The Glutathione S-Transferase Activities in the Evaluation Acute Viral Hepatitis B and Chronic Alcoholic Liver Disease

Glutathione S-Transferase is an important hepatic detoxifying enzyme. Half-life of GST alpha in plasma is about 1 hr; its concentration follows the changes in the hepatocellular damage more rapidly than aspartate amino transferase (AST) or alanine amino transferase (ALT).

Aim and Objectives: To validate chronic alcoholic liver disease and acute viral hepatitis B could produce any significant changes in serum glutathione S-transferase activities.

Materials and Methods: A total of 120 samples were used in the present research. 20 hepatitis B patient 40 chronic alcoholic hepatitis patients and 60 age and sex matched control subjects. Serum GST activity and standard LFT (Liver Function Test) parameters done.

Results: GST activity showed a significantly increase (p value< 0.001) in chronic alcoholic liver disease patients (22.293±4.159 IU/L vs 20.127±4.789 IU/L) and in acute viral hepatitis (23.685±6.751 IU/L vs 20.127±4.789 IU/L). In multiple logistic regression analysis when GST measurement was added to a LFT, the diagnostic significance increased from R2=0.792 to 0.884 in acute viral hepatitis B and from R2= 0.843 to 0.849 in chronic alcoholic cirrhosis. Standard LFT parameters are significantly different in both groups. Area under ROC (Receiver Operative Characteristic Curve) is 0.952 for model having albumin+ ALT which is increased to 0.992 after addition of GST in previous model in acute viral Hepatitis B. While in alcoholic Hepatitis Area under ROC is 0.966 for model having albumin+ ALT which is increased to 0.974 after addition of GST in previous model.

Conclusion: GST activity may provide additional LFT measurement to the current battery of tests to differentiate acute hepatitis B and alcoholic liver disease from normal population and may improve the evaluation of Hepatitis B virus and alcoholic cirrhosis when added to routine LFT parameters.

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