Prevalence of Type II Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM) and Risk Factors among Rural Farmers: Critical Study

Prevalence of Type II Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM) and Risk Factors among Rural Farmers: Critical Study

Aim: To determine prevalence of T2DM and risk factors among rural farmers of Panyam in Plateau Central, Nigeria. Background: Diabetes mellitus is one of the commonest metabolic disorder characterized by persistent hyperglycemia due to lack of insulin secretion or inactivity of insulin resulting in risk of microangiopathy and macroangiopathy [1,2]. Many lifestyle factors affect the incidence of Type II Diabetes Mellitus, which includes cigarette smoking, inactivity and heavy alcohol consumption that could cause hyperuriceamia. Other risk factors include obesity, age, family history. Materials and Methods: The study population consisted of 200 adults above 40 years mainly farmers. Both females and males were recruited into the study. Venous blood (2.5 ml) was collected into fluoride-oxalate and transported to the chemical pathology lab in JUTH within 2 using enzymatic uricase method for serum uric assay. The reference interval for SUA if 120-420 µmol/L. Glucose was determined by glucose oxidase method. The coefficient of variation of glucose is 6.4% at 5.6 mmol/L and 2.1% at 18.3 mmol/L. The reference interval for serum glucose is 3.5-5.9 mmol/L. Results: The data obtained were coded and entered into State Software for analysis. The data are presented as mean ±S.D. comparison was done by student’s t-test for continuous variables. The overall crude prevalence of T2DM in Panyam farmers was 5.5% while for males and females prevalence was 4% and 6% respectively. A BMI of >30 kg/m2 was found in 31 individuals giving a prevalence 15.5% and SUA prevalence of 41% with 32% being prevalence of hypertension. Conclusion: It shows that the prevalence of Type II Diabetes Mellitus for the general population was 5.5 mmol/L with high uric acid levels. The associated risk factors such as lifestyle of alcoholism indulgence could explain this outcome. The high prevalence of Type II Diabetes Mellitus warrant adequate preventive measures like dietary advice exercise and adjusting lifestyle with moderation or total abstinence from alcohol will go a long way in reducing this disease. Although he present analysis is based on a limited number of diabetics, the evidence of consistently against interaction between diabetes and cardiovascular risk factors.

Author (s) Details

Dr. Ayuba Affi
Department of Chemical Pathology, University of Jos, Nigeria and Honourary Consultant, Department of Chemical Pathology, Jos University Teaching Hospital Jos, Nigeria.

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