The presence of putative periodontal pathogens is crucial to the development of inflammatory periodontal disease, but host immunity and other risk factors may also play a role in its progression. Genetic factors may act as a protective or risk factor. ABO blood groups are the most investigated erythrocyte antigen system. The presence or absence of blood group antigens has been associated with various diseases, with antigens also acting as receptors for infectious agents. However, varied literature is documented exploring the relationship between ABO blood group and prevalence of oral and dental diseases. The aim of this study was to investigate the correlation of periodontal disease with “ABO” blood groups and Rhesus factor.
A total of 684 systemically healthy subjects who were non smokers were selected by chance. Subjects with known blood group, who had at least 20 teeth, were included in the study and the blood groups were confirmed from their medical records. Based on the periodontal parameters like clinical attachment loss (CAL) and bleeding on probing (BOP) the subjects were divided into three groups: Healthy, gingivitis and periodontitis. The percentage distribution of ABO blood groups and Rhesus factor among the groups was tabulated. Results suggested that, there was an increased prevalence of gingivitis in subjects with blood group ‘A’ and periodontitis in subjects with blood group ‘O’, while subjects with blood group ‘B’ had healthy periodontium. Similarly, there was higher prevalence of gingivitis in Rh positive group. Based on our findings, a significant relationship between blood typing and periodontal disease was determined in this study. Further research into this is indicated.
Dr. Varma Siddhartha [BDS, MDS, PGDMLE] Department of Periodontology, School of Dental Sciences, KIMSDU, India.
Dr. Suragimath Girish [BDS, MDS] Department of Periodontology, School of Dental Sciences, KIMSDU, India.
Dr. Zope Sameer [BDS, MDS] Department of Periodontology, School of Dental Sciences, KIMSDU, India.