Water and Waterborne Diseases: A Review
Despite numerous efforts by government at various levels and other agencies interested in water and its safety, waterborne diseases are still a major public health and environmental concern. The huge investment towards water research, although worth the spending, has not yielded the much expected result as waterborne diseases continue to plague developing countries with Africa and Asia having the worse hit. The unavailability of pipe-borne water and the dependence of rural dwellers on surface waters which are often contaminated with faecal materials are undoubtedly the major causes of the rising prevalence of waterborne diseases. Water availability and poor hygienic practices amongst these rural dwellers are also of paramount concern as they play significant roles in the spread of water-washed diseases. Also, poor environmental practice which encourages the breeding of insects and other forms of vectors within residential areas contribute to the increasing prevalence of waterborne diseases. This review focuses on waterborne diseases, its classification and the various methods employed in the bacteriological analysis of water.