Background: Tuberculosis is the world’s second most common cause of infectious disease death, trailing only AIDS. The prevalence of all kinds of tuberculosis among children in India is unknown; most surveys have concentrated on pulmonary tuberculosis. The goal of this study was to look at the clinical profile of different forms of childhood EPTB. The goal of this study was to look at the clinico-epidemiological profile of different types of childhood EPTB.
The goal of this study was to look at how different forms of extrapulmonary tuberculosis affect children as they become older, as well as to look at the demographic profile and diverse clinical presentations of paediatric extrapulmonary tuberculosis.
Methods: A retrospective review of the clinical profiles of 100 children with EPTB aged 6 months to 12 years.
Results: 62 percent of the cases in our study were aged 0-5 years, 38 percent were aged 5-12 years (P = 0.041), with a male to female ratio of 1.9:1. 96 percent (P = 0.016) of the patients were from a lower socioeconomic level (P = 0.01). TBME (46%) was the most common kind of EPTB, followed by disseminated TB (21%), pleural effusion (12%), abdominal TB (10%), TB lymphadenitis (7%), and osteoarticular TB (2%). (4 percent ). Mild to moderate malnutrition (PEM Grades I, II) affected 28% of the patients, while severe malnutrition affected 46% (PEM Grades III, IV). BCG vaccination was given to 66% of the patients, and there was a history of Koch’s contact in 28% of the cases. In 97 percent of CNS tuberculosis patients, fever was present, followed by altered sensorium and convulsion in 80%, tonic posture in 60%, and aberrant movements in 4%. Tonic posturing was the most common indication in 60% of cases, followed by the crack pot sign in 41%. Fever (100%), anorexia (90%), weight loss (80%), abdominal discomfort (50%) and hepatomegaly were all common symptoms in 100 percent of cases of abdominal TB.
Conclusion: EPTB among children over the age of one year, children from lower socioeconomic strata, and children who are extremely malnourished are the most common. Fever, altered sensorium, convulsions, and aberrant movements characterise CNS TB, whereas fever, anorexia, weight loss, and stomach pain characterise abdominal tuberculosis.
Dhara K. Gosai
Department of Pediatrics, B. J. Medical College and Civil Hospital, Ahmedabad, Gujarat, India.
Jigar B. Gosai
Department of Emergency Medicine, B. J. Medical College and Civil Hospital, Ahmedabad, Gujarat, India.
Omprakash S. Shukla
Department of Pediatrics, Baroda Medical College and S. S. G. Hospital, Vadodara, Gujarat, India.