Background: Primary squamous cell carcinoma of renal pelvis/kidney (PSCCRP/K) is rare with controversies regarding its histogenesis.
Aim: To review the literature.
Methods: Various internet data bases were searched.
Literature Review: Few cases of PSCCRP/K have been reported with only three cases of PSCC of the renal parenchyma without involvement of renal pelvis. Some PSCCRP/Ks have been associated with renal calculi, chronic infections, vesicoureteric reflux. Some cases had developed many years following successful percutaneous nephrolithotomy; a case was reported many years after curative radiotherapy for testicular tumour. The tumours are initially diagnosed in advanced stages; generally the prognosis has been poor following nephrectomy/nephrouretectomy. Conventional radiology imaging features of the disease are non-specific and cannot differentiate the lesion from other tumours or xanthogranulomatous pyelonephritis. Diagnosis is based upon strict histopathological criteria of the microscopic characteristics of the tumour. Primary tumour elsewhere should be excluded with radiological imaging. PSCCRP/K should be suspected when a renal/renal pelvis mass is found with a history of chronic or past stone disease treatment. Perhaps if patients who have undergone treatment for kidney stones are carefully followed-up with radiological imaging, (for example, ultra-sound-scans and/or MRI and when eventually required a CT scan properly indicated and performed) for a long time, PSCCR/Ks may be diagnosed at an early stage of the disease in order to provide early curative treatment.
Conclusions: PSCCRP/Ks have been reported sporadically and a number of them have been associated with renal calculi and chronic infections of the urinary tract. These malignancies on the whole are initially diagnosed in advanced stages and hence associated with poor prognosis. Histopathology examination of the lesion so far is the definite way to confirm the diagnosis. PSCCRP/K should be considered a differential diagnosis when a patient is found to have a renal / renal pelvis mass and a history of treatment for renal pelvis calculi, or chronic inflammations.