This work reviews concepts regarding oxidative stress and the mechanisms by which endogenous and exogenous factors produce reactive oxygen species (ROS). It also surveys the relationships between oxidative stress, circadian rhythms, and retinal damage in humans, particularly those related to light and photodamage. In the first section, the production of ROS by different cell organelles and biomolecules and the antioxidant mechanisms that antagonize this damage are reviewed. The second section includes a brief review of circadian clocks and their relationship with the cellular redox state. In the third part of this work, the relationship between retinal damage and ROS is described. The last part of this work focuses on retinal degenerative pathology, age-related macular degeneration, and the relationships between this pathology, ROS and light. Finally, the possible interactions between the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE), circadian rhythms, and this pathology are discussed.
Author (s) Details
María Luisa Fanjul-Moles
Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Nacional Autonoma´ de Mexico, Ciudad Universitaria, 04510 Ciudad de Mexico, DF, Mexico.
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