Latest Research on Rainfall: Oct – 2019

Rainfall infiltration into bare soils

Raindrop impact destroys the surface aggregates of soils and gradually forms a continuous crust. Infiltration rates of bare soils are determined by this process. A theoretical model presented previously was tested under field conditions with a sandy loam soil. The effect of the crust’s structure was tested under three rainfall intensities and in wetting and drying cycles. The results of the tests confirmed the theoretical model. [1]

Predicting rainfall erosion losses – a guide to conservation planning.

Scientific coming up with for soil and conservation needs information of the relations between those factors that cause loss of soil and water and people that facilitate to cut back such losses. The soil loss prediction procedure given during this vade mecum provides specific pointers that are required for choosing the management practices best suited to the actual wants of every web site. The procedure is based on Associate in Nursing empirical soil loss equation that’s believed to be applicable where numerical values of it factors are out there. [2]

The WSR-88D Rainfall Algorithm

A detailed description of the operational WSR-88D precipitation estimation algorithmic program is given. This algorithmic program, known as the Precipitation process System, produces radar-derived precipitation product in real time for forecasters in support of the National Weather Service’s warning and forecast missions. It transforms reflectivity issue measurements into precipitation accumulations and incorporates gage knowledge to enhance the microwave radar estimates. The product ar used as steerage to issue flood watches and warnings to the general public and as input into numerical hydrologic and part models. The process steps to internal control and work out the precipitation estimates ar delineated , and also the current deficiencies and future plans for improvement ar mentioned. [3]

Deciphering key processes controlling rainfall isotopic variability during extreme tropical cyclones

The Mesoamerican and Caribbean (MAC) region is characterised by tropical cyclones (TCs), sturdy El Niño-Southern Oscillation events, and climate variability that bring distinctive hazards to socio-ecological systems. Here we tend to report the primary characterization of the atom evolution of a TC (Hurricane Otto, 2016) within the mackintosh region. we tend to use semipermanent daily downfall isotopes from Costa Rica and event-based sampling of Hurricanes Irma and Maria (2017), to underpin the changing drivers of TC atom ratios. throughout cyclone Otto, downfall exhibited an oversized atom vary, similar to the annual atom cycle. As cyclone Otto organized into a class three, speedy atom depletion let alone a decrease in d-excess indicates economical isotopic fractionation at intervals ~200 kilometer SW of the nice and cozy core. [4]

Assessment of Prediction Schemes for Estimating Rainfall Onset over Different Climatic Zones in West Africa

This study compares the prophetical skills of some normally used prediction schemes to estimate dates of onset of precipitation in varied climatical regions of geographic region. Specifically, the skills of seven totally different schemes, that square measure comparatively straightforward to use on an oversized scale, were compared from 1980 to 2014 over the 3 major climatical regions (Forest, Guinea and Sudan-Sahel savannah) of African country. 3 of them square measure obsessed with precipitation knowledge (ogive, daily precipitation chance and Walter-Olaniran methods); 3 on rain-evapotranspiration relation (Benoit, Anyadike, Kowal and Knabe) and one obsessed with equivalent potential temperature (Theta-E). The prediction schemes incontestible that the onset dates were abundant earlier (from Julian day 061 to 084) within the south than (146 to 162) the north. [5]

Reference

[1] Morin, J. and Benyamini, Y., 1977. Rainfall infiltration into bare soils. Water Resources Research, 13(5), (Web Link)

[2] Wischmeier, W.H. and Smith, D.D., 1978. Predicting rainfall erosion losses-a guide to conservation planning. Predicting rainfall erosion losses-a guide to conservation planning. (Web Link)

[3] Fulton, R.A., Breidenbach, J.P., Seo, D.J., Miller, D.A. and O’Bannon, T., 1998. The WSR-88D rainfall algorithm. Weather and Forecasting, 13(2), (Web Link)

[4] Deciphering key processes controlling rainfall isotopic variability during extreme tropical cyclones
Ricardo Sánchez-Murillo, Ana M. Durán-Quesada, Germain Esquivel-Hernández, Daniela Rojas-Cantillano, Christian Birkel, Kristen Welsh, Minerva Sánchez-Llull, Carlos M. Alonso-Hernández, Doerthe Tetzlaff, Chris Soulsby, Jan Boll, Naoyuki Kurita & Kim M. Cobb
Nature Communicationsvolume 10, Article number: 4321 (2019) (Web Link)

[5] J. Matthew, O., G. Imasogie, O., A. Ayoola, M., E. Abiye, O. and A. Sunmonu, L. (2017) “Assessment of Prediction Schemes for Estimating Rainfall Onset over Different Climatic Zones in West Africa”, Journal of Geography, Environment and Earth Science International, 9(1), (Web Link)

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