Assessment of Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Adult General Out-patient Clinics in Nigeria: A Country Analysis of The Africa and Middle East Cardiovascular Epidemiological (ACE) Study

Assessment of Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Adult General Out-patient Clinics in Nigeria: A Country Analysis of The Africa and Middle East Cardiovascular Epidemiological (ACE) Study

Context: Demographic and epidemiological changes have become significant determinants for the emergence of cardiovascular disease with globalization and rapid urbanization (CVD). In recent decades, cardiovascular disease (CVD) has emerged as a significant cause of morbidity and mortality globally. An estimated 17 million deaths worldwide were attributed to CVD in 2002, and by 2020, CVD or stroke is expected to become the world’s leading cause of morbidity and mortality.

Objective: To estimate the prevalence in urban and rural Nigeria of CVD risk factors in adult outpatients attending general practice and non-specialist clinics. Methods: A cross-sectional epidemiological analysis of the presence of hypertension, diabetes mellitus, dyslipidemia, obesity, smoking and abdominal obesity in Nigeria was performed as part of the Africa and Middle East Cardiovascular Epidemiological (ACE) Study.

Results: Overall, 303 subjects were analyzed from 8 out-patient general practice clinics, 184 (60.7%) were female and 119 (39.3%) were male. The mean age was 42.7±13.1 years; 51.8% were <45 years of age; 4% were <65 years of age. Of 6 selected modifiable cardiovascular risk factors, over 90 percent of subjects had around 1: 138 (45.6 percent) had 1-2; 65 (21.5 percent) had 3; 60 (19.8 percent) had 4; and 11 (3.6 percent) had 5 concurrent risk factors. Screening reported 206 dyslipidemia subjects (68.0 percent) who did not have a previous diagnosis.

Conclusion: In Nigerian subjects visiting out-patient clinics, cardiovascular risk factors are extremely prevalent. In addition, several participants were undiagnosed and thus unaware of their state of cardiovascular risk. In adults attending general out-patient clinics in Nigeria, cardiovascular risk factors are highly prevalent, many of which were undiagnosed and thus unaware of their cardiovascular risk status prior to screening. In addition to intensive national, multisectoral education or risk factor education, opportunistic screening should be required, nationally scaled up and implemented in both urban and rural communities in Nigeria.

Author(s) Details

Geoffrey C. Onyemelukwe
Department of Medicine, Ahmadu Bello University Teaching Hospital Zaria, Zaria, Nigeria.

Oluwagbenga Ogunfowokan
Department of Family Medicine, National Hospital Abuja, Abuja, Nigeria.

Amam Mbakwem
Department of Medicine, Lagos University Teaching Hospital, Lagos, Nigeria.

A. Kayode Alao
Department of Family Medicine, Federal Medical Centre Keffi, Nigeria.

Kodjo Soroh
Pfizer Specialties Ltd, Nigeria/East Africa Region, Lagos, Nigeria.

Osahon Omorodion
Pfizer Specialties Ltd, Nigeria/East Africa Region, Lagos, Nigeria.

Paula Abreu
Pfizer Inc, New York, NY, USA.

View Book:- https://stm.bookpi.org/CDHR-V5/issue/view/7

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