To avoid difficulties caused by retained/recurrent stones, complete bile duct stone clearance is required following bile duct exploration. While there is no one optimum procedure, the combination of bile duct exploration and choledochoscopy has been linked to the lowest incidence of retained stones in the literature. If a choledochoscope is not accessible, a cystoscope can be utilised to perform choledochoscopy. The usage of a cystoscope as a choledochoscope is discussed in this article, with case capsules as examples.

Author(S) Details

P. J. Halder
Department of Surgical Gastroenterology & HPB Surgery, Jagjivanram Railway Hospital, Mumbai, India.

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