Approximately one out of every 600-1,000 births results in an extra chromosome of the twenty first group called Trisomy 21 or Down syndrome. Usually most of the dental treatment for persons with Down syndrome can be carried out in a general dental office with relatively minor adaptations. In undergraduate dental training there is usually little or no exposure to treating such patients and the general practitioners may be hesitant to treat these patients with confidence. This chapter summarizes the unique characteristics associated with Down syndrome that influence dental care and treatment of this population.

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