple morphology, the characteristic of various structures is printed. The morphology of immature Lepidoptera is the problem of the 5th bankruptcy, with an emphasis on the adaptive radiation of larvae and the importance of eggs, larvae and pupae in lepidopteran class. Hearing organs, stridulatory systems and fragrance brushes and glands are mentioned in Chapter 6, with precise reference to hearing in person Lepidoptera. Issues that appear to be the essence of the environmental significance of the Lepidoptera are summarized in the 2nd a part of the e-book. [1]

DNA barcodes distinguish species of tropical Lepidoptera

Although critical to plenty organic research, the identity of species is regularly tough. The use of DNA barcodes, short DNA sequences from a standardized vicinity of the genome, has these days been proposed as a device to facilitate species identification and discovery. However, the effectiveness of DNA barcoding for identifying specimens in species-rich tropical biotas is unknown. Here we show that cytochrome c oxidase I DNA barcodes successfully discriminate among species in 3 Lepidoptera households from Area de Conservación Guanacaste in northwestern Costa Rica. We determined that ninety seven.9% of the 521 species recognized by means of prior taxonomic paintings possess unique cytochrome c oxidase I barcodes and that the few instances of interspecific collection overlap contain very comparable species. We additionally found two or more barcode clusters within every of 13 supposedly single species. Covariation among these clusters and morphological and/or ecological traits shows disregarded species complexes. [2]

Olfaction in Lepidoptera

Odours play a very critical function within the existence of insects belonging to the order Lepidoptera. In the existing paper, a evaluation is given of the contemporary expertise of morphology, improvement and function of the olfactory device in larval and person moths and butterflies. Research regarding both the antennal and accent olfactory pathways, as well as both the pheromone and the host odour detecting structures, is reviewed. [3]

Antennal transcriptome analyses and olfactory protein identification in an important wood-boring moth pest, Streltzoviella insularis (Lepidoptera: Cossidae)

Olfaction plays key roles in insect survival and replica, including feeding, courtship, mating, and oviposition. The olfactory-based totally manage techniques had been evolved an important manner for pest management. Streltzoviella insularis is a unfavorable insect pest of many road tree species, and characterization of its olfactory proteins should offer objectives for the disruption in their odour popularity strategies and for city forestry protection. In this take a look at, we assembled the antennal transcriptome of S. Insularis by subsequent-era sequencing and annotated the principle olfactory multi-gene households, consisting of 28 odorant-binding proteins (OBPs), 12 chemosensory proteins (CSPs), fifty six odorant receptors (ORs), eleven ionotropic receptors (IRs), two sensory neuron membrane proteins (SNMPs), and one hundred and one odorant-degrading enzymes (ODEs). [4]

Light-emitting Diodes (LED) as Luminous Lure for Adult Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith, 1797) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae)

The seize of insects thru luminous resources can constitute another option for included pest management (IPM). The cause of this examine become to verify the beauty of different-coloured Light-Emitting Diodes (LED) on adult Spodoptera frugiperda. The research changed into carried out at the Entomology Laboratory of Plant Breeding and Environmental Sciences Department, Federal University of Paraíba’s Agricultural Sciences Center – CCA/UFPB, Areia-PB. An environment composed of two plastic packing containers related by means of a PVC pipe turned into assembled for this study. Adult subjects of S. Frugiperda had been inserted into this sort of bins, and the opposite field was used to house the lamp. Ultra LED lamps had been used as mild supply. Different hues of light viz., yellow, green, white, purple, and blue, every certainly one of them with precise wavelengths, illuminance, and exposure period have been used. The examine found out that the splendor rate for grownup subjects of S. [5]


[1] Scoble, M.J., 1992. The Lepidoptera. Form, function and diversity. Oxford University Press. (Web Link)

[2] Hajibabaei, M., Janzen, D.H., Burns, J.M., Hallwachs, W. and Hebert, P.D., 2006. DNA barcodes distinguish species of tropical Lepidoptera. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 103(4), (Web Link)

[3] Hansson, B.S., 1995. Olfaction in lepidoptera. Experientia, 51(11), (Web Link)

[4] Antennal transcriptome analyses and olfactory protein identification in an important wood-boring moth pest, Streltzoviella insularis (Lepidoptera: Cossidae)
Yuchao Yang, Wenbo Li, Jing Tao & Shixiang Zong
Scientific Reports volume 9, Article number: 17951 (2019) (Web Link)

[5] Nunes do Nascimento, I., Machado de Oliveira, G., Santos de Souza, M. dos, Silva Nunes, G. da, Carlos Leite Alves, A., Martins de Araújo, H. and Luna Batista, J. de (2018) “Light-emitting Diodes (LED) as Luminous Lure for Adult Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith, 1797) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae)”, Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, 25(4), (Web Link)