Role of Atomic-Molecular Formations in Chemistry
An important task of chemistry is to establish patterns of dependence on the property of substances on its composition and structure. That is, any link of atomic and molecular formations exhibit physicochemical properties depending on the given conditions,expressing structural and energetic correspondence as part of a material object. Consequently, the task set requires an in-depth study of the dependence on the micro-macroscopic properties of substances on the nature of its constituent elements with its specific characteristics as a whole. Separate consideration of the structural elements of the micro-macroscopic formation of this system without regard to their interaction, in many cases leads to a distortion of reality. At the same time, substances, according to the statements of M. Faraday, continuously make energy exchange with the environment. The analysis of phase equilibrium carried out by G. Gibbs shows that the state of the system is described by thermodynamic parameters (temperature, pressure, volume, chemical potential, etc.), changes in which determine the conditions of the process. The process is characterized by transfer of energy between material objects to create work (chemical, mechanical, electrical, etc.) and physico-chemical manifestationsin the form of heat, light, etc. Identifying the mechanism of energy transfer, the nature of energy storage in material substances is not well understood. For the rational use of different types of energy, fundamental research should be carried out, whichrequires specific scientific concepts and definitions in the field of atomic-molecular formations. In this question, there remains an inconsistency between individual natural sciences, as well as within the same industry in the interpretation of certain conceptual and terminological definitions of matters. “Chemical individual”represents the elementary lattice of a condensed substance or the minimum group of”chemical elements”connected in the form of chemical, metallic, coordination and intermolecular bonds, which determine the structure, composition and properties of this system.The “chemical individual”defines the mechanism of macrostructure formation,i.e. is the source ofcertain chemical information that affects the structure of the final reaction products. The amount of a substance will allow one to study reactions using the chemical formulas of the reacting substances, to compile stoichiometric and kinetic equations in accordance with their “chemical equivalents”. A chemical formula is a conditional notation depicting the elemental composition of a substance with the help of symbols of chemical elements. Because of the identity of the elemental composition of the “elementary chemical compound” and “substance” usually the latter is called a chemical compound, not turning to the micro-macro levels of material formations.
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