Latest Research News on Demographic Factors : July – 2020
The relation of sexual satisfaction and demographic factors
Background and Aim : Marital satisfaction is affected by many factors among which the safe and pleasurable sexual relationships is the most important. In Iran, like some other controversial societies, sexuality issues involve socio-cultural obstacles as well as limiting policies which make research difficult, so that inadequate information is made available in the area. The aim of this research was to determine sexual satisfaction level in the couples and its association with some demographic factors.
Material and method : This descriptive-correlation study was conducted in 2007 in Tehran, Consecutive sampling was used to recruit 292 married males and females from selected hospitals in Tehran while visiting their hospitalized relatives. They were all literate and had gotten married for at least one year. Two questionnaires were used for data collection.
Results: The results showed that, of the participants, 63.4% were completely satisfied, 28.8% relatively satisfied, 7.2% slightly satisfied, and 0.7% unsatisfied of sexual relationship. Also, the results showed that there was a statistical significant association between sexual satisfaction and the following factors: age difference of couples (p=0.04), duration of married life (p=0.05), and drug abuse by the participants (p=0.007), but there was not a statistical significant association between sexual satisfaction and other factors tested in this study (age, gender, reproductive status, economic status, number of children, education attainment, the spouse’s education attainment, contraception method, and type of marriage).
Conclusion: According to the results, we suggest the practical strategies to improve people’s awareness about sexuality and its vital influences on marital happiness. More work is suggested to be done in order to provide research based information in this field. 
Variability of Spanish adolescents’ physical activity patterns by seasonality, day of the week and demographic factors
In this study, we examined the variability of physical activity (and inactivity) patterns in relation to gender, age, type of school, day of the week, and season of the year among a sample of Spanish adolescents aged 12–16 years. Levels of physical activity engagement, “who” was active/inactive, and “when” they were active/inactive were addressed. A Spanish translation and modification of Cale’s Four by One-Day Physical Activity Questionnaire was administered by interviewer to 323 participants to measure estimated energy expenditure. Activity was assessed for two weekdays and two weekend days on two occasions during the autumn and two occasions during the winter. In an effort to better describe adolescents’ active/inactive lifestyles, energy expenditures were translated into physical activity categories (i.e. active, moderately active, inactive, and very inactive). Results revealed that mean adolescent total daily energy expenditure was 41.46 kcal·kg−1·day−1 (s=7.05), which corresponded to the “active” category. Factorial and mixed analyses of variance showed statistically significant differences in energy expenditure by gender, season, day of the week, and type of school (P<0.001). Female adolescents spent less daily energy than their male counterparts and, consequently, they were less active overall, even though they were more moderately active than boys. Participants were more active in winter than in autumn, which was largely due to the accumulation of time engaged in more lifestyle activities than differences in strenuous exercise. Adolescents were also less active on weekdays than during weekends. An interaction effect emerged for day of the week and type of school with adolescents attending public (or state) schools presenting higher daily energy expenditures than those from private schools during weekends (P<0.01). The results suggest that girls may prefer less vigorous forms of activity. They also indicate that adolescents are investing time in physical activity when they have the freedom to participate or not (i.e. weekends), in particular those from public schools. We suggest that differences in gender, seasonality, and weekends versus weekdays, together with the choice of lifestyle activities, should be considered when designing activity promotion strategies among Spanish adolescents. 
Amniotic fluid embolism: antepartum, intrapartum and demographic factors
Objective: To describe the incidence, antepartum, intrapartum and postpartum risk factors, and mortality rate of amniotic fluid embolism (AFE).
Methods: We used 2001–2007 California health discharge data to identify cases of AFE by ICD-9 codes.
Results: Of 3 556 567 deliveries during the time period, we identified 182 cases of AFE, resulting in a population incidence of 5.1 in 100 000. Twenty-four of the cases resulted in death, giving a case fatality rate of 13.2%. Non-Hispanic blacks had a higher than 2-fold odds of developing AFE. AFE increased significantly with maternal age, most significantly after age 39. Cardiac disease had a nearly 70-fold higher association with AFE, cerebrovascular disorders had a 25-fold higher association, while conditions such as eclampsia, renal disease, placenta previa and polyhydramnios had nearly 7- to 13-fold higher associations. Classical cesarean delivery, abruption placentae, dilation and curettage, and amnioinfusion were all procedures highly associated with AFE.
