Latest News on protein synthesis :Jun 2022

Protein synthesis and memory: A review

Reviews studies that have used protein synthesis inhibitors to test the hypothesis that memory in part depends on brain protein synthesis. Evidence from learning curves, examination of short-term retention, and posttraining drug injection indicate that initial acquisition is not dependent on such synthesis, but it appears that protein synthesis, during or shortly after training, is an essential step in the formation of long-term memory. Possible side effects of protein synthesis inhibitors are considered in terms of locomotor activity, abnormal cerebral electrical activity, conditioned aversion, and catecholamine biosynthesis. Stages of memory formation are discussed, and the possibility that kindling, drug tolerance, and enzyme induction are dependent on protein synthesis is considered. [1]

Protein synthesis

Protein synthesis is fundamental to all living organisms and it has been studied intensively and at varying levels of complexity. This chapter provides a comprehensive review of research on protein synthesis in fish, examines data to produce simple models describing protein synthesis in terms of key variables, and provides explanations for variations from expected or predicted rates of protein synthesis. The underlying there is to integrate information at the organismal level. A variety of methods for measuring protein synthesis have been used and comparison suggest they give similar results for fish. Major influences on protein synthesis are species, life-history stage, temperature, feeding, and nutrition. The effects of other factors such as pollutants, anoxia, salinity, and hormones have also been investigated. In growing fish between 20 and 50% of energy expenditure is associated with protein synthesis. Protein synthesis is, therefore, a major energy-demanding process in fish that is influenced by many environmental and biotic factors. [2]

Protein synthesis by pure translation systems

We have developed a partially recombinant, cell-free, protein-synthesis system reconstituted solely from those essential elements of the Escherichia coli translation system, termed protein synthesis using recombinant elements (PURE). It provides higher reaction controllability in comparison to crude cell-free protein-synthesis systems for translation studies and biotechnology applications. The PURE system stands out among translation methods in that it provides not only a simple and unique “reverse” purification method of separating the synthesized protein from reaction mixture, but also that the system can be tailor-made according to individual protein requirements. In this paper, two new approaches to obtaining active proteins are described: the use of molecular chaperones, and modification of the reaction conditions. Several possible applications of the PURE system are also discussed. [3]

Toxicity of Tobacco (Nicotiana tobaccum) Leaf Dust on Enzymatic and Protein Synthesis Activities of African Mud Catfish (Clarias gariepinus)

The toxicity of tobacco (Nicotiana tobaccum) leaf dust with piscicidal and pesticidal properties was investigated on some enzymatic and protein synthesis activities of juvenile African mud catfish (Clarias gariepinus). Fish were exposed to both lethal and sub-lethal concentrations of tobacco leaf dust for 21 days in a renewal bioassay procedure. The median lethal concentrations (LC50) were derived using Finney probit method while protein and enzymatic activities were determined using Biuret and Randox methods respectively. The LC50 values for 48 hours acute bioassay test was 2.11g/l for tobacco leaf dust. Tobacco exposed fish showed significant increase (P≤0.05) in serum AST, ALT and ALP levels. Significant decrease (p≤0.05) were observed for liver AST (141.00 ± 2.52 to 154.67 ± 0.67), serum and liver total protein (6.47 ± 0.03 to 7.80 ± 0.40 and 3.30 ± 0.00 to 3.57 ±0.12)  and serum albumin (4.23 ± 0.09 to 4.83 ±0.20) across all concentrations. The study showed that exposure of C. gariepinus  juvenile to sub-lethal concentrations of tobacco (Nicotiana tobaccum) leaf dust can induce various toxicological effects in the form of enzymatic alteration. Therefore, the longer exposure of tobacco leaf dust in aquatic ecosystem is dangerous to fish and subsequently human health.[4]

One Pot Synthesis of Tetra-substituted Imidazole Derivatives by Condensation Reaction Using Zeolite H- ZSM 22 as a Heterogeneous Solid Acid Catalyst

The present work deals with the synthesis of tetra substituted imidazoles using environmentally benign and green catalyst H-ZSM-22. The synthesized catalyst was characterized by FTIR (Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy), XRD and the products by FTIR and 1HNMR. H-ZSM-22 has been used as an efficient catalyst for an improved and rapid synthesis of 1,2,4,5 tetra substituted imidazoles derivatives using reactants: Benzil, Aldehydes, Amines and Ammonium acetate having excellent yield under solvent conditions. Different derivatives of aldehyde have been used in this reaction. For all the synthesized derivatives, ambient reaction time was found to be of 15-30 min. The main advantage of this reaction is small reaction time, high purity yield, easy work up and pollution free. [5]


[1] Davis, H.P. and Squire, L.R., 1984. Protein synthesis and memory: a review. Psychological bulletin, 96(3), p.518.

[2] Carter, C.G. and Houlihan, D.F., 2001. Protein synthesis. Fish physiology, 20, pp.31-75.

[3] Shimizu, Y., Kanamori, T. and Ueda, T., 2005. Protein synthesis by pure translation systems. Methods, 36(3), pp.299-304.

[4] Nkpondion, N.N., Ugwumba, O.A., Ugwumba, A.A.A. and Esenowo, I.K., 2018. Toxicity of Tobacco (Nicotiana tobaccum) Leaf Dust on Enzymatic and Protein Synthesis Activities of African Mud Catfish (Clarias gariepinus). Asian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Research, pp.1-9.

[5] Bhat, S.U., Naikoo, R.A. and Tomar, R., 2016. One Pot Synthesis of Tetra-substituted Imidazole Derivatives by Condensation Reaction Using Zeolite H-ZSM 22 as a Heterogeneous Solid Acid Catalyst. International Research Journal of Pure and Applied Chemistry, pp.1-10.


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