Anti-Helicobacter pylori, Antisecretory and Healing Effects of Aqueous Extract of Eremomastax speciosa (Acanthaceae) on Unhealed Gastric Ulcers

Anti-Helicobacter pylori, Antisecretory and Healing Effects of Aqueous Extract of Eremomastax speciosa (Acanthaceae) on Unhealed Gastric Ulcers

Objective: This work investigated the In vitro and In vivo anti Helicobacter pylori activity, and the
healing and antisecretory effects of the aqueous extract of Eremomastax speciosa on “unhealed
gastric ulcers” associated with gastric acid hypersecretion.
Materials and Methods: H. pylori isolates were obtained from gastric biopsies collected in the Civil
hospital, Karachi. In vitro susceptibility tests against were performed on four H. pylori isolates using
microplate AlamarBlue® assay. MIC and MBC were then determined. A rapid in vivo H. pylori
eradication test was performed on mice. “Unhealed gastric ulcers” were induced using indomethacin
following the establishment of acetic-acid-induced chronic gastric ulcers. The extract (200 and 400
mg/kg, per os) was administered concomitantly with indomethacin (1 mg/kg, subcutaneously). The
effects of the extract on both basal and histamine-stimulated gastric acid secretion were determined.
Mucus secretion and oxidative stress parameters were measured, and histological assessment of
ulcer healing was carried out.
Results: The extract contains major biologically active compounds (α-amyrin (C30H50O), and Olean-
12-en-3-one (β-amyrone) (C30H48O)). E. speciosa was found to be active against all H. pylori
isolates with MIC at 8 mg/mL, and MBC above 32 mg/mL, indicating this extract as bacteriostatic.
Atomic force microscopy and scanning electron microscopy revealed major alterations in H. pylori
morphology after exposure to E. speciosa at active doses. H. pylori colonization in mice was
eradicated in a dose-dependent manner by E. speciosa with significant differences at the doses of
200, and 400 mg/kg. The extract significantly promoted the healing process in rats subjected to
“unhealed gastric ulcers” (82.4–88.5% healing rates). Treatment with the extract significantly reduced
the basal (25.95–49.51% reduction rates) and histamine-stimulated (24.25–47.41%) acid secretions.
The healing effect of the extract was associated with a significant (<0.05) increase of mucus secretion
and concentrations of antioxidant enzymes compared with the controls. The extract at the highest
dose showed normalization of the mucosa, without glandular destruction and with the disappearance
of fibrosis and lymphocyte infiltration.
Conclusion: Anti H. pylori activity and abilities of the extract to increase mucus secretion, to reinforce
antioxidant status, and to inhibit acid secretion are mechanisms by which this extract would accelerate
the healing process in “unhealed gastric ulcers.”

Author(s) Details

Dr. A. P. Amang
Department of Biological Sciences, Faculty of Science, University of Maroua, P.O. Box 814, Maroua, Cameroon.

C. Mezui
Department of Biological Sciences, Higher Teachers’ Training College, University of Yaounde´ I, P.O. Box 047, Yaounde,´ Cameroon.

G. T. Siwe
Department of Animal Biology & Physiology, Faculty of Science, University of Yaounde´ I, P.O. Box 812, Yaounde,´ Cameroon.

J. Emakoua
Department of Animal Biology & Physiology, Faculty of Science, University of Yaounde´ I, P.O. Box 812, Yaounde,´ Cameroon.

G. E. Z. Nkwengoua
Department of Organic Chemistry, Faculty of Science, University of Yaounde´ I, P.O. Box 812, Yaounde,´ Cameroon.

G. E. Enow-Orock
Department of Biomedical Sciences, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Buea, P.O. Box 63, Buea, Cameroon.

Prof. P. V. Tan
Department of Animal Biology & Physiology, Faculty of Science, University of Yaounde´ I, P.O. Box 812, Yaounde,´ Cameroon.

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