The intellectual capital of an organization in modern business has become a key factor in contemporary market competition. In order to remain competitive, companies must own, build and maintain human resources that become rare, irreplaceable and difficult to copy. In recent years, the interest in the field of human resource management (HRM) is increasing. This study is an attempt to investigate the level of appropriateness of the organizational structure of public services in Serbia for the implementation of effective HRM. The basis of the research were the employees in public services in the territory of Srem, one of the regions in Serbia. Basic assumption was that there is a significant correlation between the type of organizational structure and success of HRM application in public services and this study has proven it. Research and analysis of the results obtained have indicated that present centralized organizational structure and high hierarchical management of public services do not represent a suitable basis for successful realization of HRM, and at the same time, the relevant factors that have negative impact of HRM success were identified.