In the West, numerous intelligence theories were put forward, including the Multiple Intelligences (MI) suggested by Gardner, which is the most common. Eight constructs are included in MI theory , i.e. verballinguistic intelligence (VL), logical-mathematical intelligence (LM), visual-spatial intelligence (VS), physical-kinesthetic intelligence (BK), musical intelligence (MZ), interpersonal intelligence (IE), intrapersonal intelligence (IA) and naturalist intelligence (NR). The ninth intelligence introduced by Gardner  is spiritual intelligence (SI). In the spiritual intelligence sense, this concept paper aims to equate the theory of MI by the West with Islamic perspectives. As the construction of the MI is still being debated among Western scholars, researchers feel called upon to discuss this issue. Among Islamic scholars, it has also been discussed widely. The MI constructions are based on the Quran and the As-Sunnah, which consist of seven realms, namely seven domains, from the Islamic perspective. The soul (al-ruh), qalbu (al-qalb), heart (al-nafs), mind (al-‘aql)), philosophy, practise and morality. To gain a deeper understanding, discussions of spiritual intelligence constructs, which are one of the constructs in MI theory, are required. The discussion must emphasise how its goals can be accomplished by applying the MI theory for teaching and learning processes. Furthermore, the comparative study of spiritual intelligence between Western and Islamic concepts would emphasise the convergence with the mainly Muslim Malaysian culture of interesting concepts in MI theory to improve spiritual intelligence. It can be inferred that Gardner himself opened up SI ‘s description and dimensions to a more detailed and holistic discussion and analysis. This is a challenge for Muslim scholars to stress the reality of the theory of SI as a missionary from an Islamic viewpoint.
Syuzianti Shaari Sekolah Kebangsaan Leftenan Adnan, Sungai Ramal Luar, Kajang, Malaysia.
Mohd Effendi Ewan Mohd Matore Centre of Educational Planning and Policy, Faculty of Education, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Bangi, Selangor, Malaysia.