A Unified 3-R Outlook for Interior Water Treatment
Water is critical for all life on the planet. Rapid industrialization and urbanization has caused India to face a water crisis since it has only 4 percent of the world’s water resources. In order to resolve the crisis, India has to look for alternative water resources which may include rainwater harvesting, grey water and sewage reuse and desalination. Grey water is defined as waste water generated from the bathroom, laundry and kitchens. Nearly 70 percent of the water used in households results in grey water which can be treated using simple technology and reused. Reuse of grey water reduces the fresh water requirements and reduces the amount of sewage sent to treatment plants. An integrated approach is needed to manage the water and waste water treatment so that water supply is kept clean and waste water is recycled for beneficial use in agriculture and industry. Water and energy are important resources in the 21st century. Water is required to supply energy and energy is required to supply water. The reclamation of wastewater can contribute significantly to the conservation of water and energy resources. Wastewater reclamation and reuse can relieve water scarcity. Reclaimed wastewater can be substituted for natural water. Wastewater is now extensively recognized as an important source of water in water-scarce countries. In recent years not only the threats of improper grey water management have been recognized; there is an increasing international recognition that grey water reuse, if properly done, has a great potential as alternative water source for purposes such as irrigation, toilet flushing, car washing and others. The economic value of grey water from households and small communities is often underestimated. In terms of nutrients, grey water may largely replace commercial fertilizers. For many low-income households, food is the main total daily cost factor. Grey water-irrigated gardens and crop trees develop favorably if certain irrigation rules are followed. Use of treated grey water for irrigation thus contributes to a more balanced food diet and relieves the household budget.
K. Neetha Delphin Mary
Department of Civil Engineering, SRS College of Engineering and Technology, Kuppanur, Salem-636 122, Tamil Nadu, India.
Dr. N. Muralimohan
Department of Civil Engineering, K.S.R College of Engineering, Tiruchengode, Namakkal-637 215, Tamil Nadu, India.
Dr. P. Vijayalakshmi
Department of Environmental Science, Tamil Nadu Pollution Control Board, Chennai, India.
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