Conclusion: Several antepartum and peripartum conditions and procedures are associated with significantly higher risks of amniotic fluid embolism. This information may contribute to a better understanding of the pathophysiology of AFE and potentially help identify those at the highest risk of developing this morbid condition. 
Influence of Demographic Factors and Pay Satisfaction on Career Satisfaction among Selected Employees in Redeemer’s University
This study explores the influence of demographic factors and pay satisfaction and on career satisfaction among selected employees of Redeemer’s University, Osun State, Nigeria. The study adopted a cross sectional survey research design and simple random sampling technique were used to select two hundred and twelve (212) participants (M=97 males; F= 115 females) among both academic and non-academic staffs. The Biodata form, Pay Satisfaction Scale (PSS) and Career Satisfaction Scale (CSS) were used to collect data which were further analyzed through independent t-test. The results hence revealed that there were significant differences in career satisfaction of participants among the variables of marital status (t = 1.96 p<0.05), designation (t = 2.64 p<0.05) and pay satisfaction (t = 6.41 p<0.05). While there were no significant differences in the variables of gender (t = 0.78 p>0.05) and age (t = 1.74 p>0.05). The implication of these findings substantiates the importance of creating a conducive working environment and an equity reward system in order to improve employees’ career satisfaction. 
Health Locus of Control, Health Related Behaviors and Demographic Factors: A Study in a Turkish Population
Aims: The purpose of this study was to examine the association between socio-demographic variables and the health locus of control (HLC) as well as health locus of control and health-related behaviors.
Study Design: Cross-sectional, descriptive.
Place and Duration of Study: This study was conducted in 2012 in the fourth largest city of Turkey. Data collection lasted about six months.
Methodology: Participation in this study was voluntary and data collection was conducted anonymously. Convenience sampling was used. People on the streets, in parks, in shopping centers, metro stations, and students at the university campus were informed about the study and asked to participate. A total of 1125 people were asked and 885 gave their verbal consent. The participation ratio was 78.7%. The study participants (437 women and 448 men aged 18-84 years) filled out the Multidimensional Health Locus of Control (MHLC) scale, together with a questionnaire about their social, demographic and economic characteristics and a questionnaire regarding their health-related behaviors which was consisted of 10 items.
Results: The Cronbach ï¡ of the MHLC scale was within the range 0.74-0.78. Internal health locus of control was determined in 71.4% of the participants; chance in 10.3% and powerful others in 18.3%. The rate of powerful others health locus of control (HLC) increased with age. There were no HLC differences between males and females. No significant relationship was found between socio-economic characteristics and HLC. Of the evaluated 10 health related behaviors, physical exercise; reading health related printed material; checking food expiry dates, and reading food content labels were found to be significantly related to HLC.
Conclusion: Except for age, no significant associations were found between socio-demographics and health locus of control. The impact of HLC on health related behaviors was small. 
 Rahmani, A., Safavi, S., Jafarpoor, M. and Merghati-Khoei, E.A., 2010. The relation of sexual satisfaction and demographic factors. Iran Journal of Nursing, 23(66), pp.14-22.
 Peiró-Velert, C., Devís-Devís, J., Beltrán-Carrillo, V.J. and Fox, K.R., 2008. Variability of Spanish adolescents’ physical activity patterns by seasonality, day of the week and demographic factors. European Journal of Sport Science, 8(3), pp.163-171.
 Fong, A., Chau, C.T., Pan, D. and Ogunyemi, D.A., 2015. Amniotic fluid embolism: antepartum, intrapartum and demographic factors. The Journal of Maternal-Fetal & Neonatal Medicine, 28(7), pp.793-798.
 T. Arogundade, O. and Aremu, O. (2017) “Influence of Demographic Factors and Pay Satisfaction on Career Satisfaction among Selected Employees in Redeemer’s University”, Asian Research Journal of Arts & Social Sciences, 3(1), pp. 1-6. doi: 10.9734/ARJASS/2017/33064.
 Ozcakir, A., Dogan, F., Bayram, N. and Bilgel, N. (2014) “Health Locus of Control, Health Related Behaviors and Demographic Factors: A Study in a Turkish Population”, Journal of Advances in Medicine and Medical Research, 4(21), pp. 3856-3869. doi: 10.9734/BJMMR/2014/9440.