Latest Research on Farm Income: Feb – 2020

Farm Income Variability and the Supply of Off‐Farm Labor

If farmers are risk averse, greater farm income variability should increase off‐farm labor supply. This effect is confirmed for a sample of Kansas farmers. Off‐farm employment of farmers and their spouses is additionally found to be significantly influenced by farm experience, off‐farm work experience, farm size, leverage, efficiency, and farm‐specific education. additionally , farm operators and spouses who receive significant income support through government farm programs are less likely to figure off the farm. this might suggest that policy changes reducing farm income support payments may increase off‐farm employment of farmers and their spouses. [1]

Impact of off-farm income on food security and nutrition in Nigeria

While the poverty implications of off-farm income are analyzed in several developing countries, much less is understood about the impact of off-farm income on household food security and nutrition. Here, this research gap is addressed by using farm survey data from Nigeria. Econometric analyses are employed to look at the mechanisms through which off-farm income affects household calorie and micronutrient supply, dietary quality, and child anthropometry. we discover that off-farm income features a positive net effect on food security and nutrition. The prevalence of kid stunting, underweight, and wasting is lower in households with off-farm income than in households without. employing a structural model, we also show that off-farm income contributes to higher food production and farm income by easing capital constraints, thus improving household welfare in multiple ways. [2]

Stability of Farm Income and the Role of Nonfarm Income in U.S. Agriculture

This study measures the variability in real net farm income within the U.S. agricultural sector and per farm and determines if variability has diminished over 1933 to 1999. Second, the role of nonfarm income in reducing the variability in total farm household income is examined. Results indicate that the variability in real net farm income within the sector and at the farm level has not diminished which nonfarm income has helped to scale back the variability in total farm household income. [3]

Heat stress increases long-term human migration in rural Pakistan

Human migration due to climate events has recently received significant attention from the tutorial and policy communities 1,2. Quantitative evidence on the connection between individual, permanent migration and natural disasters is restricted 3,4,5,6,7,8,9. A 21-year longitudinal survey conducted in rural Pakistan (1991–2012) provides a singular opportunity to know the connection between weather and long-term migration. We link individual-level information from this survey to satellite-derived measures of climate variability and control for potential confounders employing a multivariate approach. we discover that flooding—a climate shock related to large relief efforts—has modest to insignificant impacts on migration. [4]

Farm and Non-farm Income Diversification in Selected Areas of Sunamganj District of Bangladesh

Rural income diversification by increasing income and reducing risk of vulnerability help the poor farmers to enhance their standard of living. The study assesses the occupational patterns, sources of income diversification and factors that affect farmer’s decision towards income diversification. The findings are going to be extended to the agricultural farmers to spot their potential socioeconomic indicators that affect their livelihood diversification decision. Two villages of Sunamganj district of Bangladesh was purposively selected for this study. The results of the analyses showed that the utmost farmers (25) were following the crop cultivation + fish catching + non-farm occupational pattern. The Simpson index of diversification (SID) showed that the low, medium and high levels of diversified farmers were about 23 percent, 43 percent, and 13 percent, respectively. [5]


[1] Mishra, A.K. and Goodwin, B.K., 1997. Farm income variability and the supply of off‐farm labor. American Journal of Agricultural Economics, 79(3), (Web Link)

[2] Babatunde, R.O. and Qaim, M., 2010. Impact of off-farm income on food security and nutrition in Nigeria. Food policy, 35(4), (Web Link)

[3] Mishra, A.K. and Sandretto, C.L., 2002. Stability of farm income and the role of nonfarm income in US agriculture. Applied Economic Perspectives and Policy, 24(1), (Web Link)

[4] Heat stress increases long-term human migration in rural Pakistan
V. Mueller, C. Gray & K. Kosec
Nature Climate Change volume 4, (Web Link)

[5] Sherf-Ul-Alam, M., Ahmed, J., Mannaf, M., Fatema, K. and Mozahid, M. (2017) “Farm and Non-farm Income Diversification in Selected Areas of Sunamganj District of Bangladesh”, Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, 21(2), (Web Link)

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