Flexible bronchoscopy is a key ability for professionals in critical care, pulmonary medicine, and thoracic surgery, among other fields. Traditionally, this skill has been taught through an apprenticeship paradigm, which has known drawbacks in terms of patient safety, procedural volume, and training variability. Simulation-based bronchoscopy training enables for learning in a safe, low-stress setting with no risk to the patient, as well as purposeful practise. With high-quality research suggesting quicker bronchoscopy skill acquisition, increases in muscle memory, and hand-eye coordination, as well as increased trainee satisfaction, simulation-based training is gaining traction. Studies have also shown that abilities learned in simulation training can be transferred to clinical practise. High-fidelity simulators or low-fidelity simulators can be used to give simulation training, with the latter typically incorporating inanimate objects. Low-fidelity models lack realism, flexibility, and application for specific pathologies, even if research shows that bronchoscopy-assisted intubation is more successful than standard training methods. Virtual reality bronchoscopy simulators, for example, provide a highly realistic environment with the added benefit of integrated feedback elements and assessment via quantitative measures of objective data. Using tools like the Endobronchial Ultrasound-guided Transbronchial Needle Aspiration questionnaire and the Bronchoscopy Skills and Tasks Assessment tool, simulation provides for both standardisation of bronchoscopic training and competency assessment. Despite the various advantages of simulation-based training, acceptance has been slow and inconsistent, possibly due to trainer preferences for traditional training techniques, the expense of simulation equipment, and the time required to implement simulation-based training programmes.

Author (S) Details

Jack A. Kastelik
Department of Respiratory Medicine and Cardiothoracic Surgery, Castle Hill Hospital, Hull University Teaching Hospitals NHS Trust, University of Hull and Hull York Medical School, UK.

Shereen Ajab
Department of Respiratory Medicine and Cardiothoracic Surgery, Castle Hill Hospital, Hull University Teaching Hospitals NHS Trust, University of Hull and Hull York Medical School, UK.

Mahmoud Loubani
Department of Respiratory Medicine and Cardiothoracic Surgery, Castle Hill Hospital, Hull University Teaching Hospitals NHS Trust, University of Hull and Hull York Medical School, UK.

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