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Results of numerical modeling of global distributions of the horizontal and vertical wind in the Earth’s middle atmosphere are presented and discussed. For obtaining the presented simulation results, the mathematical model of the global neutral wind system of the Earth’s atmosphere, developed earlier in the Polar Geophysical Institute, was applied. The peculiarity of the utilized model consists in that the internal energy equation for the neutral gas is not solved in the model calculations. Instead, the global temperature field is assumed to be a given distribution, i.e. the input parameter of the model. Moreover, in the model calculations, not only the horizontal components but also the vertical component of the neutral wind velocity is obtained by means of a numerical solution of a generalized Navier-Stokes equation for compressible gas, so the applied mathematical model is non-hydrostatic. The utilized model enables to calculate three-dimensional global distributions of the zonal, meridional, and vertical components of the neutral wind at levels of the troposphere, stratosphere, mesosphere, and lower thermosphere. In the present work the mathematical model is applied for investigation of the influence of horizontal non-uniformity of the neutral gas temperature on the formation of the Earth’s atmosphere circulation for conditions corresponding to four different seasons (winter, spring, summer, and autumn). Also, the mathematical model is applied for investigation of the influence of solar activity on the formation of the large-scale global circulation of the Earth’s atmosphere. The results of simulation indicate that the horizontal non-uniformity of the neutral gas temperature, which is distinct in different seasons, ought to considerably influence the formation of the global neutral wind system in the middle atmosphere, in particular, the large-scale circumpolar vortices of the northern and southern hemispheres. Also, the simulation results indicate that solar activity ought to influence considerably on the formation of global neutral wind system in the mesosphere and lower thermosphere. The influence is conditioned by the vertical transport of air from the lower thermosphere to the mesosphere and stratosphere. This transport may be rather different under distinct solar activity conditions.

**Author(s) Details**

**Igor V. Mingalev **

Polar Geophysical Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, Academgorodok Str. 26a, Apatity 184209, Murmansk Region, Russia.

**Konstantin G. Orlov **

Polar Geophysical Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, Academgorodok Str. 26a, Apatity 184209, Murmansk Region, Russia.

**Victor S. Mingalev**

Polar Geophysical Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, Academgorodok Str. 26a, Apatity 184209, Murmansk Region, Russia.

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