This thesis deals with the study of the band structure and silicon state density using the first-principle pseudopotential approach, based on the functional density theory (DFT) and the plane-wave method as implemented in the Quantum Espresso kit (this is an open source program for electronic structure science, simulations, and material optimizations). The band gap value found varies from -0.2 and +0.6 eV. The peaks of- 3.0 eV to- 3.5eV and 5.50eV to 7.5eV for Si material can be observed from the DOS graph. Palm juice is an alcoholic beverage obtained naturally from the sap of various palm tree species, such as Palmyra, date palms and coconut palms, known by many local names. In various regions, it is known by different names and is popular in different parts of Asia. This study therefore aims to establish the combined effect on the quality of spermatozoa of the giant grouper, Epinephelus lanceolatus (Bloch, 1970), after frozen storage of 6 percent glycerol with different concentrations of palm date juice. The hand stripping process was used to obtain the giant grouper semen, and the diluent used is a mixture of marine fish ringers, 6 percent glycerol, and varying amounts of palm date extract (5 percent ; 10 percent ; 15 percent ; 20 percent ; and 25 percent ). In addition, equilibration was carried out for 10 minutes at 4 oC, and sperm storage was carried out for 48 hours at -20 °C. The thawing was carried out for 30 seconds at 45 oC. The semen was assessed macroscopically (color, volume and pH) and microscopically (motility, viability and abnormalities) as well as the ability to fertilize Epinephelus fuscogutatus tiger grouper eggs (Forskal, 1775). There was a substantial difference (p<0.05) in motility, defects, and the ability of post-frozen giant grouper spermatozoa to fertilize based on the results of the ANOVA test followed by the Tukey test, but this had no significant impact (p>0.05) on the viability of spermatozoa. The findings indicated that the optimal concentration was the treatment of 10 percent palm date juice because it showed the average motility percentage value, and the highest fertility was 76.70 ± 1.54 percent and 66.25 ± 3.23 percent, and the lowest abnormality was 21.53 ± 0.84 percent, while the viability percentage was 77.67 ± 5.78 percent.
Author (s) Details
Department of Biology, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences (FMIPA), Universitas Indonesia, Depok 16424, Indonesia.
View Book :- https://stm.bookpi.org/AAER-V2/issue/view/31