The magisterium has always been considered by law as a painful activity, which causes physical or psychological wear and tear on the organism, due to the repetition of psychological movements, pressures and tensions that affect the worker emotionally. Decree 53.831 / 64 framed the role of teacher as painful. This article aims to discuss the main occupational diseases verified in teachers in Brazil and as specific objectives to describe how the workload of teachers can contribute to the development of occupational diseases and to verify in the literature, prevention and safety measures that have been used and published. The results show that occupational diseases in teachers are common in the teaching environment, where the mental and emotional ones are among the majority for this class, later the diseases of the locomotive apparatus, which demonstrate that working long hours without valorization or adequate remuneration can generate health damages.

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